Kōrero: Ngā heke i te Wai Nui

Whārangi 2. Ngā heke tuauri ki Poronihia Tata

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā tāngata o te wā tuauri

Neke atu i te kotahi miriona tau ki mua, ka whanake whakawaho te tangata tuauri a Homo erectus mai i Awherika tae rā anō ki te takutai moana o te taiwhenua o Āhia ki te Tonga mā Rāwhiti. Kua kitea ngā whao kōhatu neke atu i te 800,000 tau te tawhito ki te moutere o Flores, kei waenganui i ngā moutere o Java me Ahitereiria. Ka ara mai i ēnei taunaki te whakapae tērā pea i whakawhiti tēnei tangata tuauri i ngā wai whāiti kei ngā rārangi moutere o Lesser Sumba, kia tae atu a ia ki te moutere o Flores.

Nō te tau 2004 ka kitea tētahi taunaki hautipua, i te tūhura tuatahitanga o ngā kōiwi o Homo floresiensis ki te moutere o Flores. Kotahi mita noa iho te tāroa o te momo tangata. I kitea mai ngā kōiwi i te taha o ngā whao kōhatu, kōiwi o te Komodo dragon, me ērā o tētahi arewhana ririki kua ngaro, a te stegodon. I ora rawa tēnei momo tangata ki runga i te moutere, taka rawa mai ki ngā tau 18,000 ki mua. Nā reira tērā tonu pea i tūtakitaki a ia ki te momo tangata hōu o te Homo sapiens, i hōrapa i tērā takiwā i ngā tau 50,000 ki mua. Ko te āhua nei hei uri a Homo floresiensis mā te Homo erectus, i whai oranga ki runga i te moutere. E whakapaetia ana i pakupaku te hanga o te tangata nei nā te itiiti o ngā kai ki ngā ngahere, me te korekore o ngā kararehe mohoao. I whai oranga te iwi nei ki te moutere o Āhia ki te tonga mā-rāwhiti, engari nātemea kāore tō rātou tikanga whakaaro i tipu, kīhai rātou i taea te whanake ki roto i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Te whakawhiti i te moana

He rite ngā tāngata e noho ana i Poronihia Tata ki ērā e noho mai rā i Ūropi arā, kua tohunga kē rātou ki ngā mahi toi, kua whānui hoki tō rātou mōhio ki ngā reo. He waka anō ō ngā tāngata i Poronihia ki te uru. Ko te mea e rerekē ai te tāngata ki te kararehe, he pārekareka nōna ki ngā āhuatanga hōu, he kaha hoki nōna ki te tūhura i te wai, tūhura i te whenua, tūhura hoki i te ātea.

Mēnā kotahi anake te whakawhitinga moana e tae pai ai ngā tāngata mai i Āhia ki Poronihia Tata, kāore e kore, i roto i te tini o ngā whakatipuranga kua pahure, i taea e ētahi te whakawhiti. Engari, tekau kē ngā whakawhitinga o te moana e tae ai te tangata mai i Āhia ki Poronihia Tata; ko te mea roa rawa atu i ēnei whakawhitinga e 100 kiromita te tawhiti. Nā reira ko te titiro, he mea āta wānanga ngā haerenga nei, ehara i te haere tūpono noa.

Kāore tonu i te tino mārama mā hea rātou whakawhiti ai i te moana i te mea kāore anō kia kitea tētahi o ō rātou waka. I taua wā kāore anō kia auahatia ngā toki whakakōrua waka. Heoi, tipu ai te inanga (bamboo) nunui ki taua rohe, i mahia e ngā tāngata me ā rātou oka. Me rarahi tonu te hanga o ngā waka nei, i te mea kia ono rawa ngā wāhine me ō rātou hoa tāne kei runga e aha ai, e puea mai ai he iwi.

Te māwhitiwhiti moutere

Nā te āhua o te whakanoho o ngā moutere nui, i tū tētahi ‘ara heke’ mai i Āhia ki te pito o Ngā Moutere Horomona kei te takiwā o Poronihia Tata. Mārama te kitea o ēnei moutere, tētahi i tētahi. He āwhina nui tō te hauātiu (north west) me te haupitonga (south east) mō ngā haerenga atu me ngā hokinga mai i te ‘ara heke’ nei.

I a rātou ka heke, ka tauhokohoko rātou i ngā momo kōhatu kura, ka whai kararehe hoki rātou hei kai. Ka kite rātou i te rite o ngā kai moana me ngā tipu pai hei kai i tēnā, i tēnā moutere. Hāunga, i te rāwhiti i tua atu i Papua Nūkini, ruarua noa iho ngā kararehe. Kei reira ētahi tohu e mea ana i kawea ētahi momo kangarū (kangaroo) i Papua Nūkini ki ētahi moutere noho tata, hei kai. Ko ēnei whanaketanga katoa kei te tohu ki te pakari haere o te iwi nei – inarā kua tahuri rātou ki te kawe i ngā kai, taonga e ora ai rātou; i ngā wā o mua, ka hūnuku kē rātou ki wāhi kē ki te tiki i aua kai, i aua taonga.

Kia tae ki te e 25000 tau ki muri kua oti tēnei wāhanga o te whakatangatawhenua i a Poronihia. Ka noho a Poronihia ki te uru hei wāhi whakaako i ngā kaumoana me ngā kaiurungi. I te mahana haere o te ao e 10,000 tau ki muri, ka tini ngā tāngata, ka whakahiatotia ngā tikanga whakatipu kai, ka rerekē te whakahuihui, whakatōpū a ngā tāngata i a rātou anō. Ka tīmata tā rātou whakanoho i a Poronihia Tawhiti.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Geoff Irwin, 'Ngā heke i te Wai Nui - Ngā heke tuauri ki Poronihia Tata', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-heke-i-te-wai-nui/page-2 (accessed 28 June 2019)

Story by Geoff Irwin, published 8 Feb 2005, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017