Kōrero: Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ko te Māori tētahi o ngā iwi tokoiti o te ao kīhai i kai waipiro. Kāore āna ritenga mō te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino. Nō te maunga mai  o te tupeka e te iwi Pākehā ka whāwhā tonutia atu e te Māori. Nō te tau rua mano e rua whakarea te rahi ake o te hunga Māori kai tupeka i tērā o tauiwi. I te taunga mai o te waipiro, o te wai kaha rānei ka ngana ngā kāinga Māori ki te aukati i tērā kai.

Story by Megan Cook
Te āhua nui: Māori man smoking a pipe, 1847

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Tupeka

Nō muri i te taenga mai o Tauiwi i te mutunga o te rautau 1700 ka tīmata te Māori ki te kai tupeka (mā te ngaungau, te momi paipa rānei). He taonga nui te tupeka mō te hoko, ā, ka whakatipuria ngā māra tupeka, ka kaha hoki te momi tupeka. He nui ngā wāhine Māori i momi, engari ka whakahētia te wahine Pākehā ki te momi tupeka, i te rautau 1800.

Ka noho whakakeke tonu ētahi Māori ki te tupeka. I te kāinga o Rua Kēnana ki Maungapōhatu, aukati tonutia atu te kai tupeka.

Tae rawa iho ki ngā tau waenga o 1900 ka pūrangiaho ngā mōrearea hauora ka hua i te kai tupeka, arā, ko te mate romahā; te mate manawa me ētahi atu mate tupeka. I te tau 1962, 58 ōrau o te tāne Māori; 70 ōrau o te wahine Māori i kai tupeka (mō tauiwi, 38 ōrau o ngā tāne; 31 ōrau o ngā wāhine i kai tupeka). Tae rawa mai ki te tau 2009, 44 ōrau o te Māori ka kai tupeka (18 ōrau mō tauiwi), ā, he rua whakarea ake te tuwhera o te Māori ki te auahi tupeka o tētahi. Ka whanake anō ētahi hōtaka e pā ana hei āwhina i  Māori kia whakarērea te kai tupeka.

Waipiro

Kāore ā te Māori waipiro i ōna wā i mua i taenga mai o te Pākehā. Kīhai te nuinga i rata atu, ā, ka tapaina ki te ingoa waipiro. Mai i te tekau tau 1850 e ngana ana te Māori ki te pana i te inu waipiro i ōna hapori, ki te whakahaere rānei i ōna āhuatanga hoko. Ko tā ētahi tēnā ia te kāwanatanga ki te awhi atu. He aha te aha, ka whakamanaia ngā ture hei aukati i te Māori i te waipiro. I te tau 1884, ka whakahau te kāwanatanga kia noho maroke te Rohe Pōtae, i te kaha akiaki a Ngāti Maniapoto ki ētahi whakaritenga mō te waipiro. I te tekau tau 1890 ka ōrite te rahi o ngā hāmene a te ture mō te Māori ki te Pākehā.

I te tau 1948 ka hikina te nuinga o ngā ture tāmi i te Māori ki te hoko waipiro. Nō ngā hekenga nui ki ngā tāone noho ai ka kaha ake te kai waipiro a te Māori.

Nō te tau rua mano he ōrite te kai waipiro a te Māori me tauiwi, engari, he kaihoro ake te Māori ki te kai waipiro.

Tarukino

Kīhai te Māori i pā ki te tarukino kia oti rā anō te heke nui ki ngā tāone i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I te tekau tau 1970 kāore he aha ki te rangatahi Māori ki te kai tarukino.

I te takiwā o ngā tau 2000, e 64.6 ōrau te rahi o te Māori (i waenga i ngā pakeke 16-64 tau) kua kai i tētahi whakapōauau – he  tatauranga nui rawa mō tētahi momo iwi. Ko te tarukino me ngā pire BZP ngā whakapōauau ka kaha whakamahia.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Megan Cook, 'Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tupeka-te-waipiro-me-te-tarukino (accessed 23 September 2019)

Story by Megan Cook, published 5 Sep 2013