Kōrero: Ngā whakataunga tiriti

Mai anō i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka takatakahi haere ngā kāwanatanga i te tiriti tonu. Nō te paunga o te rautau 1900 ka whakatauria ēnei whatinga ture i waenganui i te Karauna me ngā iwi maha, ā, ka āta kōrerohia ngā kaupapa whakaaetanga. 

Story by Richard S. Hill
Te āhua nui: Whakataunga puia ki Tāmaki, 2010

Story Summary

Ngā whakaahua

Ko te oati o te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te Māori kia mau tonu ia ki ōna whenua, ngāherehere, ahuika; kei a rātou te tikanga mō te wā e noho ai ēnei taonga ki a rātou anō. Otiia ka riro tonu ngā taonga nei i:

  • te hoko a te kāwanatanga i ngā whenua Māori  me te waiho i te Māori kia noho ki ngā koraha rāhui
  • te murunga o ngā whenua i muri i ngā pakanga whenua.
  • ngā hua kino mai i ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ko te mahi a te Māori he whai rānaki i ēnei whatinga o te tiriti.

Ngā whakataunga o mua

I te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 ka whakatūria ngā kōmihana e rua hei arotake i ngā tūkino ki te Māori, ā, ka kite tahi rāua i ngā hapa ka mahia e te Karauna. Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1900 ka kāpeneheihanahia ngā iwi o Taranaki, o Ngāi Tahu me Waikato-Maniapoto. Engari he moromoroiti ērā hua i te uara ake o ngā whenua raupatu.

I muri atu i te maurutanga ki ngā tāone noho ai, ka araara ake ētahi rāngai mautohe Māori mō te tiriti te take. 

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1975 ka whakatūria te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi kia whakarongo i ngā kokoraho e pā ana ki ngā whatinga o te Karauna i te tiriti. Mai i te tau 1985 ka whakamanahia te rōpū ki te tirotiro i ngā take tīmata mai i te tau 1840.

I te tau 1989 ka whakatūria ki roto ki te Tari Ture ko te rāngai tōrangapū kaupapa Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko tōna mahi he ārahi i te kāwanatanga i te taha ki ngā kaupapa tiriti.

Kāti ko te whakataunga kokoraho tiriti tuatahi ko tērā mō ngā ana i Waitomo, i whakatauria i te tau 1989.

Ko 1992 te tau i whakatauria ai te whakataunga ohu kaimoana – neke atu i te $170 miriona te wāriu. Ko tētahi atu whakataunga nui ko tērā mō ngā whakataunga rawa ngāherehere i whakatauria i te tau 2008; e $200 miriona ngā whenua ngāherehere ka hoki atu ki ngā iwi. 

I runga i ngā utu ka whakapauhia ki te taraipiunara, ka tīpako ētahi iwi ki te whiriwhiri tahi me te kāwanatanga. Ko Waikato-Tainui te tuatahi o ngā whakaminenga iwi kia whakatau i tā rātou kerēme mō te $170 miriona.

Whai muri i te pūrongo ki te taraipiunara ka tohu a Ngāi Tahu kia kōrero tika tonu ki te kāwanatanga. E $170 miriona ka whakawhiwhia ki a rātou i te tau 1998.

Ka urua hoki ētahi whakataunga ki te kupu whakapāha a te Karauna, ki te utu taha ahurea, pērā i te whakahokinga o te ingoa Māori o Mt Cook ki Aoraki.

Nō te tau 2010, e 26 ngā whakataunga kua tuhia ki roto i te ture.

Tukanga whakataunga

Nō te whanake haeretanga o te tukanga whakataunga, ka whanake anō ko te tukanga kerēme tiriti. Ka nanaiore te Karauna kia:

  • tautohu i ngā whatinga tiriti
  • tautohu i ērā i pāngia
  • tautohu i ō rātou māngai
  • Te whiriwhiri whakataunga e whakamārama ana i te whakataunga. He whenua, he moni, he whakapāha ētahi o ngā tahua.

He kaikino tā ētahi inā rā te tukanga whakataunga he mahinga toukikī, ā, ka tipu te kōrero he ‘gravy train’. I te tau 1994 ka whakamātau te kawanatanga ki te whakanoho i ngā rawa kerēme ki te 1 piriona, ā, ka tū ngā pihi o Ngāi Māori.

Nō ngā tau tōmua o te rua mano tērā te whakaaro a te marea nui he mea pai ngā whakataunga. Ka mutu he tauira pai mō te whakatikatanga o ngā hapa o mua, otirā hei tirohanga mā te ao katoa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Richard S. Hill, 'Ngā whakataunga tiriti', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-whakataunga-tiriti (accessed 24 April 2019)

Story by Richard S. Hill, published 20 Jun 2012