Kōrero: Ngā heke i te Wai Nui

Whārangi 5. Te hōpara i Poronihia

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā ariā tōmua

Kāore he mahere whenua, he kāpehu rānei hei awhi i ngā kaihōpara tuatahi ki tēnei pito o te ao. Nā runga i tēnei āhuatanga kua roa te wā e tautohetohe ana te hunga eke moana rātou ko ngā pūkenga mō te āhua o te whakanoho i te rohe nei. Kōrero ai ngā ariā tōmua mō ngā kaumoana rongonui nā rātou ngā whenua hōu i tūhura i mua i tā rātou hokinga ki ngā moutere; me ngā haerenga tūponotanga mai o ērā te hunga i pūhia ō rātou waka kia wehe i ō rātou ake moutere kia tau ki ngā moutere tauhōu, kore mō te hoki. Hei whakawhīwhīwhi ake anō i te tautohe nei, arā te kōrero e mea ana, i haere kē mai rātou i Amerika ki te Tonga, he ariā tēnei i taunakitia e ētahi pūkenga o te rau tau 1800 ā, i whakatairangatia e te mātai whaipara tangata (archaeologist), e Thor Heyerdahl.

Ngā ariā o ēnei tau tata

Kei te mōhio tātou ināianei, he mea āta wānanga ēnei heke a rātou mā i te mea, heria mai ai ko ngā tāngata, ngā tipu, ngā kararehe e tupu ai te pā harakeke i roto i ngā whakatupuranga. He maha ngā hekenga o ēnei rā i whai i ngā ara moana o rātou mā i haere tuatahi mai ki ēnei motu. I whakamahia ngā rorohiko hei whakamātau ko hea ngā ara tika, i runga i te pupuhi o ngā hau me te ia o te moana. I tohu ngā putanga o ngā rangahau ki te mea i āta wānangatia e ngā kauhoe tuatahi ki Aotearoa ā rātou haerenga, ehara i te mea nā te au o te moana rātou i pae noa ki Aotearoa.

Te haerenga atu me te hokinga mai

Kotahi anake te huarahi i haere ai ngā kaumoana Lapita, arā, whakatetonga mā rāwhiti, ki te ihu tonu o te haupāuma (head wind). Nōhia katoahia ai e te iwi Lapita ngā huinga moutere katoa o Melanesia me Poronihia ki te tonga e takoto whakatetonga mā rāwhiti ana. Kāore e kitea ēnei tūmomo nohoanga ki ētahi atu moutere.

Ahakoa koia te haerenga uaua rawa atu, he mārama te take i hoe ai ngā kaumoana Lapita ki te ihu tonu o te haupāuma. I mōhio rātou, ki te ahu pērā rātou i ā rātou hōparatanga, ki te raru tā rātou haere, he ngāwari te huri i te ihu o te waka ka hoe ki te kāinga. Haere ai rātou i te raumati me te takurua. I a rātou ka haere, ka ahu rātou ki te rāwhiti. Ina huri ana te hau kia tonga-mā-rāwhiti anō, kua huri ō rātou waka ki te wā kāinga.

Ko tā ngā kaumoana tuatahi, ko tā rātou rautaki, he haere ki te hōpara haere ā, ka hoki ki te kāinga. Ka noho ngā moutere kua nōhia kētia e te tangata hei kupenga hopu i a rātou e hoki atu ana i ā rātou nā hōparatanga.

Āta haere, ko te mea nui, kia ora

E ora ai ia, ka tahuri te kaumoana ki te raupapa i te āhua o tana hōpara, ka whakamahi ia i ngā rautaki maha ina:

  • te tūmū, inarā te hoe ki te ihu o te hau – koinei ngā hekenga tuatahitanga, te hōpara ā, ka hoki mai, e kitea ai mehemea he moutere kei te taha noho tuwhera o ō rātou ake moutere.
  • te mawhiti hau (across the wind) – ina kitea e rātou tētahi moutere rerekē, kua pai tā rātou mawhiti hau i runga i te mōhio, i te haumaru; kua mōhio rātou ina hōpara rātou ki tua, ki te raru rātou, anei ngā moutere nei hei taunga mō rātou.
  • te rere hau – mō muri mai tēnei momo kauhoe. Ki te haere koe i te rere hau, ko tōna tikanga me hoki mai koe mā tētahi huarahi kē. Nā, kia kitea rawatia ngā moutere takawaenga kātahi anō ka tareka ai ēnei haerenga. He tohu te haere i te rerehau ki te mea, i mārama ngā kaumoana nei ki ngā tohu o ngā hau, te marangai, ngā ngaru, te aha noa atu.

Te whakapae mō te āhuarangi El Niño

Heke iho i te 5,000 tau ki mua, ka kaha ake ngā āhuarangi o te El Niño. Ka tū ēnei āhuarangi i te mahanatanga haere o ngā wai pārū o te taha rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nō konei kua mate te hau pitonga, kua ara mai ngā hau o te uru. Tērā pea nā te āhuarangi El Niño i kawe i ngā waka ki runga i ngā haerenga roa ki te rāwhiti. E whakapae ana ētahi kairangahau nā ngā hau o te El Niño i pupuhi mai i te tangata ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ki tā rātou he nui whakaharahara ngā hau o te El Niño mō te hekenga mai ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, me te aha, i taea noa ngā waka te rere i runga i te hau. Heoi he rerekē ngā whakamārama o ngā kaihōpara Pākehā tuatahi kia kite i ngā waka o Poronīhia – i kite rātou i ngā waka tere e whakawhiti ana i te hau, e rere tūmū ana hoki.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Geoff Irwin, 'Ngā heke i te Wai Nui - Te hōpara i Poronihia', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-heke-i-te-wai-nui/page-5 (accessed 24 October 2019)

Story by Geoff Irwin, published 8 Feb 2005, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017