Kōrero: Te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki

I ngā tau tōmua o te noho o te iwi Pākehā ki Aotearoa he tino tangata te kaiwhakamārama, i āhei ai rātou te whakawhiti kōrero me te Māori. He nui ngā tuhinga e tautohetia ana tōna mārama, pērā i te Tiriti o Waitangi. He tūranga hira tō te kaiwhakamārama reo i roto i ngā mahi whakarauora i te reo Māori.

Story by Mark Derby
Te āhua nui: Ko Ruatara, i te tau 1814

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā whakamārama reo tuatahi

I heke mai te reo Māori i te whānau reo o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko te take tēnei i mārama ai te rangatira o Tahiti, a Tupaia, ki te reo Māori, ā, i ngāwari ai tana whakamārama i ngā kōrero i te taenga mai o Kāpene Kuki i te tau 1769. E ora ai te hunga tauhou, me mātua whakawhitiwhiti kōrero ki te Māori. Ko ētahi mihinare ka taunga ki te reo Māori, ā, i whakamāoritia e rātou te Paipera, me ētahi tuhinga o te whakapono. 

Te Tiriti o Waitangi, ngā whakaputanga pukapuka me te Pāremata

I te wāhanga reo Māori o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka taurangitia te tino rangatiratanga o ngā whenua, o ngā kāinga me ngā taonga ki ngā rangatira. E haere tonu ana ngā taupatupatu mō tōna whakamāoritanga me te tikanga ake o te tino rangatiratanga.

I ngā tau i waenganui i te rautau 1800 ka whakamāoritia ngā pukapuka mai i te reo Pākehā ki te reo Māori, nā te mea he matatau te Māori ki te pānui i te reo Māori, engari kāore i pai te reo Pākehā. I te mutunga o te rautau 1800 ka whakamahia ngā kaiwhakamārama reo ki ngā kōti, ngā tari kāwanatanga me ngā hui kāwanatanga. He hawhekaihe ētahi, otirā he Pākehā ētahi i tipu ake ki waenganui i te Māori.

I mua atu i te tau 1858 kāore i whakamāoritia ngā ture, ahakoa te whakamanatanga o ngā ture whai pānga ki te whenua Māori. He itiiti noa iho te reo Pākehā a ngā māngai Māori tokowhā i te tau 1868, ā, kīhai i whakamāoritia ngā kauhau a ngā Pākehā. Nō te tekau tau 1880 e toru ngā kaiwhakamārama reo o te whare miere. I te tau 1913 ka whakaritea me kōrero Pākehā rawa ngā māngai Māori e mōhio ana ki te kōrero Pākehā, māna i reira tētahi kaiwhakamārama reo. Mai i te tekau tau 1930 ka whakaaetia ngā māngai Māori ki te kōrero Māori, engari mā rātou tonu e whakamārama ā rātou kōrero.

Te mutunga o te rautau 1900 me te tīmatanga o te rautau 2000

I te rautau 1900 ka reo Pākehā te nuinga o te iwi Māori, ā, ka mimiti  haere ngā puna o te kī. I te tau 1987 ka noho te Māori hei reo ōkawa mō tēnei motu.

Mai i te tau 1990, kua kore ngā māngai Māori e whakapākehā i ā rātou kōrero. Nō te tau 1999 ka whakatūria e te whare miere tētahi kaiwhakamārama reo, ā, nō te tau 2014, e whā ngā kaiwhakamārama reo e whakamārama wawe ana ki rō Pāremata, puta rawa atu ki te hōngere Pāremata. Nō te whakatūnga o ngā kura kaupapa Māori ka whakamāoritia ngā rauemi marautanga. 

Tērā anō hoki ngā kaiwhakamārama reo rotarota.

Ko ētahi o ngā tuhinga a ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa he mea whakamārama ki te reo o iwi kē, ā, he nui ngā mahinga kua whakamāoritia. I te tau 2008 ka tuwhera Te Tumu Whakawhiti Tuhinga o Aotearoa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whakamarama-reo-a-tuhi-a-waha-hoki (accessed 19 July 2019)

Story by Mark Derby, published 22 Oct 2014