Kōrero: Te Māori i te ohanga

Ka papahoro te ohanga Māori i te rironga o ngā whenua haumako i te rau tau atu i 1800. Whai muri i te kotahi rau tau o te rawakore, ka tipu anō te pakihi Māori i te whakahokinga mai o ngā whenua me ngā hua – neke atu i te $10 piriona te wariu i te timatanga o ngā tau 2000.

Story by Basil Keane
Te āhua nui: Te hī ika, te rau tau 1800

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Whānau me te hapū

I pū anō ai te ohanga Māori ki te whānau me te hapū. I noho te mātotoru o te iwi ki te taha moana e pātata ai ki ngā ika me te mātaitai. Ko ngā āhuru mōwai he puna wai tōna, he māra tōna, ā, he ngahere hoki tōna mō te hopu manu. Ka kawea mai hoki te kūmara, te taro me te hue mai i Hawaiki ki Aotearoa, tae atu hoki ki te kurī me te kiore.

Ka kohaina atu ngā taonga o tētahi ki tētahi – ki te hoatuna he taonga, me whakautua ki tētahi taonga kē.

Te tauhokohoko me te Pākehā

I te taunga mai o te Pākehā, ka tīmata te Māori ki te tuopu taonga. Nāwai rā ka hua te mahi hokohoko. Ka tīmata anō ngā iwi ki te whakatō rīwai, ā, i te tau 1805 kua hokona atu ēnei ki Pēwhairangi. Ko te rīwai me te poaka he hua nui mō te tauhokohoko.

Ka tauhokohoko anō ngā kaipatu wēra me ngā Māori, ā, ka tahuri ētahi Māori ki te mahi wēra. Nā ngā kauhoe Māori ngā taonga i whakahoki mai i tāwāhi. Kātahi ka whanake te mahi hoko harakeke ki Ahitereiria. Ka hokona mai te pū, ā, nō konā ka whai hua ai rātou ki te hoko i te pū.

Te tipu o ngā hokohoko, 1840 ki 1860

He mea whāngai ngā Pākehā e ngā Māori.

Ka nanao ngā ringaringa o te Māori ki te hoko whao, mira witi, kaipuke hoki. Ka whakatipuhia te witi mō te hoko ki Poihākena. Nō te paunga o te tekau tau 1850, ka paheke te rawa o te witi ki Ahitereiria, ā, whai atu ko te ohanga o ngā iwi.

Ngā hoko whenua me te raupatu

Ina te rahi o ngā miriona eka whenua ka riro i te Karauna ki Te Waipounamu. Nō te tekau tau 1860, tata tonu i te katoa o ngā whenua o Te Waipounamu kua riro i te Karauna.

I roto o Wairarapa, Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Manawatū, he nui ngā whenua i hokona. Nō konei ka tau ngā aukati whenua, ā, ka tipu ngā raruraru. Ka pakaru mai te pakanga. Whai muri i ngā pakanga ka raupatutia ngā whenua e toru miriona a te Māori (neke atu i te 1.2 miriona heketea).

Ka whakawāngia ngā whenua a ngā Māori ki roto i te kōti whenua. He nui rātou ka hoko i ō rātou whenua mō ngā utu kōti. Nō raro mai i te ture whenua hou ka riro ngā whenua a te tokomaha ki ngā taitara whenua, ā, kāre e tukuna te moni taurewa ki ngā tāngata takitahi hei whakawhanake i te whenua.

Te ohanga taiwhenua atu i 1870

Ko te mahi a te nuinga o ngā tāngata Māori he mahi ihu oneone, kuti hipi, keri kāpia.

I te tekau tau atu i 1920, i runga i ngā mahi a Āpirana Ngata, ka riro ngā tahua kāwanatanga mā ngā Māori hei whakawhanake i ō rātou whenua.

Te noho tāone

I te tekau tau 1930, 90 ōrau o te taupori Māori kei te wā kāinga e noho ana. I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka neke ngā Māori ki ngā tāone ki te whai mahi. He maha ngā hōia Māori i tau ki ngā tāone noho ai.

I te tau 1951, 40 ōrau o ngā tāne Māori e whakapau werawera ana ki te ahuwhenua, te mahi puihi, te whakangau kararehe me te hī ika. Nō te tau 1971, 13 ōrau noa iho e mahi ahuwhenua ana.

He mahi ā-ringa te momo mahi a ngā tāngata noho tāone. Nā ngā akoako o te wā kia aro te Māori ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua, he pūkenga kore ngā mahi.

Ngā hanganga ture, tekau tau atu i 1980

I te tau 1985 kua tukuna te Māori ōna take whenua ki te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kua kitea i ngā whakataunga Tiriti o Waitangi, te whakahokinga mai o ngā whenua, rawa me te moni, tae atu ki ngā mahi ika, ngāherehere hoki ki ngā ringaringa Māori.

Orua mai, ko ngā whakarerekētanga a te kāwanatanga i te ohanga, i kore mahi ai ngā Māori. I te tau 1992, 10 ōrau o te taupori e noho kore mahi ana, heoi e 25 ōrau o te hunga Māori e noho kore mahi ana.

Ohanga Māori, ngā tau tōmua o te tau 2000

Kua tipu ngā pakihi ā-iwi i ngā whakataunga tiriti – i te tau 2008, neke atu i te kotahi piriona tāra te wāriu o Ngāi Tahu rāua ko Tainui. I te tau 2005/6, e whakapaetia ana neke atu i te $3 piriona te wāriu o ngā kaitiakianga me ngā kaporeihana whenua Māori. Hāunga tonu arā kē te nui o ngā kaipakihi Māori – i te tau 2001, 17,100 te nui o ngā Māori e mahi motuhake ana.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te Māori i te ohanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-maori-i-te-ohanga (accessed 22 July 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010