Kōrero: Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori

Nō mua noa atu i te tāmokotanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka aropū ngā kanohi o te Karauna ki te whakahaere i ngā hoko i waenganui i a Māori me Tauiwi. Nāwai, ā, ka whakamanaia ētahi ture e te kāwanatanga hei whakapūmau i tōna mana koroni ki runga ki te Māori me ōna whenua. Taka rawa ki te pito o te rautau 1900, ka waihangatia mai te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whakatewhatewha i ngā takahitanga o te tiriti. Kua whai kanohi te Māori ki ngā tūnga tiketike o kāwanatanga.

Story by Mark Derby
Te āhua nui: He hui i waenga i ngā manene nohonoho mai me te iwi Māori ki tētahi kanohi whenua kāwanatanga, ki a Te Makarini, i Te Matau a Māui, 1863

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā take Māori i mua i te tau 1840

I ngā tau i muri mai i 1800 he rikarika anō te Māori ki te tauhokohoko me te Pākehā. Heoi anō nei te take i kuhu mai ai a Peretānia, ko tana hiahia ki te whakahau i te ture me te āta noho, kia tipu ai ngā ahumahi me ngā mahi tauhokohoko.

I te tau 1832 ka tohua ko James Busby te Kainoho Peretānia. Ko te whakahau ki a ia me whakatū he kāwanatanga o ngā Māori, mō te iwi Māori.

Kāti, i te hainatanga a te Māori me te Karauna i te tiriti i te tau 1840 ka noho a Aotearoa hei whenua maru nō Peretānia.  I roto i te wāhanga Māori ka mau tonu i te Māori te rangatiratanga ki āna taonga, me āna rawa katoa. Engari kāore te wāhanga Pākehā i kī, ka pupuru ngātahi te Karauna me te Māori i te mana whenua.

Ngā tau 1840 ki ngā tau 1850

I muri i te hainatanga o te tiriti ka whakatū a Kāwana William Hobson (Te Hopihana) i tētahi kaiwhakamaru hei ārai i te Māori i ngā tūkino o ngā manene noho ki Aotearoa; hei tohutohu i te kāwana ki ngā take Māori; hei hoko whenua Māori anō

I te tau 1845 ka tū ko George Grey (Hōri Kerei) hei kāwana. Ka whakakore ia i ngā kaiwhakamaru, ā, ka noho koia tonu hei kaiwhiriwhiri ki te Māori.

Nō te tūnga motuhake o Aotearoa hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1852 ka āhei te hunga tāne katoa te pōti mena he whenua whai wāriu tonu ō rātou – engari nā te takitini o ngā kaipupuri whenua Māori, he ruarua noa iho ngā Māori i pōti. Ka waihangatia hoki ngā rūnanga ā-iwi engari auare ake, kāore i whai mana ki te titiro a te kāwanatanga.

Ngā tau 1860 ki ngā tau 1920

I te tau 1858 ka waihangatia te Kīngitanga hei kaupapa whakakotahi i ngā iwi; hei mana motuhake mō te Māori; hei kaupare atu hoki i ngā hoko whenua. I te tau 1861 ka tūtohu ake a Kerei i te pūnaha kāwanatanga Māori me ngā rohe Māori 20 te maha. Heoi he iti noa iho ngā rūnanga i whakatūria.

Nō te tekau tau 1880 ka whakamahia e te kāwanatanga te ture ‘kotahi iwi’. Nō konei ka whakarērea ngā kawenga mō te Māori. I te tau 1892 ka whakakorea te Tari Māori (Native Department). I te tau 1906 ka hanga houtia anō tēnei tari e Timi Kara.

Ngā tau 1930 ki ngā tau 1960

Nō ngā tau o te tūpuhi nui o te ao o te tekau tau 1930 ka whakawhanaketia ngā whenua me ngā whare Māori e Āpirana Ngata ki raro ki te Tari Māori.

I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka whakapau kaha te Rōpū Mahi mō te Pakanga ki te taritari, ki te tautoko hoki i ngā hōia mō te pakanga.

Nō ngā tau o te tekau tau 1940 ka hurihia te ingoa mai i te Native Department ki te Maori Affairs Department. Nō te tau 1962 ka waihangatia te Kaunihera Māori.

Ngā tau 1970 ki ngā tau o 2000

I te tau 1975 ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga Reipa te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whakarongo ki ngā nawe tiriti. Mai i te tau 1985 kua āhei te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi te tirotiro i ngā kokoraho mai anō i te tau 1840. Ko ētahi taonga ka hoki ki ngā iwi hei utu. Me aro anō e ngā tari kāwanatanga ngā mātāpono o te tiriti.

Kātahi ka whakatūria ētahi āhuatanga hou, pēnei i kōhanga reo.

I te tau 1980 ka whakakapia te Tari Māori  ki ētahi pūtahi kāwana e rua, ā, nō te tau 1992 ka puea ake ko Te Puni Kōkiri.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Ngā take Māori, ngā kaupapa kāwanatanga mō te Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-take-maori-nga-kaupapa-kawanatanga-mo-te-maori (accessed 22 August 2019)

Story by Mark Derby, published 20 Jun 2012