Kōrero: Whitebait and whitebaiting

In spring, if you peer into a river near its mouth, you may see translucent ribbons of tiny fish swimming upstream. What are they, and where are they going? They are the young of six species of native fish, heading inland from the sea. We call them whitebait. Four of these species are now threatened with extinction or at risk of becoming threatened.

He kōrero nā Carl Walrond
Te āhua nui: Whitebait stands, Ōkuru estuary

He korero whakarapopoto

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

What are whitebait?

Whitebait are small fish (about 5 centimetres long) that swim upstream from the sea each spring. They have a delicate flavour and sell for a high price. People usually eat them in fritters.

Six species

Whitebait are the juveniles of six freshwater fish (īnanga, banded kōkopu, giant kōkopu, shortjaw kōkopu, kōaro and common smelt) which swim upstream each spring to find suitable adult habitat. Four of these species are threatened with extinction or at risk of becoming threatened. 

They are called whitebait in their juvenile stage – when they change from larvae into young fish. They swim upriver to lakes and streams, where they live as adults.


Īnanga are the most common species, and have a one-year life cycle.

  • Eggs. Adult fish spawn (lay and fertilise eggs) in autumn, among plants at the edge of estuaries.
  • Larvae. When a high tide (known as a spring tide) reaches the eggs, larvae hatch out. The outgoing tide carries them out to sea for the winter.
  • Juveniles (whitebait). In the springtime, they swim back to estuaries, and upstream to fresh water.
  • Adults. By autumn, the adult fish are ready to swim downriver to spawn. After that, they die.

Little is known about how the other species spawn.

Where are they found?

Whitebait can be caught from many New Zealand rivers, but especially in South Westland. Because they swim against the river’s current, they stay near the edge, where the current is weaker.

Catching whitebait: early days

Māori caught whitebait in woven flax nets. After drying them in the sun or over a fire, they steamed them in baskets, in an earth oven. Europeans used cotton mesh nets. Before there were refrigerators, they canned the fish.

Whitebaiting today

Each spring, whitebaiters sit on river banks below the high-tide line, hoping to catch the fish in fine mesh nets. These are hand-held, or staked into the river bed. They also use screens in the water to guide the fish into the nets.

Smaller catches

People once caught huge numbers of whitebait. Sometimes they would feed them to their hens, or use them as fertiliser. But many estuaries where whitebait hatched have now been destroyed, and river water is more polluted. It is much harder to get a good catch, and there are rules to maintain fish numbers.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Carl Walrond, 'Whitebait and whitebaiting', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whitebait-and-whitebaiting (accessed 20 June 2024)

He kōrero nā Carl Walrond, i tāngia i te 24 o Hepetema 2007, i tātarihia i te 23 o Hune 2023