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Kōrero: Ngā haki

Ahakoa ehara te haki nō te ao Māori tūturu, he tere te hopu o tēnei āhuatanga. Kei roto i ngā āhuatanga iwi, tōrangapū, whakapono, pāpori hoki te haki e kitea ana.

Story by Malcolm Mullholland
Te āhua nui: Ngā haki Māori ki te rā o Waitangi i te tau 2008

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Nā te Pākehā i kawe mai te tikanga o te haki ki Aotearoa nei, ā, ka whai wāhi ki roto i te tikanga whakaaro Māori hei tohu mana, rangatiratanga hoki.

Ko ōna kupu Māori, he kara, he haki rānei – he whakarāpopototanga tēnei o te kupu ‘Union Jack’.

Ngā whakamahinga tuatahi o te haki

Nā ngā mihinare hoki i kawe mai ngā haki ki te Māori, ā, ka whakarewaina ētahi haki ki ngā kāinga Māori i te Rātapu. Mai i te tekau tau 1830, ka tīmata te whakarere haki ki ngā whata kai i ngā wā hākari.

Te Haki o Te Whakaminenga

Nā te kainoho Pākehā o Ingarangi nā Pūhipi te whakatau kia hanga i tētahi haki mō te motu o Niu Tīreni. I te tau 1834 ka pōwhiritia ngā rangatira o te Tai Tokerau kia hui ki Waitangi. Ko te take kia kōwhiri i tētahi haki mā rātou. E toru ngā kōwhiringa. I te mutunga ake ka whakatauria ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga o Ngā Hapū o Aotearoa.

Whai muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i hua ake ai a Aotearoa hei koroni mō Ingarangi, ka puta ko te haki Uniana hei haki mō Aotearoa. Hei porotū ki ngā mahi pēhi a te ture Pākehā, ka poroa ngā pou haki o te Haki Uniana.

Ngā hāhi Māori

E toru ngā haki o te whakapono Pai Mārire (Hauhau), whakarewaina ai i ngā whakahaerenga o te hāhi. He haki hoki tō ia āpotoro e rima o te hāhi.

Ka heria hoki e Te Kooti ōna kara pakanga ki te mura o te ahi. Ko ētahi o ana haki i hopukina whai muri i ngā pakanga. I te tau 1868, ka hopukina e Te Kooti te haki o Ngāti Kahungunu, a Te Wepu, ā, e rua tau i muri ka hopukina e tētahi kāpene Pākehā.

He maha ngā haki o tēnā poropiti Māori, o tēnā poropiti Māori.

Ngā tōrangapū Māori

Ka whakamahi hoki ngā rōpū mana motuhake i te haki; ko te Kīngitanga tērā, ko Te Kotahitanga tērā. He haki tō ia ūpoko ariki Māori.

Ka whakamahi hoki ngā kūpapa Māori i te haki i ngā pakanga whenua o te rautau 1800. Mō tā rātou whakahaumaru i te tāone o Whanganui i ngā taua marau i te tekau tau 1860, ka takohatia tētahi haki ki ērā iwi o Whanganui i tū mō te Karauna. Kua takohatia hoki he haki e ngā kīngi me ngā kuini o Ingarangi ki ngā iwi o te motu.

Ngā porotēhi

Mai i te tekau tau 1970 kua whakarere te Māori i te haki hei tohu mautohe. Ko tērā e kitea nuitia ana ko te haki tino rangatiratanga, i waihangatia i te tau 1989. I te tau 2009 ka tīpakotia te haki tino rangatiratnga hei haki ā-motu nā te Māori ake.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Malcolm Mullholland, 'Ngā haki', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-haki (accessed 22 October 2017)

Story by Malcolm Mullholland, published 20 Jun 2012