Kōrero: Ngā haki

Whārangi 2. Ngā haki tōmua o te motu

Ngā whakaahua

Te Whakaminenga o Ngā Hapū o Niu Tīreni

Nō ngā tau 1830 ka ara ake te hiahia ki tētahi haki ā-motu mō ngā kaipuke hokohoko o Aotearoa. Ko tā Patuone rāua ko Taonui o Ngāpuhi mō tō rāua kaipuke, a Sir George Murray, he whakarere i tētahi kaitaka ki te tira waka. Ka kīa e ngā mana o tāwāhi kāore he mana o tēnei haki, ā, ka whakamauria te kaipuke ki Poihākena.

I te tau 1833 ka tonoa a James Busby hei Kainoho Pākehā mō Niu Tīreni (he tūranga āpiha). I tuhi atu ia ki te hēkeretari koroni kia auahatia tētahi haki. Ka whakahē a Busby i te auahatanga tuatahi nā te mea kāore he tae whero – he kara whai mana ki te Māori. Na, ka whakaritea e Henry Williams o te Rōpū Mihinare kia whatua mai ngā tauira e toru. Ka mutu i te 20 o ngā rā o Poutūterangi i te tau 1834 ka huraina ngā haki e toru ki ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi, ā, ka whakatau te hui kia whakamahia tērā e whakamahi kētia ana e te Rōpū Mihinare. Ka whakarewaina ki te pou haki, ā, ka whakawhiwhia ki te keunga pū rua tekau mā tahi mai i te kaipuke o te Kīngi, i te Alligator. Nō muri mai ka whakamanaia e Kīngi Wiremu Tuawhā, ā, ka mōhiotia ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga o Ngā Hapū o Niu Tīreni. Ko te pīrangi a Busby mā te haki e whakakotahi ngā mahi a te iwi Māori. Taro kau iho ko te tokomaha o aua rangatira ka haina i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1835, i whakataua ai ko rātou te mana rangatira o Aotearoa.

Te whakarewa i te haki o Te Whakaminenga

I te waitohutanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i tau 1840 ka takahia te haki o Te Whakaminenga o Ngā Hapū o Niu Tīreni mō te Haki Uniana, i te huatanga ake o Aotearoa hei koroni mō Ingarangi. Ahakoa tērā, ka whakarewaina tonutia e ngā Māori te haki o Te Whakaminenga. Nā Tūhawaiki i whakahoka te haki o Te Whakaminenga ki te moutere o Ruapuke, ā, mate noa ia. I te tau 1856 ki Pūkawa ka whakahuihuitia e Te Heuheu Iwikau ngā iwi maha kia tahuri rātou ki te whakarite i tētahi Kīngi Māori. I runga i te pou haki ka rere ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga. Ka whakamahi hoki te rōpū Te Kotahitanga i te haki o Te Whakaminenga. Ka mutu i te tau 1907 ka tū te hui mō tētahi whakaminenga Māori, ā, nā Rāwhiti i whakaatu tana tauira o te haki o Te Whakaminenga.

I te tekau tau 1970, ka kapakapa mai anō te haki, ā, i kitea nuitia tae noa mai ki tua o te tau rua mano, hei tohu mautohe.

Te Haki Uniana

E whā ngā turakitanga a Hōne Heke i te pou haki i ngā tau o 1844 me 1845. Ko Heke te rangatira o Ngāpuhi ka whakahē i te rere o te haki o Peretānia, ā, ka turakina e ia te pou haki ki Kororāreka. Ko tana whakapono kia kaua te mana o te whenua e taka ki raro i te mana o te kāwanatanga, engari kia noho ōrite te mana o te Māori. Ko tā tērā o ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi a Te Ruki Kawiti, he pai kē atu ia kia mate i mua i te tuku i te haki o Peretānia kia rere tonu ki Kororāreka. Ko tāna anō hei tohu tēnei mea te haki o Peretānia mō te ture Pākehā, e ngaro ai ‘te mana o ngā rangatira me ō mātou whenua’.1

Nō te tau 1863, ka tapahia e ngā Māori te pou haki, ā, ka tahuna ngā poti i te kūrae o Manukau. I te tau 1892 ki te tonga o Tāmaki ki Akaaka, ka whakapaetia a Kina Ohina Muri mō te kāhaki i ngā kara kāwanatanga i muri i ētahi rūri whenua. I tana uiuinga ka whakahoki ia ko te Kīngitanga anake tāna i aro atu ai.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Peter McKeefry, ētita, Fishers of men. Tāmaki-makaurau: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1938, wh. 126. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Malcolm Mullholland, 'Ngā haki - Ngā haki tōmua o te motu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-haki/page-2 (accessed 26 March 2019)

Story by Malcolm Mullholland, published 20 Jun 2012