Kōrero: Te hauora Māori i mua

Inā te maha o ngā kāinga Māori i papahoro i ngā tahumaero Pākehā, pērā i te mate kohi me te pākerewhā. Nā te raupatu ka uaua te whai oranga a ngā iwi e noho manene ana. I te rautau 1900 ka ara anō te iwi Māori. Hāunga tērā, ki tā ngā tatauranga o tērā wā, e waru tau te iti iho o te oranga tangata Māori i tō te tangata Pākehā.

Story by Raeburn Lange
Te āhua nui: Pānui hauora niho, tekau tau 1950

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Hauora Māori o mua

He nui te hauora o te Māori i mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi. Kāre anō i tae mai ngā mate o tāwāhi ki Aotearoa. Heoi, ko ngā māuiui o konei, he niumōnia, he mate kaikōiwi hoki. I whakapono te Māori ka pā te mate ki te tangata inā tānoanoa ia i te tapu, i ngā whakawhiu rānei a ōna atua. Ka tīkina e rātou te tohunga e matatau ana ki ngā tikanga rongoā rākau me te taki i ngā karakia tika.

Ngā tahumaero Pākehā

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ka papahoro te iwi Māori i te kaha o ngā tahumaero karawaka, rewharewha, pīwa taipō me te mate kohi. Ko ērā iwi noho pāmamao kīhai i tino rongo i te haumate.

Atu i te tau 1769 ki te tau 1840, ka pāheke te taupori Māori mā te 30 ōrau.

Nō te waipuketanga o te motu e te Pākehā, kātahi ka rongo ngā iwi katoa. Nā te rironga o ngā whenua i te raupatu i te hoko, ka noho rawakore ngā hanganga whare Māori, ā, paruparu ana ngā wai me te kai i ngā kai hēmanawa. Atu i te tau 1840 ka pāheke te taupori Māori mā te haurua. Nō te tekau tau 1890 ka tū mataara ake anō te iwi Māori i tōna wāia haere ki ngā mate tauiwi me te pūaretanga o ētahi ratonga hauora kāwanatanga ki te iwi.

Hauora Māori

I te tau 1900 ka whakatūhia te Tari Hauora me te wāhanga Māori. Ko Māui Pōmare tērā i takahi te mata o te whenua i tāna mahi hei āpiha hauora Māori, me te tohutohu i ngā iwi ki te hauora. I whakatumatuma anō te Young Māori Party mō ngā take hauora Māori.

Ka āhei anō ngā nēhi Māori te torotoro i ngā tāngata kei ngā kāinga taiwhenua.

Heoi ka hāua tonu te Māori ki ngā mate taipoi, mate koroputaputa me te rewharewha. I te tau 1907, ka whakaturehia te Ture Tāmi Tohunga. Hāunga tonu tēnei, ka haere tonu te mahi a ngā tohunga.

He pikinga hauora

Atu i te tekau tau 1920 ki te tau 1940 ka piki te ora o te taupori Māori.

I te tekau tau 1930, ka kitea te noho karukaru mai o ngā whare Māori, e kōpāpā ana, ā, karekau he wai mā. I te tau 1935, 10 te whakareatanga ake o te mate kohi o te Māori i tō te iwi Pākehā. I taua tau anō ka waihangatia te kaupapa whakatū whare mō te iwi Māori, me te kaupapa whakatū wharepaku tōtika ki roto i ngā kāinga.

Nō te tekau tau 1920, nā ngā whānau tonu ngā mahi mō te whakawhānautanga. I tērā wā kua tīmata te āwhinatia e te hunga nēhi. Nō te tau 1937, 17 ōrau o ngā whakawhānautanga kei roto hōhipera.

I te tau 1939, ka noho kore utu te haere ki te hōhipera, ā, ka kaha ake te haere a te Māori i ngā wā e pāngia ana e te mate, mō te whakawhānau hoki.

Te rerekētanga ā-hauora

Atu i te tekau tau 1950 ka memeha haere te kaha o te mate kohi me te pīwa taipō, engari ka kaha te mate huka, pukupuku, manawa, roro hoki. I te tau 1960, he tāpara te nui ake o ngā mate Māori i ngā mate Pākehā.

Nō te tekau tau 1980 ka tīmata te whakahaere a te Māori i āna ake hōtaka hauora, ā, ko ētahi ka whakamahi i ngā rongoā Māori.

I te tau 2001, e waru tau te iti iho o te oranga tangata Māori i te oranga tangata Pākehā. Hau ana te kore mahi, te rawa kore, te kore tohu mātauranga, kore whare hoki i waenganui i te Māori, ā, he āhuatanga katoa ēnei e pā kino ana ki te hauora tangata.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Raeburn Lange, 'Te hauora Māori i mua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hauora-maori-i-mua (accessed 24 July 2019)

Story by Raeburn Lange, published 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 4 Apr 2018