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Te Māori i te ohanga – Māori in the economy

by Basil Keane

Ka papahoro te ohanga Māori i te rironga o ngā whenua haumako i te rau tau atu i 1800. Whai muri i te kotahi rau tau o te rawakore, ka tipu anō te pakihi Māori i te whakahokinga mai o ngā whenua me ngā hua – neke atu i te $10 piriona te wariu i te timatanga o ngā tau 2000.


The Māori economy

Kāinga

Noho rawa ai te Māori ki ngā wāhi mōmona i te kai, ki ngā takutai o ngā moana kī ana i te ika, te mātaitai, te wai māori, me ngā hiwi e anga nui ana ki te muri hei whakatipu māra. Kāre i tawhiti mai te ngahere hei hopu manu. Atu i te rau tau 1500, ka puea ake tēnei mea te pā.

Te rangatiratanga

Ko ngā whānau me ngā hapū te pūtake ake o te iwi. Ko te kaumātua te kaiārahi o te whānau, ā, ko te rangatira te kaiārahi o te hapū. Ko ngā mahi tapu e pā ana ki te mahi kai, mā te tohunga ahurewa e manaaki.

Ngā tipu o Hawaiki

Ka whakatō te Māori i ngā tipu i mauria mai e ngā kaumoana tōmua ake, ko te kūmara, te taro me te hue tērā. Nā te rerekē o te huarere, kīhai te kūmara i tipu i te roanga o te tau pērā i ngā takiwā pārū. Ka kainga te hue, ā, ka whakamahi te kiri hei pupuri i te wai me ngā kai.

Ka whakatipuhia anō ngā tipu māori, pērā i te karaka me te tī kōuka. Ka kainga te hua karaka, ā ko ngā aka me ngā tātā o te tī kōuka ka tunua hoki hei kai. Ko ētahi wāhi ka tahuna kia tipu ake te aruhe.

Te whanake

 

He wā ka tūpuhi ngā kai, ā, me tahuri rātou ki ētahi kai kē. Ka pūmau te iwi ki te whakapapa hei paihere ki te iwi. Kei te whakataukī e mau ana te whakahirahira o tēnei hononga – ‘Mate kāinga tahi, ora kāinga rua’.

 

Ngā manu nui

Tere tonu te horapa o te Māori i tēnei motu. I pū tā rātou noho ki ngā mahinga kai. Matua ake, ka whai hiranga te whai i te moa me te kēkeno. Heoi, whai muri i te matenga o te moa me te monemonetanga o te kēkeno, ka neke ngā tāngata ki ngā wāhi mahana ake, me te patu ika me ngā manu ririki iho.

Hī ika

He maha ngā tikanga hī ika a te Māori. Ka whakamahia te hī, te hao me te kupenga. He kai nui te tāmure ki te raki me te manga ki te tonga. He huhua anō te tuna i hopukina e ētahi iwi o ngā heke tuna. He kai nui te tuna ki ngā iwi katoa.

Te hopu manu

Ko ngā manu i tino whāia ko te kererū, te kākā, te kiwi me te weka. Ka werohia ngā manu i ngā tao, ka herea rānei ki te māhanga.

Kiore me te kurī

Ka mauria mai te kurī me te kiore i Hawaiki. Tāpiri atu ki te whakamahia hei whaiwhai manu, ka kainga hoki te kurī. Ka tini haere rātou i te wā ka pua te tāwai – i ngā tau i hua aua rākau.

Te kōtutu kai

Ka pāwharangia ngā kai, tae atu ki te ika. Ka kōtutungia anō ngā kararehe ki tōna anō hinu. I Te Waipounamu, ka kōtutungia te tītī ki roto pōhā. Ki te raki, ka puritia ngā huahua ki roto hue.

Ngā manawa whenua

Kāre i roa ka tūhuratia ake ngā tino kōhatu: te mata tūhua o te raki, te karā o Tāhanga, te ōnewa o Whakatū-Wairau, Riverton me Bluff, ngā silcretes o Ōtākou me te pounamu o Te Tai Poutini. He mea tauhokohoko te kōhatu puta noa i te motu.

Tauhokohoko

He nui ngā tauwhitiwhiti i roto i ngā tauhokohoko. I hua ake i te mahi tauwhitiwhiti ko te takoha i tētahi taonga pai kē ake. He rite te wā ka tahuatia ngā kai o uta ki ērā o tai, ā, ka whai hiranga ngā tauwhitiwhiti i waenganui i Te Waipounamu me Te Ika-a-Māui.

 


Early trade with Pākehā

Ngā tauhokohoko tōmua

I roto i ngā tauwhitiwhiti tuatahi i waenga i te Māori me te Pākehā, e rua ngā taumata. Ko te tuatahi he whakaae ki te Pākehā ngā tikanga takoha o te Māori, arā, ki te takohatia he taonga, me utua ki tētahi taonga pai ake. I kōrero a Eruera Maihi Patuone mō te wā i tūtaki tōna matua a Tapua i ngā kauhoe o te Endeavour ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1769. Ka whiua e tōna matua he ika ki te ‘tupua’. I te pikitanga ake o Tapua ki runga i te waka, ka takohatia he pūweru whero me te mīti ki a ia.

Ko tētahi atu tikanga ko te tuopu, ka mutu he ōrite te wāriu o ngā rawa (e ai rā ki te titiro o ngā kaihoko), ā, ka takohatia i te wā tapatahi. Hei tauira, nō te mārama o te Māori ki te wāriu o te nera hei whao tāmoko, ka tīmata te hoko mai me ētahi taonga i a rātou – kāre i roa kua pātai rātou mō ngā nera roa, ina rā he pai ake mō te whakairo. Ka kaha ake ngā mahi hokohoko i te pānga ki ngā Pākehā. I kōrero ngā kaituhi mō te kaha o te Māori ki te tuopu – ko ētahi he whakanui, he whakatake rānei.

Te hoko i ngā rīwai me ngā poaka

Nō te tau 1801, e whakatipuhia ana te rīwai ki Parawai me te hoko atu ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1805. Nō te tau 1810, kua tīmata ngā Māori o Te Ara-o-Kewa ki te whakatipu rīwai – e whakaarotia ana he mea tiki mai ēnei i ngā māra a Ngāi Tahu ki Tōtaranui. Nō te tau 1803, he pērā rawa te nui o ngā rīwai e whakatōhia ana, kua hokona atu ngā tone ki ngā kaipuke whaiwhai tohorā.

I whai hiranga anō te poaka. I ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1700 ka takohatia e te kāwana o te moutere o Norfolk a Phillip Gidley King ngā poaka e 60 te maha ki a Te Pahi. Koinei ngā poaka tuatahi i whakamahia mō te whakawhānau ki Te Tai Tokerau.

Whai tohorā

Atu i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800 ki 1840 ko te whai tohorā te ahumahi nui rawa ki Aotearoa mō te Pākehā. Nō te haramaitanga o ngā kaipatu tohorā kua tipu nui te mākete rīwai ki Te Tai Tokerau. Ka hokona anō te poaka ki ngā kaipatu tohorā. Kāre i roa kua whai wāhi te Māori ki te ahumahi whaiwhai tohorā, ā, nō ngā tau 1827–28 kua whakatūtūhia ngā teihana patu tohorā ki tai. Ka whāia e ngā Māori te tohorā i muri tonu i te hekenga o tōna wāriu.

I te timatanga o te rautau 1800, nā te whakawhānuitanga o te hopu tohorā ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki te tonga i hang ate mākete nui mō ngā rīwai i whakatipuria ai e ngā iwi o Te Taitokerau.

Te huri hei kauhoe

He nui ngā Māori i tahuri ki te mahi kauhoe i runga i ngā tohutohu o ā rātou rangatira. I te hokinga atu ki te iwi, kua takohatia he taonga mō te whānau me te rangatira.

Te hoko harakeke i ngā wā o mua

Ka tīmata te hoko harakeke ki Ahitereiria i te tekau tau atu i 1820, heoi nō te tau 1830 kua tino kaha tēnei ahumahi. Ka whakatūhia ngā teihana hoko ki Te Tai Tokerau, Waikato, Taranaki, Moehau, Te Moana-a-Toi, Te Tai Rāwhiti, Murihiku, ngā tahataha o Raukawa me Hakaroa.

Ka tauinetia te harakeke ki te tone me te haurua o te tone.

Ngā pakanga mau pū

I ngā tekau tau o 1820 me 1830, kua tīmata ngā pānga kino o te ao hou, ā, ka taki whāia e ngā Māori ngā pū. Ka tīmata anō te arotahi o ngā Māori ki te whai rawa ki te hoko pū. Ko te iwi ka whakawhiua, nā te kore whakatipu i te kai hei kai. Tāpiri atu, ka tū ngā tautohetohe paenga whenua.

Rangatiratanga

Ahakoa te whai wāhi o ngā iwi ki te ohanga tauhokohoko hou me te Pākehā, kāre rātou i panoni i te mahi tahi a te iwi. Ka ārahi tonu ngā kaumātua i ngā whānau me te rangatira i te hapū.
Ko tētahi panonitanga nui ko te whai hua nui i te harakeke, te rīwai me te papa rākau.


Māori enterprise, 1840 to 1860

Atu i te tau 1840 ki 1860, ka tino whai rawa ngā rakihinonga Māori. Ko ngā Māori ngā kaiwhakataka i te huawhenua mā ngā tāone e tipu haere ana. Ka whakatakotohia e rātou he moni whakangao ki ngā whao ahuwhenua, mira puehu paraoa me ngā kaipuke, ā ka whai hua tā rātou kawe utanga ki ngā mākete.

Mākete

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1840, ka tipu te ohanga i te whakatūnga o ngā tāone o Tāmaki, Te Whanganui-a-Tara, Ngāmotu me Whakatū.

I ngā tau tōmua o te tāone o Te Whanganui-a-Tara ko ngā Māori e hoko ana i te rīwai, te witi me te poaka me te Pākehā. I tērā wā ko ngā Māori e whāngai ana i te taupori o Whakatū, ā, nō te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau 1830, e kawe ana a Ngāi Tahu i ōna utanga mai i Taieri me Moeraki kia hokona ki Otākou, e pātata ana ki Otepoti.

Witi

He āhua roa tonu te wā ka mārama te Māori ki te whakatipu witi, ā, kāre i pērā ki te rīwai.

Hikaka katoa ana a Ruatara ki te hoko i te witi ki Poihākena, ā, ka hauhaketia e ia te witi ki Aotearoa nei i te tau 1813. Kia whiwhi rā anō i a ia te mīhini oro witi, me te whakamahi hoki o taua mīhini, kātahi ka kite tōna iwi ki te kaupapa ake o te witi. Ko te piki tūranga o Ruatara ko Hongi Hika, ā, e rua tau i muri mai ka tipu anō tōna māra witi. He kai nui te witi, ina rā ka taea te pupuri mō te wā roa, te hoko ki tāwāhi rānei.

Ngā mira puehu paraoa

He nui ngā moni ka whakamahia mō te whakahaere mira puehu paraoa. I ngā tekau tau o 1840 me 1850, ka whakatūhia ngā mira ki Waikato, Taranaki, Whanganui, Rotorua me Wairarapa. I tērā wā, e 50 te nui o ngā mira ka whakatūhia ki Waikato. Nō te tau 1856, ka kitea te koretake o ēnei mira ki ērā e whakamahi ana i te koromamao ki Tāmaki me Ahuriri. Ka monemone haere te oranga o te iwi i te pupuri ki tētahi mea kua ngaro tōna wāriu.

Te kawe utanga

Atu i te tekau tau 1840, he nui ngā iwi ka hoko i ngā kaipuke hei kawe i ō rātou utanga ki ngā tāone Pākehā. Ko ngā iwi i Pēwhairangi, Hauraki, Te Moana-a-Toi, Te Tai Rāwhiti me Tūranga i hoko kaipuke. Ko te nuinga, e 10 ki te 20 tone te taumaha, arā, ngā waka pai mō ngā haerenga poto. I te tau 1858, i te kautetanga o ngā waka mō te porowini o Ākarana, e 51 te rahi o ngā kaipuke kua rēhitatia, e 36 nō te Māori. He utu nui te kaipuke kotahi mō ngā iwi. Nā te takerehaea, te nui o ngā utu tapitapi me te taupokitanga o ētahi i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, he iti anake ngā kaipuke e rewa tonu ana i te pokaputanga o 1860.

Te hingatanga o te mākete

I ngā tau 1855–56, ka paheke te utu o te witi me te rīwai ki Ahitereiria. Nō te tau 1859, kua mutu katoa ngā mahi hoko witi ki Ahitereiria. Ka tūpuhi hoki te oneone i te whakatipu.

I ngā tau 1863 me 1864 ka mutu ngā mahi tauhokohoko i te pakarutanga mai o ngā riri whenua i waenga i te Māori me te Pākehā. He maha ngā wahapū hokohoko a te Māori i aukatia e te kāwanatanga. Atu i te tekau tau 1860, ka paheke te ohanga Māori.

 


The alienation of Māori land

Te whai hiranga o te whenua

Kei te whakataukī nei e kitea ana te whakahirahira o te whenua: ‘Te toto o te tangata he kai. Te orange o te tangata he whenua.’

Nō te rironga o te whenua ka riro hoki te oranga o te tangata. Tuatahi, i hokona atu ngā whenua ki te Pākehā, i runga i te wawata ka whakatūhia he kāinga Pākehā ki ērā whenua. Hikaka ana te Māori kia whai wāhi ki ngā mākete, me ngā hangarau hou o te ao Pākehā.

I whai angitu ngā hokohoko tōmua a te Māori ki ngā tāngata whai me ō rātou tāone nā te mea i roto tonu te mana whenua o ngā whenua whakatipu kai i ngā ringaringa Māori. Nō te whakataunga o ngā tāpaetanga whenua, ka tukuna ngā whenua mōmona e pātata ana ki ngā tāone ki te Pākehā. I roto i te rau tau 1800, ka riro ngā whenua nunui mai i te ringaringa Māori ki te Pākehā. Nō konei ka hinga ngā ohanga ā-iwi

Te Waipounamu

Nō te tekau tau 1860, tata tonu i te katoa o Te Waipounamu kei ngā ringaringa Pākehā e mau ana. I waenga i te tau 1844 me 1863, he nui ngā miriona eka whenua ka hokona e te kāwanatanga mai i a Ngāi Tahu i roto i ngā hoko e iwa. I te tau 1848, e 20 miriona ngā eka whenua ka hokona ki Waitaha.

Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1890 ko ngā whakatewhatewha a te kāwanatanga ki ngā whenua e tuwhera ana ki a Ngāi Tahu, ā, ka kitea e 10 ōrau anake o te iwi e whai wāhi ana ki ētahi whenua whai oranga. Nō konā ka tukuna ētahi whenua ki ngā Māori e noho kore whenua ana. Kīhai a Ngāi Tahu me ētahi atu iwi o Te Waipounamu kia rongo i ngā painga o te noho Pākehā.

Te raupatu

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua kite te Māori i ngā whakawhiu o te raupatu. Ki Wairarapa, Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Manawatū, he nui ngā iwi i hokona ai te maha o ō rātou whenua. Nō te mārōtanga o te Māori kia pupuri i ō rātou whenua, ka titi tonu te kaupapa kaiā whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka pakaru mai te pakanga i ngā rīriri rangatiratanga, mana, whenua hoki. Ko te hua o ērā pakanga ka raupatuhia te 3 miriona eka ki Taranaki, Waikato, Tauranga, Te Moana-a-Toi, arā, e 15 ōrau o ngā whenua Māori. Ko ētahi i whakahokia, heoi i ētahi wā tē whakahokia ki ngā tāngata nō rātou kē taua whenua.

Te huringa o te mana pupuri whenua

Atu i 1865, ka tae mai ngā ture hou a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kāre te kōti i whakamana i te mana whenua ā-iwi.

Ka riro ngā taitara ki te hunga takitahi o te iwi. Kāre he moni hei whakawhanake i ō rātou whenua.

He nui ngā whenua ka hokona hei utu i ngā nama kōti, te noho i te wā o te kōti me ngā mahi rūri.

 


Rural economy – 1870s onwards

Whānau me te hapū

Ka papahoro te ōhanga i ngā raupatu whenua, ā, ka rerekē mai i te tōnuitanga o te pokapūtanga o te rau tau 1800. Ahakoa i mahi tahi tonu ngā whānau me ngā hapū, kāre rātou i mahi mō te whai rawa o te iwi. I whai utu rātou mō te kāwanatanga, ngā Pākehā whai rawa me ngā kaiahuwhenua ranei. Nawai ra ka noho rawakore anō te ohanga Māori.

Te mahi mō te utu

Nō te tekau tau 1870, kua mahi ngā Māori mō tētahi atu, ā, he nui te wā he pai ake tēnei i te mahi mōu ake. Atu i te tekau tau 1880 ka riro mai ngā mahi kuti hipi, ā, i te tuatahi ki Te Matau-a-Māui, pakaru atu ki ngā topito o te motu. He mahi ā-whānau, ā-hapū rānei te kuti hipi.

Ka mahi tahi, ā-hapū rānei ngā kaikeri kāpia. Ka haoa te inanga ki ngā motu e rua hei kai, hei hoko rānei ki te Pākehā. Ki Te Waipounamu, ka hopu ngā whānau o Ngāi Tahu i te tītī mō te hoko.

Ahuwhenua

Nō te tau 1900, he maha ngā kaimahi hipi Māori ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, te taha whakarunga o Heretaunga me Wairarapa. I te tīmatanga o tērā rau tau, e hoko whenua ana te kāwanatanga mō ngā whenua mai i ngā Māori. I waenganui i ngā tau 1891 me 1911, neke atu i te 3 miriona ngā eka whenua ka hokona e te kāwanatanga Rīpera.

Te whakawhanake whenua

Nō te paunga o te tekau tau 1920, ka riro ngā pūtea taurewa a te kāwanatnga ki te whakawhanake i ngā whenua Māori. Nō te tau 1939, he nui ngā kaimahi Māori, ā, neke atu i te 5,000 te rahi.

Ahakoa te manako tērā ka tū te Māori hei kaiahuwhenua, he maha ngā raru. Nō te pokapūtanga o te rau tau 1900, kua tae mai ngā mīhini, ā, ka whakatahangia te ringa mahi. Whāia ko te nuinga o ngā whenua haumako kua riro i te kāwanatanga. Ko ngā whenua a ngā Māori he tūpuhi.

Ka kake te taupori Māori, ā, kāre i nui ngā whenua mō te ahuwhenua. Ahakoa i te tau 1960, e 2,116 te rahi o ngā pāmu, ā, 1.5 miriona ngā eka whenua kei raro i ngā kaporeihana me ngā kaitiakitanga Māori, kīhai i rahi rawa ngā mahi. Ko te putanga atu tērā o ētahi ki ngā tāone kimi mahi ai.


Urbanisation

Ngā kaimahi o te taiwhenua

Tae rawa ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, he iwi mahi taiwhenua te Māori. Nō te tau 1900, 95 ōrau o te Māori e noho ana ki ngā taiwhenua. I te tatauranga o te tau 1926, neke atu i te 10,000 te tokomaha o ngā Māori e mahi ana ki ngā mahi ā-ringaringa. Tāpiri atu, 7,000 ngā kaimahi ihu oneone kei ngā taiwhenua e mahi ana. Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1900, he iwi mahi taiwhenua te Māori.

Mātauranga

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900, ka puta mai te rōpū iti o ngā ngaio Māori. Ko tā rātou kaiārahi ko Āpirana Ngata, ā, i puta katoa mai rātou i Te Aute.

Ahakoa tēnei, ko te whakaaro a ētahi kaimahi kāwanatanga me noho rawa te Māori ki ngā mahi ihu oneone. Ka whakahau te Tari Mātauranga kia tahuri te kāreti o Te Aute ki te ako i ngā mahi ahuwhenua, kaua i ngā mahi ngaio. I te tau 1931, ka whakapae te kaiwhakarite o te Tari Mātauranga a T. B. Strong, me ako i te Māori ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua, ā, me ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā mahi a te hoa wahine kaiahuwhenua.

I ngā tau tōmua o 1900, he maha ngā kaiwhakahaere, kotahi te rōia, me ngā kaiārahi ture (kotahi te tāne, kotahi te wahine), tae atu ki ngā tākuta tokowhā me ngā tākuta niho tokorua.

Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I te tekau tau 1930, 10 ōrau o te taupori Māori kei te tāone e noho ana. Nāwai ā, ka kake ki te 80 ōrau. I tū tēnei āhuatanga whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. E kī ana te Ture Manpower 1944 ko ngā tāngata kīhai i tae ki te pakanga me mahi ki ngā ahumahi kei ngā tāone. Ko te nekenga tērā o ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā wheketere kei ngā tāone. Tokoono ngā āpiha toko i te ora Māori i whakamahia e te Tari Māori hei āwhina i ngā wāhine Māori te wehe mai i te kāinga. E kī ana te tatauranga o te tau 1945, ka kake ngā kaimahi Māori whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

Mai i te taiwhenua ki te tāone

Whai muri i te pakanga, ka neke ētahi hōia Māori ki ngā tāone hei whakamahi i ngā pūkenga i akona i roto i te ope a Tū. He nui rātou i whai mahi mō te tari Māori, hei kaiako rānei.

I te nekenga o ngā Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai, ka mahi rātou i ngā mahi tāone. Ko te nuinga o ēnei mahi kei ngā whare patu mīti, ngā rori, ngā wheketere, ngā rerewē, te waihanga whare, te mahi ā-ringa, te hī ika, te maina me ngā mahi ihu oneone.

Te pānoni ahumahi

Kāre i roa, ka paheke te nui o Ngāi Māori e mahi ahuwhenua ana. I te tau 1951, tata tonu ki te 40 ōrau o ngā tāne Māori e mahi ana ki ngā ahuwhenua, ngāngahere, te whaiwhai kararehe me te hī ika. I tērā wā e 20 ōrau anake o ngā Pākehā e mahi ana i ērā mahi. Nō te tau 1971, 13 ōrau noa iho o te taupori Māori kei ērā mahi, ā, ko te hunga Pākehā, 12 ōrau te rahi.

Heoi, ka kake ngā tāngata Māori i roto i ngā mahi whakangao. I te tau 1936, neke atu i te 2,000 ngā tāngata Māori me ngā wāhine Māori e 1,000 te tokomaha e mahi ana ki te wāhanga whakangao. Nō te tau 1971, hautoru o ngā Māori katoa e mahi ana i te wāhanga whakangao.

I te tau 1951, neke atu i te haurua o ngā wāhine Māori e mahi ana ki te wāhanga ratonga. Nō te tau 1971, kua heke tēnei whika ki te hauwhā.


Government reforms, 1980s

Te hanga hou anō

I te tekau tau atu i 1960, ko ērā kaimahi kāre e whai pūkenga, pūkenga iti rānei kua whakamahia e ngā ahumahi kāwanatanga. He nui rawa ngā Māori e mahi ana ki ngā ngāherehere, ngā rerewē, ngā rori me ngā mahi hiko a te kāwanatanga tae atu hoki ki te Poutāpeta.

I ngā tekau tau 1980 me 1990, ka whakahouhia katoa ēnei ahumahi, i noho kore mahi ai te rahi. Ka whakahouhia anō ngā ahumahi tūmataiti kei reira te nui o Ngāi Māori e mahi ana, pērā i ngā mahi whakangao me ngā whare patu mīti. I te tau 1986, e 8 ōrau o ngā tāngata mahi he Māori, heoi nō te tau 1992, 26 ōrau o ngā tāngata kāre i whai mahi, he Māori. Nō konā, e 25 ōrau te rahi o te Māori e noho kore mahi ana, ā, 10 ōrau anake te nui o te taupori whānui kīhai i whai mahi.

Hui Taumata

I whakatūhia te Hui Taumata i te tau 1984. Ka whakaritea e te hui kia whakatūhia te Komihana o te Hui Taumata hei tuku pūrongo atu ki te minita Māori. He kaupapa tēnei hei whakakaha ake i te ohanga Māori.

Te whakarite anō te hunga mahi

I te tau 1986, 39 ōrau o ngā Māori kei ngā ahumahi tuarua, pērā i te mahi whakangao, te waihanga, te mahi hiko, wai hoki.

Nō te tau 2003, ka heke tēnei whika ki te 25 ōrau. Ka kake te nui o ngā Māori kei roto i te wāhanga ratonga, pērā i te pakihi, te hanga rori, te hauora me te hapori me te mātauranga ki te 65 ōrau. Ka āhua rite tonu te rahi o ngā Māori ki ngā ahumahi tuatahi (ahuwhenua, ngahere, hī ika) mai i te 10 ōrau i te tau 1986 ki te 9 ōrau i te tau 2003.

Ngā whakataunga tiriti

I whakatūria te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i te tau 1975 kia tirotiro ai i ngā whatinga o te Tiriti o Waitangi e te Karauna. I te tau 1985 i whakaaengia te tirohanga ki ngā kereme mō ngā whatinga o mua. Nā ngā kitenga o te rōpū i hoatu te kawanatanga i te pūtea ki ngā iwi. Nā ngā whakataunga nei i whakaritea te pūtake moni e taea ai e ngā iwi te uru ki te ohaoha. Ko ngā whakataunga nunui ko ā Ngāi Tahu rāua ko Tainui. Ko te nui o te pūtea ki ia iwi ko $170 miriona.

Te hī ika

Nā ngā kēhi kōti, nā ngā ripoata a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i whakaritea he whakataunga mō taua wā tonu, me te whakataunga whakamutunga mō te hī ika. Ko tētahi āhuatanga o te whakataunga mō taua wā tonu i hoatu tētahi wāhanga o te pūnaha whakahaere roherohenga o Aotearoa ki te iwi Māori – i te timatanga kāore he hua mō ngā kai hī ika Māori nō taua pūnaha – me te moni. I whakaturengia tēnei i roto i te Maori Fisheries Act 1989. I te tau 1992 nā te whakataunga whakamutunga i hoatu te kawanatanga i te $150 miriona ki te hoko i tētahi haurua o te kamupene Sealord, me tētahi wāhanga o te roherohenga hao ika hōu e puta mai ā muri ake. I te timatanga o te mano tau 2000 e tata ki te $700 miriona te uara o ngā rawa hī ika Māori.

Te ono rākau

Nō te whakarerekētanga ohaoha o te tekau tau 1980, i whakaritea e te kawanatanga te tuku rawa, kei roto ngā rawa ono rākau, ki ngā kamupene kawanatanga. He nui ngā whenua Karauna e tipua ana ai te rākau i pāngia e te kereme Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā reira, i whakaae te Karauna kia pupuritia ngā moni rēti i roto i te pūtea tiaki, ā, nā te itareti o ngā moni rēti i mahi hei pūtea mō te iwi ki te rangahau i ngā whenua. I whakatūria Ngā Kaitiaki Rēti Ngahere Karauna i te tau 1990. Ina whakaritea mā wai ngā whenua e tū ai ngā ngahere, ka whakahokia ngā rawa ki te iwi.

He tekau tau piki heke

I ngā tekau tau o 1980 me 1900, ka haere ētahi o ngā moni whakataunga tiriti a ngā iwi ki ngā wāhanga ngāherehere, ahumoana hoki. Ōrua mai, ka riro ngā mahi a ngā Māori i ngā hanganga ture hou o ngā tekau tau 1980 me 1990.


Māori economy in the early 2000s

Tērā te ripoata a te New Zealand Institute of Economic Research nō te tau 2003 e whakamārama ana i te tikanga o te ohanga Māori.

E ai ki tā mātou whakamāramatanga, ko te ohanga Māori, ko ngā umanga me ngā whakahaerenga ‘Māori’. Ka uhia te whakamahinga o ngā rawa Māori, ngā umanga o ngā mahi ā kiri Māori, ngā whakahaerenga moni e pā ana ki te tikanga Māori, ngā mahi e pā ana ki te tangata Māori, me ngā kāinga e whiwhingia e te Māori.

Whakaputanga

Ko te ahuwhenua, te hī ika me ngā kāinga nō ngā kainoho he 75% o te putanga o te ohanga Māori i te tau 2007. Ko te ahuwhenua e $700 miriona, arā, 7.4% o te whakaputanga ahuwhenua o Aotearoa. Tata ki te 37% o te roherohenga hī ika o Aotearoa i whakahaeretia e te iwi Māori, ā, $299 miriona te ngā moni puta hī ika. Ō ngā tāngata e whiwhi ana ki ō rātou ake whare, 7% he Māori. Ko te wariu e $434 miriona. Ko te wariu o ngā tuku rawa o rāwāhi Māori i te tau 2000 e $650 miriona.

Heoi anō, i te Hune o 2009 ko te koremahi mō te Māori 10%, ā, 5% mō tauiwi.

Ngā umanga rerekē

Ahakoa te kaha uru o te Māori ki te ahuwhenua, te hī ika, me te hoko kāinga, ka rerekē haere ngā kaitukumahi me ngā ngira tuitui Māori i te timatanga o ngā 2000. Ka puta mai ngā umanga Māori e hāngai ana ki te mahi tāpoi, te mahi huatau me te mahi pikitia.

Te mahi ā kiri me ngā ngira tuitui

I te tau 1981 e 6,700 ngā tāngata mahi ā kiri. Tae atu ki te 2001 kua nuku ake ki te 17,100. I kaha te tupu o ngā tāngata Māori e mahi ā kiri ana i tā tauiwi i tēnei wa. Engari, 10% o te Māori i mahi ā kiri, ā, 22% o tauiwi i mahi ā kiri. Ka huri te mahi ā kiri mai i te taha ahuwhenua ki te taha mahi.

Ngā rōpū kaitiaki me ngā kaporeihana

E rua ngā tino hanganga i whakatipuria ki te whakahaere i ngā pānga whenua Māori, ko te rōpū kaitiaki ahuwhenua me ngā kaporeihana Māori. I te tau 2008, 129 ngā kaporeihana Māori me ngā rōpū kaitiaki ahuwhenua e 5,201 i whakahaere i rua hautoru o ngā whenua Māori. Ko te kaporehina o Wakatū, tētahi o ngā kaporeihana nui, tata ki te $250 miriona e wariu i te timatanga o ngā 2000. Tata ki te $90 miriona ngā rawa o te kaporeihana o Wairarapa Moana i te te timatanga o ngā 2000, he ono rākau, he pāmu te nuinga o ngā whakahaere.

Hui katoa, ko te wariu o ngā rōpū kaitiaki me ngā Kaporeihana neke atu i te $3 piriona i waenganui te tau 2005 me 2006.

Ngā whakataunga me ngā rawa o te tiriti

Hui katoa, ko te wariu o ngā rawa o Ngāi Tahu rāua ko Tainui nuku i te kotahi piriona tāra i te tau 2008. Ko ngā rawa e whakahaerehia ana te Ngāi Tahu Holdings e $600 miriona i 2008, ā, e $496 miriona ā Tainui Group Holdings.

I te tau 2008 i hainatia ai te whakataunga e tētahi rōpū whakaemi nō Ngāi Tūhoe, nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa, nō Ngāti Whakaue, nō Ngāti Whare, Nō Ngāti Manawa, nō Ngāti Raukawa nō ētahi iwi, hapū anō hoki o Te Arawa i tapaina ko te whakataunga ‘Treelords’. Ko te whenua ono rākau a te karauna e $195.7 miriona, ko ngā rēti mai i te tau 1989 kua tata ki te $223 miriona, ā, ia tau $13 miriona te moni puta.

Nō te tau 2009 neke atu i te $440 miriona te wariu o ngā rawa hī ika whakatau kua tukua ki ngā iwi e Te Ohu Kaimoana, te rōpū whakahaere i ngā rawa hī ika o ngā iwi i mua i te whakataunga whakamutunga.

Ngā rawa Māori

Hui katoa $16.5 piriona ngā rawa ohanga e whiwhia ana e te Māori mai i te 2005 ki te 2006, neke atu i te hua rua o te $7.5 piriona i te tau 2001. Ko te wariu o ngā umanga Māori neke atu i te $10 piriona.


How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Te Māori i te ohanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-maori-i-te-ohanga/print (accessed 13 November 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010