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Pacific migrations

by  Geoff Irwin

Ko ngā kaumoana tuatahi, tōmua rawa o te ao, i wehe atu i Āhia, kia heke ki Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Ko ō rātou waka, he waka mōkihi noa iho. Kia taka i ngā mano tau, ka hōpara whakaterāwhiti ō rātou uri, ko ngā whetū, ko ngā hau hei arataki i a rātou. Nā te aha i puta ai rātou i ēnei haerenga mōrearea? Nōnahea kitea tuatahitia ai e rātou a Aotearoa, te whenua momotu whakamutunga o te ao kia tūhuratia? He nui ngā māramatanga kua puta i ngā mahi radiocarbon (he tikanga pūtaiao hei whakarite pēhea te pakeke o tētahi mea) me ngā heke kua tauiratia ā-rorohikotia.


The world’s first seafarers

Ko Poronihia te moana tuatahi kia hoea, kia nōhia e te tangata. Ko ngā tāhū kōrero mōna e hāngai ana ki ngā heke. Ko Aotearoa te whenua pāmamao rawa; koia te whenua rahi whakamutunga kia taea e te tangata.

Me kī, e rua ngā momo heke.

Ngā heke tuauri: Āhia ki Poronihia Tata

Taea noatia te whai i ngā ara moana o ngā tāngata tuatahi i tae ki Poronihia mai i Āhia. Ko te tino oranga o ngā tāngata o te wā tūāuriuri whāioio (e 50,000–25,000 BC), ko te whai kararehe me te toro kai. I haere rātou mā runga mōkihi, ka marara ki ngā moutere rarahi o Āhia ki te Tonga mā Rāwhiti. Nāwai ā, ka tau rātou ki Ahitereiria me Papua Nūkini. I aua wā onamata he whenua kotahi a Ahitereiria rāua ko Papua Nūkini.

Ka tae rā anō ēnei iwi tawhito ki te rohe moana e kīia ai ko Melanesia, kei te pito tonga o Ngā Moutere Horomona. Kaha kē rā rātou ki te noho i ngā whenua rerekē rawa atu, mai i ngā moutere mahana, haumākū o te raki, ki ngā wāhi hukapapa o Tasmania i te tonga, atu i te takutai ki uta, mai i ngā ngahere haumākū ki te koraha.

Mōhiotia ai tēnei takiwā ko Poronihia Tata. Kei a ia ko Papua Nūkini, ko Ngā Moutere o Bismarck, Ngā Moutere o Admiralty, Ngā Moutere o Horomona.

Te Marei ki te Māori: te hononga o ngā reo

Ka ahu katoa mai ngā reo o Poronīhia i te momo reo o Austronesian. Koinei te reo i hōpara whānuitia i te ao – mai i te whenua o Madagascar tae rā anō ki Rapanui. Kei ngā reo o ngā moutere o Poronīhia Tata ahu atu ki ngā reo tawhito o ngā moutere o te taha tonga mā-rāwhiti o Āhia, rangona ai ngā kupu mō te waka, te rā me te hoe. I takea mai ngā kupu Māori o te waka me te rā, tae atu ki ngā kupu Malay a te wangka me te layar, i te pūtake kotahi.

Ngā heke o ngā wā tata: ki Poronihia Tawhiti

Kia tae ki te 1000 BC, ka tīmata te heke a te tangata ki Poronihia Tawhiti. Ko tēnei rohenga moana kei te rāwhiti me te tonga o Poronihia Tata, ko ngā takiwā ki roto, ko ngā moutere o Melanesia kei kō atu o Ngā Moutere Horomona, ko Micronesia, ko Poronihia. Ko te nuinga o ngā moutere o konei he ririki noa iho, he iti noa ngā rawa kai ka kitea, he tawhiti rawa hoki te haere mā runga mōkihi noa.

Hāunga tērā, i te matatau ngā tāngata heke ki ētahi mātauranga, ki te mahi kai hoki. Kīia ai rātou ko ngā tāngata Lapita. Kua taunga rātou ki te hoe i te moana uriuri. Whai muri i te roanga atu o ngā mano tau e ako ana rātou ki te tārai waka me te kau i te moana i Poronihia Tata, ka huri ngā kaumoana matatau ki te hura i te moana uriuri mā runga i ngā waka pai ake.

Ka rere whakaterāwhiti ngā waka nei, atu i ngā wai pārū ki Poronihia Tawhiti. Ko ngā utanga i runga i ō rātou waka ko ā ratou kararehe me ā rātou tipu, e whai oranga ai rātou i ō rātou kāinga hōu.

Te taenga ki Amerika ki te Tonga

Ka tae rā anō ngā kaumoana nei ki Amerika ki te Tonga. I tō rātou hokinga ki Poronihia Tawhiti, ka whakahokia e rātou te kūmara me tētahi momo hue. Nā ngā rangahautanga a ngā kaimātai pūtaiao i ētahi kūmara i te moutere o Mangaia i te Kuki Airani i tohu ki te mea, kua tae noa atu ngā kaumoana nei ki Amerika ki te Tonga i te tau e 1000 AD.

Te iwi Viking me ngā tāngata o Poronihia

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho o Tiorangi (Iceland), i tae ngā Viking o Greenland ki Labrador, ka nōhia te whenua o Newfoundland. He rite ngā āhuatanga i pā ki ngā Viking ki ērā ka pā ki ngā tāngata o Poronihia, inarā, i haere rātou i ō rātou rōpū iti ki te pito rā anō o te whenua, ka kite rātou i ētahi whenua nui kua nōhia kētia e te tangata. Kāore he tino nui ngā kerikeringa mātai whaipara tangata o ēnei rā hei whakamārama i ēnei haerenga a rātou.

Ki Aotearoa, ki Rēkohu (Wharekauri)

I te rau tau 1200, ka hoe ngā tīpuna ki Aotearoa, mā te tātai i ngā tohu huarere. Ko ēnei tāngata ngā tīpuna o ngā Māori o Aotearoa. I tēnei wā ka tae anō rātou ki ngā moutere tawhiti o Norfolk me Kermadec.

No muri rawa mai ka kitea e ngā Māori te moutere o Wharekauri (Rēkohu), e rua rau tau pea ki mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā.


Ancient voyaging in Near Oceania

Ngā tāngata o te wā tuauri

Neke atu i te kotahi miriona tau ki mua, ka whanake whakawaho te tangata tuauri a Homo erectus mai i Awherika tae rā anō ki te takutai moana o te taiwhenua o Āhia ki te Tonga mā Rāwhiti. Kua kitea ngā whao kōhatu neke atu i te 800,000 tau te tawhito ki te moutere o Flores, kei waenganui i ngā moutere o Java me Ahitereiria. Ka ara mai i ēnei taunaki te whakapae tērā pea i whakawhiti tēnei tangata tuauri i ngā wai whāiti kei ngā rārangi moutere o Lesser Sumba, kia tae atu a ia ki te moutere o Flores.

Nō te tau 2004 ka kitea tētahi taunaki hautipua, i te tūhura tuatahitanga o ngā kōiwi o Homo floresiensis ki te moutere o Flores. Kotahi mita noa iho te tāroa o te momo tangata. I kitea mai ngā kōiwi i te taha o ngā whao kōhatu, kōiwi o te Komodo dragon, me ērā o tētahi arewhana ririki kua ngaro, a te stegodon. I ora rawa tēnei momo tangata ki runga i te moutere, taka rawa mai ki ngā tau 18,000 ki mua. Nā reira tērā tonu pea i tūtakitaki a ia ki te momo tangata hōu o te Homo sapiens, i hōrapa i tērā takiwā i ngā tau 50,000 ki mua. Ko te āhua nei hei uri a Homo floresiensis mā te Homo erectus, i whai oranga ki runga i te moutere. E whakapaetia ana i pakupaku te hanga o te tangata nei nā te itiiti o ngā kai ki ngā ngahere, me te korekore o ngā kararehe mohoao. I whai oranga te iwi nei ki te moutere o Āhia ki te tonga mā-rāwhiti, engari nātemea kāore tō rātou tikanga whakaaro i tipu, kīhai rātou i taea te whanake ki roto i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Te whakawhiti i te moana

He rite ngā tāngata e noho ana i Poronihia Tata ki ērā e noho mai rā i Ūropi arā, kua tohunga kē rātou ki ngā mahi toi, kua whānui hoki tō rātou mōhio ki ngā reo. He waka anō ō ngā tāngata i Poronihia ki te uru. Ko te mea e rerekē ai te tāngata ki te kararehe, he pārekareka nōna ki ngā āhuatanga hōu, he kaha hoki nōna ki te tūhura i te wai, tūhura i te whenua, tūhura hoki i te ātea.

Mēnā kotahi anake te whakawhitinga moana e tae pai ai ngā tāngata mai i Āhia ki Poronihia Tata, kāore e kore, i roto i te tini o ngā whakatipuranga kua pahure, i taea e ētahi te whakawhiti. Engari, tekau kē ngā whakawhitinga o te moana e tae ai te tangata mai i Āhia ki Poronihia Tata; ko te mea roa rawa atu i ēnei whakawhitinga e 100 kiromita te tawhiti. Nā reira ko te titiro, he mea āta wānanga ngā haerenga nei, ehara i te haere tūpono noa.

Kāore tonu i te tino mārama mā hea rātou whakawhiti ai i te moana i te mea kāore anō kia kitea tētahi o ō rātou waka. I taua wā kāore anō kia auahatia ngā toki whakakōrua waka. Heoi, tipu ai te inanga (bamboo) nunui ki taua rohe, i mahia e ngā tāngata me ā rātou oka. Me rarahi tonu te hanga o ngā waka nei, i te mea kia ono rawa ngā wāhine me ō rātou hoa tāne kei runga e aha ai, e puea mai ai he iwi.

Te māwhitiwhiti moutere

Nā te āhua o te whakanoho o ngā moutere nui, i tū tētahi ‘ara heke’ mai i Āhia ki te pito o Ngā Moutere Horomona kei te takiwā o Poronihia Tata. Mārama te kitea o ēnei moutere, tētahi i tētahi. He āwhina nui tō te hauātiu (north west) me te haupitonga (south east) mō ngā haerenga atu me ngā hokinga mai i te ‘ara heke’ nei.

I a rātou ka heke, ka tauhokohoko rātou i ngā momo kōhatu kura, ka whai kararehe hoki rātou hei kai. Ka kite rātou i te rite o ngā kai moana me ngā tipu pai hei kai i tēnā, i tēnā moutere. Hāunga, i te rāwhiti i tua atu i Papua Nūkini, ruarua noa iho ngā kararehe. Kei reira ētahi tohu e mea ana i kawea ētahi momo kangarū (kangaroo) i Papua Nūkini ki ētahi moutere noho tata, hei kai. Ko ēnei whanaketanga katoa kei te tohu ki te pakari haere o te iwi nei – inarā kua tahuri rātou ki te kawe i ngā kai, taonga e ora ai rātou; i ngā wā o mua, ka hūnuku kē rātou ki wāhi kē ki te tiki i aua kai, i aua taonga.

Kia tae ki te e 25000 tau ki muri kua oti tēnei wāhanga o te whakatangatawhenua i a Poronihia. Ka noho a Poronihia ki te uru hei wāhi whakaako i ngā kaumoana me ngā kaiurungi. I te mahana haere o te ao e 10,000 tau ki muri, ka tini ngā tāngata, ka whakahiatotia ngā tikanga whakatipu kai, ka rerekē te whakahuihui, whakatōpū a ngā tāngata i a rātou anō. Ka tīmata tā rātou whakanoho i a Poronihia Tawhiti.


Into Remote Oceania: Lapita people

I te wā e 1500 BC ka puta tētahi iwi ka mōhiotia ko Lapita (he uri nō ngā tāngata o Poronihia, tae rawa ki te Māori) ki Ngā Moutere o Bismarck, i Poronihia Tata. Ka moe rātou ki ngā iwi kei Ngā Moutere o Bismarck. E ai ki ngā tātaritanga DNA, i ahu mai rātou i ngā moutere o Āhia ki te Tonga mā Rāwhiti: i tohu ētahi ketuketunga mātai whaipara tangata (archaeological digs) i ngā moutere o Moluccas i Indonesia ki te whakawhanaungatanga tata ki waenganui i a rātou me ngā tāngata Lapita.

He rite te āhua o ngā matapaia (pottery) a te iwi Lapita ki ērā o ō rātou tīpuna. Ko te mea rerekē, ko ngā whakanikoniko ki ngā matapaia i hua ake i Ngā Moutere o Bismarck. Ko ngā tauira nei he rite ki te kanohi o te tangata. I te wā tōmua o te heke a ngā Lapita, tino ataahua ngā tauira nei, kāore e kore he nui te tikanga mō ēnei. Mōhiotia ai ēnei tikanga ahurei ko te ‘tikanga Lapita’.

Lapita i Poronihia Tawhiti

Ko ngā tāngata Lapita te iwi tuatahi kia hou ki Poronihia Tawhiti. I waenganui i te 1200 BC me te 1000 BC i kapi e rātou ngā moutere mai i Melanesia ki Whītī, ahu whakateuru ana ki Tonga me Hāmoa. I roto i ngā whakatipuranga e 5–10 ka haerehia ngā pito whakateuru o Poronihia. Ko te āhua o tā rātou hura i te moana, he whakarōpū i a rātou ki ētahi rōpū iti kia tere ai te neke i te moana uriuri.

I te heketanga o ngā tāngata Lapita mai i Poronihia Tata, ka mahue te mate malaria ki muri. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka rahi ake ngā pēpi tērā ka whānau mai. Ka whakatūria ētahi kāinga tūturu ki tēnā, ki tēnā moutere. Ko ētahi tāngata ka noho mai, ko etahi ka neke tonu, hāunga tērā, ka tūtakitaki tonu ngā hapori i tēnā, i tēnā moutere. Ehara i te mea nā te kōpā o te noho rātou i heke ai, i te mea he nui te whenua e wātea ana ki a rātou. Tērā pea nā te hiahia kia nui ake te mana o te tangata me te rapu he aha atu ngā moutere kei tua i te pae o te rangi ngā tino take i hōpara ai tēnei iwi i te moana uriuri.

I noho te iwi Lapita ki ō rātou kāinga i ngā moutere ririki e tata ana ki ngā moutere āhua rahi ake, i te takutai moana ranei i ngā moutere rahi. Ko ētahi i whakatū whare i runga pou i runga i te wai. Kāore i nōhia e rātou ngā moutere paku iho i te e 1000 sq km – tērā pea nā te āhua o te taiao, nā runga rānei i ā rātou tikanga.

I a rātou ka peke i tētahi moutere ki tētahi, ka kawea e rātou ā rātou tipu kai pēnei i te taro, te uwhi (yam), te kuru (breadfruit), te panana me te niu. I tua atu, kawea ai e rātou he kurī, poaka, heihei hoki. I kawea maitia rānei te kiore (Rattus exulans), i haere huna mai rānei mā i runga i ngā waka. Nā te kore tūhura i ngā taunaki o ngā kararehe mōkai ki ngā nōhanga o te iwi Lapita ki Whītī me te taha uru o Poronīhia, e whakapae ana ētahi kairangahau, he iwi whakangau kai kē ngā Lapita tuatahi kia tae ki ēnei moutere, ā, ehara i te iwi ngaki māra. Nō muri mai pea ka tae mai ētahi atu tipu, kai hoki.

I mau e ngā tauhōu nei te maha o ngā kaimoana mā te kupenga, te matarau, te matau. I ngā tau tōmua, i te wā e whakatū ana ngā tauhōu i a rātou ki ngā moutere hōu, i ora ai rātou i te nui o ngā manu me ngā kararehe. He maha ngā momo pēnei i ngā manu nui kore rere, tētahi momo kumi ihuroa (crocodile) me ētahi mokomoko nui i kainga katoatia e ngā tauhōu ā, ngaro katoa.

I kuhu te iwi Lapita ki te taha uru o Poronīhia. He roa te wā kātahi anō rātou ka neke ki ngā moutere ririki kei te pito whakaterāwhiti.


From West to East Polynesia

Te pueanga ake o te ahurea o Poronihia ki te Uru

E 3000 tau ki muri (1000 BC) ka kitea te pueanga ake o te ahurea me te reo o Poronihia i te taha uru o te moana. Ka huri haere ngā matapaia Lapita kia hua ake ko ngā matapaia noa o ngā tīpuna o ngā Māori. Arā anō ngā rereketanga e pā ana ki ngā mea hōu me te āhua o tā rātou noho.

Te takoto o ngā moutere me ngā heke

E rua ngā momo moutere kei Poronihia: ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi (continental) me ngā moutere aumoana (oceanic). Takoto ai ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi ki Poronihia ki te uru, ko ngā moutere aumoana takoto ai ki Poronihia ki te rāwhiti. Ki te tirohia ngā mahere whenua, ka kitea tētahi rārangi ko te Andesite Line, e wehe ana i ngā momo moutere nei. Ko ngā moutere aumoana kei te taha rāwhiti o te rāina nei.

Ko ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi, koia nei ngā toenga o ngā whenua rahi kua toremi ki te takere o te moana. He kanorau ngā momo kōhatu, he mōmona ake te whenua, he pai ake hei kāinga noho mō te wā roa.

Ko ngā moutere aumoana, ko ērā ngā taumata o ngā maunga puia. He moutere ikeike rānei, he moutere pāpaku rānei, he moutere roke kanae (atoll) rānei ēnei moutere. Nā te iti o ngā momo kōhatu, ngā oneone me ngā rawa, he uaua ka tū he kāinga ki ēnei moutere.

I te wā ka tīmata ngā tāngata o Poronihia ki te heke whakaterāwhiti, ka nōhia tuatahitia e rātou ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi. Ko ēnei moutere ko ngā moutere katoa o Āhia ki te Tonga mā Rāwhiti, Ahitereiria, Melanesia, ngā moutere kei te pito uru o Micronesia (a Palau, a Yap, ngā Marianas hoki) me Poronihia (a Tonga, a Futuna, a Uvea).

Kia tae ki te e 1500BC kua nōhia kētia a Micronesia ki te Uru – me kī i te wā i nōhia e ngā tāngata Lapita Ngā Moutere o Bismarck. I te wā 1200–1000 BC ka nōhia a Melanesia rāua ko Poronihia ki te Uru e ngā tauhōu. I nōhia a Hāmoa i tēnei wā tonu, e tata ana hoki ki Whītī me Tonga.

Kia hipa rā anō te e 1000 tau kātahi anō ka nōhia e te tangata a Micronesia ki te rāwhiti rāua ko Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti.

Te heke ki Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti

Nā ngā rangahautanga pūtaiao i tohu ki te mea, kāore he tangata i Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti mō te e 1000 tau i muri mai i te taenga o ngā tāngata Lapita ki Poronihia ki te Uru. Heoi, i te takiwā o te tau 0 AD, ka tīmata te horapa o te tangata ki ngā moutere o Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti; ko ngā moutere tata i nōhia tuatahitia. Kei te tohea tonu te wā i nōhia tuatahitia ai Ngā Moutere o Kuki ki te Tonga me Ngā Moutere o Tahiti. Ko te āhua nei, kia tae ki te tau e 700 AD, kua nōhia katoatia a Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti. Hāunga, e tohu ana ngā kōrero ki te mea nō mua noa atu i tēnei wā ka nōhia te moutere o Te Pito o te Henua (Rapa Nui, Easter Island).

Te āhua o te whakanoho

I tua atu i te tūpuhi o ngā moutere aumoana i te rāwhiti, arā atu anō pea ētahi whakamāramatanga mō te take i roa te wā kātahi anō ka tīmata te heke a ngā tāngata ki Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti.

Tērā pea kia nui rā anō ngā pūkenga, ngā mōhiotanga, kātahi anō ka taea te whakawhiti moana uriuri. Kāore pea tēnei i te tika, i te mea kāore he rerekētanga o ngā hau, o ngā rangi i te uru ki ērā kei te rāwhiti o Poronihia. Ko tētahi anō titiro, tērā pea i nōhia ngā moutere o te rāwhiti i tēnei wā, i te mea kei ētahi o aua moutere ngā tohu ki te mea i reira te tangata – ngā ngahere i whakawāteatia, te kaha horo o te whenua ki ētahi atu wāhi. Waihoki, kāore i te mōhiotia mēnā nā te tangata ēnei mahi, nā te aha kē rānei.

He tawhiti atu, he pāmamao atu te tū o ngā moutere aumoana ki ērā ngā moutere pūkawa raurarahi. Ki te haere whakaterāwhiti koe, ka nui haere te moana, ka iti haere te whenua tērā ka kitea. Ahakoa te mea he tata atu ētahi o ngā moutere aumoana pēnei i ngā moutere o Rarotonga hei kāinga noho, tērā pea nā te uaua o te whai oranga ki aua moutere kāore i nōhia mō tētahi wā roa. Ahakoa te iti o te kai me te rawa ki ēnei moutere, ka haere tonu ngā hurahanga.

Ko ngā tāngata o Poronihia ngā uri whakaheke o te iwi Lapita; i taea e rātou ngā mātauranga e ora ai te noho ki ngā moutere pāmamao. I kaha anō rātou ki te hoehoe i ngā moutere kia kitekite i a rātou anō.

I tūhuratia te taha rāwhiti o Poronīhia e ngā iwi o te taha uru o Poronīhia, ā, nā whai anō, nā ngā iwi o te taha rāwhiti o Poronīhia, i tūhura i a Aotearoa. I whanake tēnei iwi, ā, e mōhiotia ana rātou ko te Māori. Ko Hawaiki te kāinga tawhito o te Māori, kei te taha rāwhiti o Poronīhia.


Pacific navigation and exploration

Ngā ariā tōmua

Kāore he mahere whenua, he kāpehu rānei hei awhi i ngā kaihōpara tuatahi ki tēnei pito o te ao. Nā runga i tēnei āhuatanga kua roa te wā e tautohetohe ana te hunga eke moana rātou ko ngā pūkenga mō te āhua o te whakanoho i te rohe nei. Kōrero ai ngā ariā tōmua mō ngā kaumoana rongonui nā rātou ngā whenua hōu i tūhura i mua i tā rātou hokinga ki ngā moutere; me ngā haerenga tūponotanga mai o ērā te hunga i pūhia ō rātou waka kia wehe i ō rātou ake moutere kia tau ki ngā moutere tauhōu, kore mō te hoki. Hei whakawhīwhīwhi ake anō i te tautohe nei, arā te kōrero e mea ana, i haere kē mai rātou i Amerika ki te Tonga, he ariā tēnei i taunakitia e ētahi pūkenga o te rau tau 1800 ā, i whakatairangatia e te mātai whaipara tangata (archaeologist), e Thor Heyerdahl.

Ngā ariā o ēnei tau tata

Kei te mōhio tātou ināianei, he mea āta wānanga ēnei heke a rātou mā i te mea, heria mai ai ko ngā tāngata, ngā tipu, ngā kararehe e tupu ai te pā harakeke i roto i ngā whakatupuranga. He maha ngā hekenga o ēnei rā i whai i ngā ara moana o rātou mā i haere tuatahi mai ki ēnei motu. I whakamahia ngā rorohiko hei whakamātau ko hea ngā ara tika, i runga i te pupuhi o ngā hau me te ia o te moana. I tohu ngā putanga o ngā rangahau ki te mea i āta wānangatia e ngā kauhoe tuatahi ki Aotearoa ā rātou haerenga, ehara i te mea nā te au o te moana rātou i pae noa ki Aotearoa.

Te haerenga atu me te hokinga mai

Kotahi anake te huarahi i haere ai ngā kaumoana Lapita, arā, whakatetonga mā rāwhiti, ki te ihu tonu o te haupāuma (head wind). Nōhia katoahia ai e te iwi Lapita ngā huinga moutere katoa o Melanesia me Poronihia ki te tonga e takoto whakatetonga mā rāwhiti ana. Kāore e kitea ēnei tūmomo nohoanga ki ētahi atu moutere.

Ahakoa koia te haerenga uaua rawa atu, he mārama te take i hoe ai ngā kaumoana Lapita ki te ihu tonu o te haupāuma. I mōhio rātou, ki te ahu pērā rātou i ā rātou hōparatanga, ki te raru tā rātou haere, he ngāwari te huri i te ihu o te waka ka hoe ki te kāinga. Haere ai rātou i te raumati me te takurua. I a rātou ka haere, ka ahu rātou ki te rāwhiti. Ina huri ana te hau kia tonga-mā-rāwhiti anō, kua huri ō rātou waka ki te wā kāinga.

Ko tā ngā kaumoana tuatahi, ko tā rātou rautaki, he haere ki te hōpara haere ā, ka hoki ki te kāinga. Ka noho ngā moutere kua nōhia kētia e te tangata hei kupenga hopu i a rātou e hoki atu ana i ā rātou nā hōparatanga.

Āta haere, ko te mea nui, kia ora

E ora ai ia, ka tahuri te kaumoana ki te raupapa i te āhua o tana hōpara, ka whakamahi ia i ngā rautaki maha ina:

  • te tūmū, inarā te hoe ki te ihu o te hau – koinei ngā hekenga tuatahitanga, te hōpara ā, ka hoki mai, e kitea ai mehemea he moutere kei te taha noho tuwhera o ō rātou ake moutere.
  • te mawhiti hau (across the wind) – ina kitea e rātou tētahi moutere rerekē, kua pai tā rātou mawhiti hau i runga i te mōhio, i te haumaru; kua mōhio rātou ina hōpara rātou ki tua, ki te raru rātou, anei ngā moutere nei hei taunga mō rātou.
  • te rere hau – mō muri mai tēnei momo kauhoe. Ki te haere koe i te rere hau, ko tōna tikanga me hoki mai koe mā tētahi huarahi kē. Nā, kia kitea rawatia ngā moutere takawaenga kātahi anō ka tareka ai ēnei haerenga. He tohu te haere i te rerehau ki te mea, i mārama ngā kaumoana nei ki ngā tohu o ngā hau, te marangai, ngā ngaru, te aha noa atu.

Te whakapae mō te āhuarangi El Niño

Heke iho i te 5,000 tau ki mua, ka kaha ake ngā āhuarangi o te El Niño. Ka tū ēnei āhuarangi i te mahanatanga haere o ngā wai pārū o te taha rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nō konei kua mate te hau pitonga, kua ara mai ngā hau o te uru. Tērā pea nā te āhuarangi El Niño i kawe i ngā waka ki runga i ngā haerenga roa ki te rāwhiti. E whakapae ana ētahi kairangahau nā ngā hau o te El Niño i pupuhi mai i te tangata ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ki tā rātou he nui whakaharahara ngā hau o te El Niño mō te hekenga mai ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, me te aha, i taea noa ngā waka te rere i runga i te hau. Heoi he rerekē ngā whakamārama o ngā kaihōpara Pākehā tuatahi kia kite i ngā waka o Poronīhia – i kite rātou i ngā waka tere e whakawhiti ana i te hau, e rere tūmū ana hoki.


East to the empty Pacific

Ko ngā kauhoetanga whakamutunga i ahu ki ngā wāhi pāmamao rawa o Poronihia – a Hawaii, a Te Pito-o-te-henua, a Aotearoa, tae rawa ki Amerika ki te Tonga.

Ko te pito rāwhiti o Poronihia, tata kore nei ōna tāngata, ko ngā moutere ririki noa anake ngā maramara whenua tērā ka kitea. He tahora nui te moana me hōpara e kitea ai ngā moutere kāore anō kia tūhuratia. Tērā tonu pea kāore e kitea he moutere e te kaumoana, tērā tonu pea kāore e tūhuratia he whenua hōu. Kāore he hua i te tuku waka heke e waha ana i ngā tāngata, ā rātou tipu, ā rātou kararehe. Ko te whakapae, ko ngā kaihōpara ngā tāngata i haere tuatahi. Oti ana tā rātou tūhura i te whenua hōu, kua hoki ki ō rātou ake moutere, hei muri mai kua whai ko ngā kaumoana heke i ō rātou tapuwae, kua mōhio hoki rātou e haere ana rātou ki whea.

Ka tawhiti atu tāu haere whakaterāwhiti i Poronihia, ka uaua atu te hoe i runga i te mōhio. Nāwai ā, ka ako ngā kaumoana me pēhea te hoe i tēnei pito o te moana. Tohu ai ngā tauira rorohiko ki te mea i whai ngā kaumoana e hoki whakateuru ana ki te kauhoe ahopae (latitude sailing). Whakamahia ai e ngā kaumoana e hoki whakateuru ana ko ngā whetū kōmata (kei tōna tūhoehoetanga, e iri ana taua momo whetū kei runga i ētahi moutere kei te mōhiotia) e tae ai rātou ki te ahopae o te wāhi e rapu nei rātou i te wā kei runga ake tonu rātou i te hau. Mai i reira ka rere hau kia tae ki taua moutere.

I ngā hoenga onamata atu i te manawa o Poronihia ki ōna pito tawhito, ko te tikanga o te heke, he haere atu, he hoki mai – nā ngā hau ka aukati i te hokinga tika atu o te kaumoana ki tōna ake kāinga; tūtū kē rātou ki tēnā, ki tēnā moutere, wānangatia rāneitia ngā tohu a Tawhirimatea.

Ki te tonga, ki Aotearoa

He wāhi uaua a Aotearoa kia haerea e te kaumoana, i te mea ko ngā hau ka pā ki a ia, kei te taha tonga rawa o te kōpae pokapū (tropics). He huarahi māmā e tae koe ki Aotearoa, ko te hoe rere i te hau rāwhiti kei runga; ko te wā tika mō tēnei haerenga ko ngā rā tōmua o te raumati, i mua i te karawhiu o ngā hau pūkeri nui. I takahia tēnei ara e ētahi waka e rua, a Hōkūle‘a rāua ko Hawaiki nui i te marama o Nōema i te tau 1985.

Ko tētahi anō rautaki ko te haere mai i ngā hau raki, ki te pito whakamua rā anō o te frontal system e tata mai ana, ki muri rānei i te high pressure system. Kotahi wā i te wiki ka pēnei te āhua o ngā rangi.

Tērā pea i whāia e ngā kaumoana ngā manu e heke ana, hei tā ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori. Hei te marama o Oketopa heke ai te koekoeā i Porinihia ki Aotearoa, hei te marama o Hepetema heke ai te hākoakoa. Mā reira mōhiotia ai ehara, he whenua kei kō atu, engari kāore tonu i te mōhiotia pēhea tōna tawhiti. Ko ngā taunga tuatahitanga tērā tonu pea i nga tai o te tokerau, nō muri huraina ai te motu whānui.

Ngā moutere ki Wharekauri (Rēkohu)

He Māori mai i Aotearoa ngā tāngata i tae tuatahi ki Wharekauri. Me kī, ko Wharekauri te pito rawa o ngā kaunga moana a ngā tīpuna onamata; me uaua ka tae koe ki reira, nā ngā hau ā-uru e kore koe e whakahokia mai ki te hipa koe i a Wharekauri. Nā reira ko Wharekauri te moutere mutunga rawa o ngā moutere o Poronihia kia huraina (i te tau 1350), no muri noa mai i te tūhuratanga o Amerika ki te Tonga (i mua i te tau 1000).

Te papatairitenga moana, me tōna pānga ki ngā hekenga i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

I ngā tau 10,000 ki mua, nā te mahanatanga haere o te āhuarangi o te ao, ka koero ngā kōpaka o ngā tiri o te moana. Nō konei ka kake te papatairitenga moana ki runga. 6,000 tau ki mua, kua tae rawa te papatairitenga moana ki tōna taumata, ā, he torutoru ngā mita te roa ake i te papatairitenga moana o ēnei rā. Heke iho i ngā mano tau, ka paheke haere te papatairitenga moana. He maha ngā rau tau ka pahure kātahi ka tipu he whenua ki runga i ngā pūkawa roke kanae e puea mai ana. Nō te hekenga o te wai o te moana ki ngā motu teitei, kua hangaa ngā papatahi taha moana, pai mō te noho. Nō mua tata nei ka tūhuratia i ngā rangahau tātai arowhenua ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, nō te wā i paheke te papatairitenga o te moana, kua tīmata anō ngā hōparatanga ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa: nō te hekenga o te mata o te wai, kua maha ake ngā moutere hei noho, ā, kua puea mai ngā whenua hōu ki ngā moutere i te nōhia.


Māori ancestors

He kāinga mō te Māori

I te wā i nōhia a Aotearoa, tērā tētahi pūnaha tauhokohoko, tūhura i te tū ki Poronihia ki te rāwhiti. He whakawhitiwhiti kōrero, tikanga ētahi o ngā kaupapa. E tohu ana ngā taunakitanga katoa – ngā taonga i mahue mai, ngā hononga i waenganui i ngā reo, ngā mātauranga koiora, ngā tāhū kōrero – ki te mea ko Poronihia ki te rāwhiti te kāinga tūturu o te Māori. Ko ngā moutere o tēnei takiwā ko Ngā Moutere Society, he wāhanga o ngā moutere e kīia ai ko French Polynesia, ko ngā moutere whakatetonga o ngā Kuki Airani, ko ngā moutere o Austral, he wāhanga anō o French Polynesia.

Iti noa ngā taunakitanga mātai whaipara tangata. I kitea ki Tairua i Moehau (Coromandel) tētahi kauawhi i mahia mai i te anga o tētahi momo peara (pearl) i heria mai i Poronihia; koinei tētahi o ngā taputapu ruarua kua kitea i tētahi ketunga mātai whaipara tangata i Aotearoa.

Ehara i te mea i puta te Māori i te kāinga kotahi. E tohu ana ngā taunakitanga DNA o te kiore ki te mea he whakapapa tō te kiore ki Ngā Moutere o Society me Kuki Airani. He tohu tēnei ki te mea i haere mai ngā waka i ngā wāhi maha. Tērā i heke rātou ki Aotearoa i roto i ngā whakatipuranga, i roto i ngā rau tau. E ai ki ngā rangahautanga mō te DNA o te tangata, kāore i raro iho i te e 70–100 ngā tīpuna wāhine taketake. Nā reira, ehara i te mea i heke rātou i te waka kotahi, i haere mai rānei rātou i te wāhi kotahi.

Ngā hokinga

I te wā e hokihoki ana ngā waka ki Poronihia, i nōhia ngā moutere o Kermadec me Norfolk, he wāhi peka ēnei mō rātou. He taunakitanga anō e kī ana i kaha te haerea o te ara moana i waenganui i a Norfolk me Aotearoa. Heoi, ka taka ki te wā, ka kore te hokihoki ki Poronihia, ka mahue, ka motuhake ngā moutere nei. Ka noho ēnei moutere pēnei i a Kermadec, i a Norfolk hei moutere rerekē, i te mea ina tae te Pākehā ki aua moutere, ka kite rātou i ngā tohu i noho te tangata ki ērā moutere, engari kāore he tangata. I te korenga o tā rātou hokihoki ki ō rātou kāinga tūturu, ka motu te hononga a ngā tīpuna Māori ki te ao whānui.

He whenua hātai

I te taenga o ngā tīpuna o te Māori ki Aotearoa, ka kite rātou i tētahi huinga moutere whānui, mātao, e tipuria ana e te rākau, e ora ana te manu. Inā ngā momo moa (te taumaha atu i 20 kg ki te e 250 kg), ngā manu kua kore e kitea i ēnei rā, pēnei i te pouwa (swan), tētahi momo kuihi (goose), te ēkara Haast (Haast eagle) – tērā tonu pea ko te tino kai a tēnei manu ko te moa. He tino maha ngā whakangote (mammal) o te moana i te taunga o te Māori ki Aotearoa, ko te kēkeno tonu tētahi. Mātotoru te ika me te mātaitai.

Nā ngā tīpuna o te Māori te kurī me te kiore i mau ki Aotearoa. Mēnā i heria maitia te poaka me te heihei i runga i ngā waka, kāore i ora. I kawe mai anō e rātou te taro, te uwhikāho (yam), te aute me te tī kouka. I tae te kūmara me te hue ki Aotearoa mai i Amerika ki te Tonga mā Poronihia ki te Rāwhiti. Makariri rawa a Aotearoa, e kore e tipu te kōkōnati, te kuru (breadfruit), te panana.


Why explore?

Ahakoa te mea ka taea e ngā rangahautanga te tohu i pēhea te whakanoho o te tangata ki Poronihia, he uaua ake te rapu nā te aha rātou i tau ai.

Ngā take mō te noho

Ko ētahi o ngā take kua kōrerotia mō te heke, ko te tauhokohoko, ko te hiahia o ngā teina kia tū motuhake ō rātou mana ki whenua hōu.

Ko tētahi anō take ko te whāiti o te noho ki ngā moutere tūturu nā te tini o te tangata. Hāunga, ehara ko tēnei te take nui i neke ai rātou. I te wā o ngā Lapita, ruarua noa ngā tāngata. Kia tae rā anō ki te wā o muri mai, ki te wā e roa kē te tangata ki ngā moutere, i te wā i mua i te nekehanga ki Aotearoa, ka puta ngā kōrero mō ngā tāngata i panaia, mō te nui rawa o te taupori, mō ngā whawhai hoki. Ko te kōrero nui, ehara i te mea i tūpono noa te tae a ngā tīpuna ki ngā moutere hōu, he mea āta wānanga kē e rātou.

Ka kauhoe i te moana – anō

Atu i te tau e 1000 AD ki te taenga o ngā Pākehā tuatahi, ka kore haere ngā heke tawhiti. Iti noa ngā rohe moana i pūmau tonu ai ngā mātauranga mō te kau i te moana uriuri pērā i ngā tīpuna. Ko ngā moutere nei ko Ngā Moutere Society, Ngā Moutere o Tuamotu ki te taha uru, a Micronesia, a Whītī, a Hāmoa, a Tonga.

Heoi, i roto i ngā tekau tau tata kua pahure, kua kaha anō te hiahia a te tini ki ngā mātauranga kaumoana, ā, kua hoea anōtia ngā ara moana e ngā waka pērā i ō ngā tīpuna.

Ko tētahi anō take i neke rātou, ko te iti haere o ngā rawa. Kei ngā moutere hōu ko te nui rawa atu o te manu rere moana, te ika, te honu, te maha noa atu o ngā kararehe. Ka hipa te wā, ka pau haere ēnei rawa, ka mate ā-moa rānei, kua aro ngā tāngata kia neke anō. Engari, ko te mea kē, ehara ko tēnei te āhua noho o ērā tāngata, he mōhio rātou ki te whakatipu kai.

Te wairua hōpara

Tērā pea i hiahia noa ngā tāngata tuatahi ka tau ki Poronihia kia haere kia kite wāhi hōu. He koronga tēnei nō te tangata, mai anō, mai anō – te tūhura, te rapu mō te mana te take, te manenetanga, te aru i ngā wāhi hōu, te hiahia mōhio he aha kei tua o te pae o te rangi. Ko tētahi anō āhua o te tangata mai anō i tōna pueanga ake ki te ao i ngā tau kotahi miriona ki muri, ko te whakamahi, ko te whakamātautau i ngā hangarau.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Geoff Irwin, 'Ngā heke i te Wai Nui', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-heke-i-te-wai-nui/print (accessed 20 June 2019)

Story by Geoff Irwin, published 8 Feb 2005, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017