Kōrero: Te hauora Māori i mua

Whārangi 4. Te āta whanaketanga, 1920 ki te 1945

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Āhuatanga hauora

Mai i te tau 1920 ki te tau 1940 ka mātotoru ake te taupori Māori, ā, i te tau 1945 ka kake ki te 115,646. Hāunga tērā ka tōmuri tonu te hauora Māori i tērā o tauiwi.

E ai ki ngā tatauranga tuatahi mō te āhua noho a te Māori i te tekau tau 1930, ko te nuinga o te Māori e noho ana ki ngā whare karukaru, ā, e noho kōtē ana, kāre he wai mā, he wharepaku rānei. I te tau 1934 ka kitea he tāpara te mate o te Māori i ērā o tauiwi. Ki tā ngā whika i te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1935, 10 ngā tāngata Māori ka mate i te mate kohi mō ia tangata Pākehā kotahi. He ōrite ēnei whika i te tau 1947. I roto i taua wā, ko te mate kohi te kaipatu kino rawa i te Māori. Ahakoa te heke o te mate taipoi pīwa i te tau 1937, he nui tonu te whakamatemate o te Māori. He maha ake ngā tamariki Māori ka mate i ō tauiwi, ā, i te tau 1938, e waru te whakareatanga ake o te kaha o ngā mate nei i tō tauiwi.

Ngā mahi whanake hauora Māori

I te hanganga hou o te Tari Hauora i te tau 1920 whai muri i te urutā rewharewha o te tau 1918, ka whakahaerehia te wāhanga tikanga akuaku Māori e Te Rangi Hīroa me te tākuta Māori a Edward Ellison i muri mai.

I te tau 1931, ka whakakorehia te wāhanga Māori ā ka whakawaimehatia ki roto i ngā whakahaerenga o te wāhanga Pākehā. Nā Te Rangi Hīroa i whakaara ake anō ngā kaunihera Māori (ka whakaingoatia kē ko ngā kaunihera hauora Māori). Ka haere tonu ā rātou mahi ā tae noa ki te tau 1945.

Ngā ratonga hauora ā-kāwanatanga

Ka whawhai tonu te kaitōrangapū a Apirana Ngata mō te hauora Māori i ngā tau o te 1920 me ō 1930. Ā, mai i te tau 1923 ki te tau 1926 ko Māui Pōmare te minita hauora.

I te tekau tau 1930 ka kaha ake ngā whakaratonga kāwanatanga ki te hauora Māori. Ka whakahaerehia te hōtaka pēhi i te mate kohi ki te Tai Rāwhiti, ā, nō muri mai ka whakahaerehia ki ētahi atu rohe. Ka tukuna anō ngā rongoā ārai mate ki ngā rohe Māori me ngā kura. Nāwai ā ka memeha rawa te taipō.

Nō raro mai i te Ture Whare Māori i te tau 1935, ka tukuna ngā pūtea tārewa mō te hanganga o ngā whare Māori. Hāunga tērā nō muri mai i te Pakanga Tuarua kātahi ka whakatūtūhia te tokomaha o ēnei whare.

Ngā nēhi me ngā whānautanga hōhipera

Ka tokomaha ake ngā nēhi hauora Māori, ā, nā rātou i whakaū ngā whakaaro ārai mate ki ngā māmā me ngā tamariki. Ko te nuinga o ngā whaea Māori i whakawhānau mai ki te kāinga, ā, kia taka mai ki te tekau tau 1920 ka riro mā ngā nēhi me ngā hōhipera e mahi. Ka akiaki te Tari Hauora kia whakawhānau hōhipera mai hei whakaheke iho i ngā mate hunga ririki i waenganui i te iwi Māori. Nō te tau 1937, 17 ōrau te tokomaha o ngā whakawhānautanga kei roto hōhipera. Ka kake ake tēnei i te noho kore utu mai o ngā āwhinatanga ki ngā māmā i te tau 1939. Taka mai ki te tau 1947, haurua o ngā whakawhānautanga Māori kei ngā hōhipera.

Ngā hōhipera me te noho kūare

Kāre e kitea ana he taunaki pēnā i whakapaua he kaha ki te noho maru mai o Māori mā ki rō hōhipera i ngā tekau tau o te 1920 me te 1930. Hāunga tērā, ka nui ake ngā Māori i whakaae kia kuhu ki te hōhipera. Nā te utu kāre ētahi i tae. Heoi nō raro mai i te Ture Haumaru Hapori o te tau 1938, ka noho kore utu te haere ki te hōhipera i te tau 1939. Nā tēnei ture anō ka whakamanahia ngā painga hauora i te tau 1941. Nō konei ka wātea kau ake te haere ki te tākuta, heoi kāre i tino nui ngā tākuta ki ngā whārua Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Raeburn Lange, 'Te hauora Māori i mua - Te āta whanaketanga, 1920 ki te 1945', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-hauora-maori-i-mua/page-4 (accessed 22 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Raeburn Lange, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, reviewed & revised 4 Apr 2018