Kōrero: Te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki

Whārangi 2. Te Tiriti o Waitangi, ngā whakaputanga me te Paremata

Ngā whakaahua

Te Tiriti o Waitangi 

Ko te whakamāoritanga ongaonga rawa atu ko te whakamāramatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā Henry Williams rāua ko tana tama nā Edward i whakamāori te tiriti i te pō kotahi, arā, i te 4 o Huitanguru i te tau 1840. Ehara te tokorua nei i te mātanga ki te reo Māori pērā i ētahi o ngā mihinare pērā i a Colenso. Ka whakaae a Te Karuwhā, ‘I roto i tēnei whakamāoritanga ka mahue ngā rerenga kōrero Ingarihi, tā te mea kāore ōna ritenga i te reo Māori, e whakaputaina ai te wairua me te āhua tonu o te tiriti.’1 Nā reira ka rerekē te tikanga o ngā rerenga o te Tiriti reo Māori, nā te āhua tonu o tā Te Karuwhā whakamāori i te reo Pākehā.

Tino rangatiratanga

I roto i te wāhanga Māori o te tiriti ka whakanōhia te tino rangatiratanga (‘full, exclusive and undisturbed possesion’) ki ngā rangatira Māori, o ō rātou whenua, o ō rātou kāinga, me ō rātou taonga katoa. E rima tau i mua kua haina ngā rangatira o Te Ika-a-Māui i Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga, arā, te Declaration of Independence. Nāwai, nāwai ko aua rangatira anō ka tāmoko i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te āhua nei i te mahara ētahi o ngā kaihaina o te tiriti ki ngā kōrero o te Whakaputanga mō te tino rangatiratanga, ā, kīhai rātou i mārama e tuku atu ana rātou i te mana motuhake ki te Karauna.  

Te mārama ki te tiriti

I te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te 6 o Hongongoi i te tau 1840 ka māharahara a Colenso mō te kore e mārama o ētahi rangatira ki te tiriti.2 Ki a Kāwana Hopihana, tino nui te whakapaunga kaha a te taha Ingarihi ki te whakamārama i te tiriti ki ngā rangatira.3 I ēnei rā tonu nei, e tautohe tonutia ana ngā whakaritenga o te tiriti. 

Ngā niupepa reo Māori

I te tau 1842 ka whakaputaina te niupepa reo Māori tuatahi o Te Karere o Nui Tireni. Nā te kāwanatanga i whakaputa tēnei niupepa hei whakawhiti i ngā whakaaro a te kāwanatanga ki te Māori. I ngā tekau tau o muri mai he nui noa atu ngā whakaputanga ka whakamāoritia, i te taunga haere o te Māori ki te pānui i tōna ake reo, engari kāore i pai ki te pānui Ingarihi.

Pei Te Hurinui Jones

Mā te matatau ki ngā reo e rua ka hua ake te whakamāramatanga tōtika. He Pākehā te matua tāne o Pei Te Hurinui Jone, ā, he wahine rangatira nō Ngāti Maniapoto tōna whaea. He iti noa iho ōna tohu kura, engari ka maiangi ia hei kaituhi autaia i roto i ngā reo e rua. Ko ētahi o ngā tuhinga nāna i whakamāori ko tā Edward Fitzgerald The rubáiyát of OmarKhayyám, ko ngā whakaari a Rūrūtao a The merchant of Venice, a Julius Caesar me Othello. I te tau 2002 ka hangaia te kiriata Māori o The merchant of Venice, arā, Te tangata whai rawa o Wēneti.

Te pueatanga o ngā ratonga whakamāori reo

I te mutunga o te rautau 1800 ka kaha hiahiatia ngā kaiwhakamārama reo ki ngā kōti, ngā tari kāwanatanga me ngā huihuinga ōkawa a te Pākehā me te Māori. I tērā wā, tata tonu ki te katoa o te iwi Māori e kōrero Māori ana, engari he itiiti noa iho i kōrero Pākehā. He rite tonu he hawhekaihe ngā kaiwhakamārama reo, he Pākehā rānei i tipu ake i te mātotorutanga o te iwi i ngā kaīnga Māori. 

Te whakamahi i te reo ki te Whare Paremata

Mai anō i te tau 1840 he take ongaonga te whakamahi i te reo Māori i roto i te Pāremata, i roto i ngā ture. Nō te tau 1858 kātahi anō ka tāia he ture ki te reo Māori, ahakoa ko te huhua noa o ngā ture kua oti kē te whakahipa, pērā i ngā ture whenua Māori. Nō te kōwhiringa mai o ngā māngai Māori tuatahi i te tau 1868, he itiiti noa iho te reo Pākehā i a rātou. Kīhai anō i whakamāoritia ngā kauhau a ngā Pākehā i ngā wā katoa, nā reira kīhai ngā māngai Māori i whai wāhi ki ngā tautohetohe o te whare.

Nō te tekau tau 1880 e toru ngā kaiwhakamārama reo o te Paremata hei whakapākehā i ngā kauhau a ngā māngai Māori, me te whakamāori anō i ngā tuhinga kāwanatanga. I te tau 1913 ka whakaturea e te Kaikōrero o te whare kia kaua anō ngā māngai e mātau ana ki te kōrero Pākehā e kōrero i te reo Māori, ki te kore he kaiwhakamārama reo i reira. Nō te tekau tau 1930, ka whakatau ngā māngai Māori mā rātou anō ā rātou kōrero e whakamārama. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Allen & Unwin, Port Nicholson Press with assistance from the Historical Publications Branch, Dept. of Internal Affairs, 1987, p. 13. Back
  2. Tohutoro The Treaty of Waitangi, p. 59. Back
  3. Tohutoro The Treaty of Waitangi, p. 54. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki - Te Tiriti o Waitangi, ngā whakaputanga me te Paremata', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whakamarama-reo-a-tuhi-a-waha-hoki/page-2 (accessed 24 August 2019)

Story by Mark Derby, published 22 Oct 2014