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Kōrero: Ngā heke i te Wai Nui

Ko ngā kaumoana tuatahi, tōmua rawa o te ao, i wehe atu i Āhia, kia heke ki Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Ko ō rātou waka, he waka mōkihi noa iho. Kia taka i ngā mano tau, ka hōpara whakaterāwhiti ō rātou uri, ko ngā whetū, ko ngā hau hei arataki i a rātou. Nā te aha i puta ai rātou i ēnei haerenga mōrearea? Nōnahea kitea tuatahitia ai e rātou a Aotearoa, te whenua momotu whakamutunga o te ao kia tūhuratia? He nui ngā māramatanga kua puta i ngā mahi radiocarbon (he tikanga pūtaiao hei whakarite pēhea te pakeke o tētahi mea) me ngā heke kua tauiratia ā-rorohikotia.

Story by Geoff Irwin
Te āhua nui: Ngā Matapaia o te iwi Lapita, ngā tīpuna o te Māori

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Te hōpara i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa

Ko Te Moana-nui-Kiwa te moana tuatahi rawa kia tūhuratia. Hāunga, ko ngā moutere o Aotearoa ngā wāhi whakamutunga o te ao i nōhia e te tangata. Ka pau ngā mano tau i te hekenga whakaterāwhiti o ngā tōpūtanga tāngata ki tēnei te wai nui, te wai roa, te wai pāmamao.

E rua ngā wā o ngā hekenga:

  • Ngā hekenga onamata: atu i 50,000 ki te 25,000 BC, ka heke ētahi tāngata o Āhia mā runga i ō rātou waka mōkihi, mā tēnā, mā tēnā moutere, kia tae ki Poronihia Tata (Ahitereiria, Papua Nūkini, Ngā Motu Horomona). Ko te kōhatu te taonga uara nui i roto i ā rātou tauhokohoko; ko ā rātou kai nō te moana, he tipu rānei.
  • Ngā hekenga i ngā mano tau nei: nō te 1200 BC ka pāmamao ake te hōpara whakaterāwhiti o ngā kaumoana nei ki Poronihia Tawhiti (ko Melanesia, ko Micronesia, ko Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa). Ko te rerekē o ngā haerenga i tēnei pito o te ao, he tawhiti rawa atu ngā moutere, tētahi i tētahi, me te mōhio anō o ngā kaumoana, e kore rātou mō te hoki whakamuri ki te haere rātou ki konei.

Tāngata Lapita

Ko ngā tāngata Lapita ngā mea tuatahi kia tae ki Poronihia Tawhiti. I waenganui i te 1200 me te 1000 BC kua tae kē rātou ki Poronihia ki te Uru (a Tonga, a Hāmoa, a hea atu). Ko ō rātou waka, kotahi anake te takere; ko ngā taonga o runga i ngā waka, he poaka, kurī, heihei, uhi (yam), panana. I hua ā rātou ake momo tārai uku (pottery), arā, he kanohi kua tāngia ki ngā mahinga.

Ngā kaumoana o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa

Kia tae ki te 3000 BC, kua hua te ahurea me ngā tikanga a ngā tāngata o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Ka haere ngā kaumoana matatau i runga i ō rātou waka taurua ki te hōpara whakaterāwhiti. Nā tō rātou mōhio ki te tātai whetū, tātai hau, i taea e rātou te hoki pai ki ō rātou ake moutere. Whai muri i a rātou, ko ngā tāngata whai ka haere ki te whakatū kāinga ki ngā moutere hōu tērā ka kitea. Nō ngā tau e 2000 ki muri tīmata ai te neke a te tangata ki Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti. Kia taka ki te 1000 AD kua tae kē ētahi ki Amerika ki te Tonga, kua hoki mai anō.

Aotearoa

Mā te pekepeke i ngā moutere ririki, ka tae ngā kaumoana tuatahi ki Aotearoa, engari kāore mō te noho. E ai ki ngā tohunga mātai whaipara tangata (archaeologists), nō te 1300 AD tae ai ngā tāngata whai tuatahi ki Aotearoa. (Kei reira ētahi taunakitanga e tohu ana, nō ngā rau tau e waru ki mua tae ai te kiore ki Aotearoa – engari ko te whakaaro, tērā pea i mate ngā tāngata nā rātou te kiore i kawe mai, i haere tonu atu rānei rātou).

Ko ngā tāngata tuatahi kia tae ki Aotearoa nō Hawaiki, kei Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti – te kāinga tūturu o te Māori. Nā rātou i mau mai te kurī, te taro, te kūmara. Makuru ana te tupu o ngā mea katoa. He rahi ngā manu kua mate atu, pēnei i te moa rāua ko te pouākai (Haast eagle).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Geoff Irwin, 'Ngā heke i te Wai Nui', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-heke-i-te-wai-nui (accessed 24 October 2017)

Story by Geoff Irwin, published 8 Feb 2005, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017