Kōrero: Te hauora Māori i mua

Whārangi 5. Changing health, 1945 onwards

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

I te tekau tau o te 1950 me te 1960 ka piki anō te taupori Māori, ā, ka whakatika anō te heketanga mai i nga taiwhenua ki ngā taone.

Te āhua hauora

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tīmata te kitea o ngā hua i te tāmitanga o te mate kohi i waenganui i te Māori. Mai i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1950 ka pāheke te mate kohi i te whakaratonga atu o ngā rongoā ārai mate. I te tau 1964 ka kī ake te Tari Hauora kua kore e tāmia te Māori e te mate kohi.

Mai i te tekau tau 1940, ka āta heke te auau mate o te hunga tamariki, heoi anō, he kaha ake tonu te auau mate o te hunga tamariki Māori i tō te hunga tamariki Pākehā i roto i te manotau 2000.

Nō te tau 1950, tē kitea te pakarutanga mai o te mate taipō piwa.

Ngā whakatauritenga

Kei muri tonu te hauora Māori i te hauora o te taupori Pākehā. I te tau 1960 ka puta te rangahau he tāpara te kaha ake o ngā mate Māori i ō tauiwi, ā, he tino nui rawa i waenganui i te hunga tamariki. Ka kaha pāngia anō te Māori ki ngā mate pērā i te mate huka, te mate pukupuku, te mate manawa me te tūnga roro, arā, he mate kīhai i tino kitea. Ahakoa te pāheke o ngā mate rere, ka taikaha anō ētahi atu mate. I te paunga o te rautau 1900, e kaha tonu ana ngā mate puta mai ana i te pakeketanga me te kaumātuatanga.

Ngā rerekētanga

I te tau 2006, e waru tau te iti iho o te oranga tāngata Māori i tō tauiwi (wāhine mai tāne mai). I tērā tau anō he tāpara te mate o te tāne Māori i te tāne Pākehā mō te mate pukupuku pūkahukahu; ā, he toru me te haurua te whakareanga ake o te mate wahine Māori i tō te wahine tauiwi mō taua mate anō. E rim ate whakareanga ake o te nui o te mate huka i waenganui i te Māori i tō tauiwi, ā, he tāpara mō te mate manawa. Ahakoa te pikinga o te āhua noho a te Māori, ka takamuri tonu ia i ngā tatauranga mate katoa.

Ngā take rerekētanga

Nā te rerekētanga i waenganui i te Māori me tauiwi ki roto i ngā āhuatanga o te mahi, te utu me te whai tohu mātauranga ka hinga anō ai te hauora Māori. He mea nui anō te āhuatanga o ngā whare noho. Ka aua atu te wā kātahi ka hīkina ake te taumata noho o ngā Māori tae rawa ake ki ngā wāhi taiwhenua. I te wā o te kaupapa hanga whare Māori, ka piki anō te taupori Māori, ā, ka noho kōpā tonu ngā whare, ahakoa te whakatūtū haeretanga o ngā whare.

Te Māori me te pūnaha hauora

Nā te hekenga nui ki ngā taone, ka whai wāhi te Māori ki ngā ratonga hauora. Heoi i noho tonu ētahi momo aukatitanga i ngā utu me ngā rerekētanga ā-iwi. Nā ngā hōtaka hauora kāwanatanga i tuku āwhina ki ngā hapori Māori kei ngā wāhi e tika ana, ā, he pānga nui tēnei ki te hauora Māori.

Mai i te tau 1957 ka whakarato te kāwanatanga i ngā hōhipera. Nō konei ka whakakorengia te whakaaro, nā te kore utu reiti kaunihera, kāre te Māori e tautoko ā-pūtea i ngā hōhipera. Nō te tau 1959, e 90 ōrau o ngā whakawhānautanga Māori ka whānau mai ki roto i te hōhipera. Neke atu i te kotahi rau tau te tū o te Māori hei tākuta, hei nēhi, hei āpiha hauora hoki – ā, e haere tonu ana tēnei āhuatanga i roto i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 2000. Heoi kei te tōmuri tonu te Māori i ētahi atu iwi ki ēnei tū mahi katoa.

Ngā whai aro hauora

Mai i te mutunga o te tekau tau 1940, ka aro haere te kāwanatanga ki ngā ao e rua i roto i ngā mahi hauora Māori. I hua tēnei i te hiahia o te Māori kia whai wāhi ki ōna take hauora. Ka kaha ake tēnei āhuatanga i roto o te tekau tau 1980, arā i te whai tūranga o te Māori ki ngā whakahaerenga o ōna hōtaka hauora me te whakarangatira ake i ngā āhuatanga Māori ki roto i te wāhanga hauora.

I te tau 1984 ka huri te tai i te tūnga o te Te Hui Whakaoranga ki roto o Tāmaki. Nāwai ka kitea te whakatūnga o ngā ratonga hauora ki ngā marae ki ētahi atu wāhi maha e whakahaerehia ana ‘e te Māori mō te Māori’. Ka whakaae te kāwanatanga ki te whakaōrite i te kaha o te hauora i waenganui i te iwi Māori me te Pākehā.

Rongoā Māori

Ka mau tonu i te Māori ōna āria ake mō te hauora Māori. Ka tahuri anō ngā āpiha hauora kia mārama ki ngā tikanga hauora, māuiui hoki a te Māori, ā, ka kaha ake te tautokohia e ngā ture kāwanatanga. Ka whanake tonu te mahi a ngā tohunga ki ngā hapori Māori, ā, ka tahuri anō te Pākehā kia whakamīharo atu ki ā rātou mahi. I te tau 1962, ka whakakorehia te Ture Tāmi Tohunga. E rua tekau tau i muri mai, ka tūwhera kau ake ngā mana hauora ki ngā rongoā Māori, ā, ka whakamahia tahi me ērā o te ao Pākehā, ā, nō te tū hīranga ake o ngā tohunga, ka whakakotahitia atu ētahi o ā rātou mahi ki roto i te pūnaha hauora whānui.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Raeburn Lange, 'Te hauora Māori i mua - Changing health, 1945 onwards', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hauora-maori-i-mua/page-5 (accessed 27 February 2020)

He kōrero nā Raeburn Lange, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 4 Apr 2018