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Ngā haki – Māori and flags

by Malcolm Mullholland

Ahakoa ehara te haki nō te ao Māori tūturu, he tere te hopu o tēnei āhuatanga. Kei roto i ngā āhuatanga iwi, tōrangapū, whakapono, pāpori hoki te haki e kitea ana.


Māori adoption of flags

Ngā tikanga o te haki

Mai anō i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ka whakamahi te Māori i te haki mō ngā rautau e rua. Ahakoa kāore he kōrero ā te Māori mō te haki i mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā kua tuia te haki ki roto i te ao Māori me ōna rerenga maha katoa, tae atu ki ngā tūmomo āhuatanga iwi, pāpori, tōrangapū, whakapono hoki. Ki ngā ariki me ngā rangatira o te iwi Māori, he tohu mana te haki. Kei roto e whakairotia ana ngā takotoranga kōrero e mārama ai te tangata mēnā kei te taha o te Karauna, kei te taha rānei o te mana Māori motuhake te tangata.

Ka mutu, ko te kara, ko te haki rānei ōna ingoa Māori.

Ngā mihinare me te haki

Ko tētahi o ngā pānga tuatahi i te tau 1812, arā, i te hokinga mai o te rangatira o Ngāpuhi a Ruatara, i muri i tāna taiāwhio i Ingarangi me Ahitereiria. Ko tāna i kawe mai ko te pūeru muslin i tahuatia ki a ia e Samuel Marsden o te Rōpū Mihinare. Ko ōna tuhituhi kei runga, ko ‘Ra Tapu’. I te tekau tau 1820, hei ngā Rātapu kua whakarere ngā iwi o Pēwhairangi i te haki mā me te haki whero hei tohu ki tō rātou whakamana i te Rātapu. Ka whakatūria ko te whare mīhana o Te Waimate, ā, ka whakarewa rātou i te haki e mau ana i te rīpeka me ngā kupu ‘Rongo Pai’.

Ngā haki ki ngā whata kai

Mai i ngā tau tōmua o 1830 ka whakaahuatia ngā haki e iri ana ki runga i ngā whata kai. I tētahi hākari nui ka piki ake a Hōne Heke ki te tihi o tētahi whata kai, ka tīhoka i te haki hei tohu i te whakamutunga rawatanga o ngā kai hākari ki roto o Pēwhairangi.


Early national flags

Te Whakaminenga o Ngā Hapū o Niu Tīreni

Nō ngā tau 1830 ka ara ake te hiahia ki tētahi haki ā-motu mō ngā kaipuke hokohoko o Aotearoa. Ko tā Patuone rāua ko Taonui o Ngāpuhi mō tō rāua kaipuke, a Sir George Murray, he whakarere i tētahi kaitaka ki te tira waka. Ka kīa e ngā mana o tāwāhi kāore he mana o tēnei haki, ā, ka whakamauria te kaipuke ki Poihākena.

I te tau 1833 ka tonoa a James Busby hei Kainoho Pākehā mō Niu Tīreni (he tūranga āpiha). I tuhi atu ia ki te hēkeretari koroni kia auahatia tētahi haki. Ka whakahē a Busby i te auahatanga tuatahi nā te mea kāore he tae whero – he kara whai mana ki te Māori. Na, ka whakaritea e Henry Williams o te Rōpū Mihinare kia whatua mai ngā tauira e toru. Ka mutu i te 20 o ngā rā o Poutūterangi i te tau 1834 ka huraina ngā haki e toru ki ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi, ā, ka whakatau te hui kia whakamahia tērā e whakamahi kētia ana e te Rōpū Mihinare. Ka whakarewaina ki te pou haki, ā, ka whakawhiwhia ki te keunga pū rua tekau mā tahi mai i te kaipuke o te Kīngi, i te Alligator. Nō muri mai ka whakamanaia e Kīngi Wiremu Tuawhā, ā, ka mōhiotia ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga o Ngā Hapū o Niu Tīreni. Ko te pīrangi a Busby mā te haki e whakakotahi ngā mahi a te iwi Māori. Taro kau iho ko te tokomaha o aua rangatira ka haina i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1835, i whakataua ai ko rātou te mana rangatira o Aotearoa.

Te whakarewa i te haki o Te Whakaminenga

I te waitohutanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i tau 1840 ka takahia te haki o Te Whakaminenga o Ngā Hapū o Niu Tīreni mō te Haki Uniana, i te huatanga ake o Aotearoa hei koroni mō Ingarangi. Ahakoa tērā, ka whakarewaina tonutia e ngā Māori te haki o Te Whakaminenga. Nā Tūhawaiki i whakahoka te haki o Te Whakaminenga ki te moutere o Ruapuke, ā, mate noa ia. I te tau 1856 ki Pūkawa ka whakahuihuitia e Te Heuheu Iwikau ngā iwi maha kia tahuri rātou ki te whakarite i tētahi Kīngi Māori. I runga i te pou haki ka rere ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga. Ka whakamahi hoki te rōpū Te Kotahitanga i te haki o Te Whakaminenga. Ka mutu i te tau 1907 ka tū te hui mō tētahi whakaminenga Māori, ā, nā Rāwhiti i whakaatu tana tauira o te haki o Te Whakaminenga.

I te tekau tau 1970, ka kapakapa mai anō te haki, ā, i kitea nuitia tae noa mai ki tua o te tau rua mano, hei tohu mautohe.

Te Haki Uniana

E whā ngā turakitanga a Hōne Heke i te pou haki i ngā tau o 1844 me 1845. Ko Heke te rangatira o Ngāpuhi ka whakahē i te rere o te haki o Peretānia, ā, ka turakina e ia te pou haki ki Kororāreka. Ko tana whakapono kia kaua te mana o te whenua e taka ki raro i te mana o te kāwanatanga, engari kia noho ōrite te mana o te Māori. Ko tā tērā o ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi a Te Ruki Kawiti, he pai kē atu ia kia mate i mua i te tuku i te haki o Peretānia kia rere tonu ki Kororāreka. Ko tāna anō hei tohu tēnei mea te haki o Peretānia mō te ture Pākehā, e ngaro ai ‘te mana o ngā rangatira me ō mātou whenua’.1

Nō te tau 1863, ka tapahia e ngā Māori te pou haki, ā, ka tahuna ngā poti i te kūrae o Manukau. I te tau 1892 ki te tonga o Tāmaki ki Akaaka, ka whakapaetia a Kina Ohina Muri mō te kāhaki i ngā kara kāwanatanga i muri i ētahi rūri whenua. I tana uiuinga ka whakahoki ia ko te Kīngitanga anake tāna i aro atu ai.

Footnotes
    • Peter McKeefry, ētita, Fishers of men. Tāmaki-makaurau: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1938, wh. 126. Back

Māori religious movements and flags

Te Ua Haumēne

Ko Te Ua Haumēne te tumu whakarae o te hāhi Pai Mārire, ā, ko ōna pononga ko ngā Hauhau. Ko te haki a Kēnana hei whakaahua i tana whakapono ki te whanaungatanga i waenga i te Māori me te Hūrai. He haki tō ia āpotoro tokorima o te hāhi, tae atu ki ngā rangatira ki a Tītokowaru rāua ko Peehi Tūroa. Ko te tino haki o te hāhi inā noa atu tōna roa, ā, koia nei te haki nui rawa i Aotearoa. E 7 mita te roa, e 3.7 mita tōna teitei. I runga i te haki ko te āhua o Te Matairenga, he atua Māori nō te pakanga.

I waenganui pū i ngā whakahaerenga karakia Hauhau ko te pou niu, arā he poupou 30 putu (neke atu i te 9 mita) te teitei i tū ki waenga i tētahi whenua wātea. I runga ake i te pou niu ko ngā haki e toru:

  • ko Riki, he haki whero e mau ana i te rīpeka mā. Koianei te haki pakanga
  • ko te haki o te poropiti, o te āpotoro o te tohunga rānei, i a ia ngā whakahaere karakia
  • ko Ruru, he haki whero anō, whānui ake i ērā. I runga ko te rīpeka o Hato Anaru me tētahi atu whakairotanga. Koinei te haki o te rangimārie.

Te Kooti

Ko Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Tūruki te poutokomanawa o te Hāhi Ringatū, i mōhio anō ki te mana o te haki. He haki tāna mō ngā wā ka angitu, mō ētahi atu tohu pakanga hoki. Ko tōna haki rongonui ko Te Wepu, e 15.8 te roa, e 1.2 mita tōna teitei. I tuia mai te kākahu nei e ngā hihita o Greenmeadows, te kura mīhana a ngā rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu. I te tau 1868 ka hopukina e Te Kooti, ā, e rua tau ki a ia ka mau i a Tawa ki Rotorua i te tau 1870. E rua anō ngā haki a Te Kooti i hopukia, arā ki Te Pōrere me Tāpapa, ki te taha raki o Putāruru.

Pāora Te Pōtangaroa

He poropiti a Pāora Te Pōtangaroa nō Wairarapa, nāna i hoahoa te haki matakite nui noa atu ōna tohu. I te tau 1881 ka karangatia te iwi, ā, inā te mano tāngata i mene mai. Heoi, kāore i puta he māramatanga ki ngā tohu o te haki i taua wā.

Mere Rikiriki

Ko Mere Rikiriki tētahi rangatira nō Ngāti Apa. Koia anō hoki te kaiārahi o Te Hāhi o Te Wairua Tapu i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900. I tukuna mai tāna haki e Kīngi Tāwhiao hei tohu ki tōna mana wairua. E mau ana i te haki mā ko ngā whetū me te kōrero ‘E te iwi, kia ora’.

Rua Kēnana

Kawea tonutia e te poropiti o Ngāi Tūhoe e Rua Kēnana ngā kara haki o te whakapono ki roto i te rautau 1900. Ko tētahi ko te Haki Uniana rahi i takohatia e te kāwana ki a Tūtakangahau o Maungapōhatu i te tau 1904. Nō muri mai ka tuhia e Te Rua te kōrero ‘Kotahi te ture mo nga iwi e Rua Maungapohatu’ hei tohu i te hononga ki te Pirimia ki a Te Waari. E rua anō ngā haki a Te Rua. Ko Te Tahi o Te Rangi, arā, ko te tipuna ruanuku o Ngāi Tūhoe tētahi, me Te Wairua Kino, arā, he haki pango hei whakaōhiti i te iwi ki ngā taua whakaeke.


Kīngitanga and Kotahitanga flags

Te Kīngitanga

Ahakoa te hainatanga o Tiriti o Waitangi ka tutū te puehu i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā i te hiakai ki te whenua o te hunga tauhou, me te pakarutanga mai o ngā riri i te tekau tau 1860. Ko te pueatanga ake tērā o ngā kaupapa mana motuhake Māori me ō rātou tohu motuhake katoa. Ka mutu ko Te Kīngitanga tētahi.

I te whakawahinga o te kīngi Māori tuatahi, o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero i te tau 1858 tokotoru ngā haki ka whakahokaina ki runga me ngā kupu ‘Kīngi’ me ‘Niu Tireni’. I te Mei o 1860 ka tū tētahi hui ki Ōtaki. Ko ngā tāngata i tae atu, e 350 te tokomaha. Kotahi haurua ka whakahē ki te haki o te Kīngi, kotahi haurua ka whakaae. I te pikinga o Tāwhiao ki te tūranga o Pōtatau he kahurangi, he kōwhai te tae o tōna kara, ā, e mau ana i ngā whetū e toru e tūtohu ana i ngā motu e toru o Aotearoa.

Ko te piki tūranga o Tāwhiao ko Kīngi Mahuta, ko tōna kara e 5.2 mita te roa, he 2.4 mita te whānui. He mā te papamuri o te haki nei, ka mutu e mau ana i te waka o Tainui, te atua kōpere a Uenuku, ko Matariki, ko tētahi rīpeka, ko te marama, me te rā. I ngā tau mai i te tau rua mano whakamahia tonutia ai te haki o Te Kīngitanga ki ngā poukai me ngā koroneihana.

Kotahitanga

Ko te paremata Māori o te Kotahitanga tērā i tīmata ake i te tau 1893 ki te marae o Waipatu ki Heretaunga. Kei runga i tō rātou haki ko te tangata Māori e tū ana; ko tētahi wae ki Te Ika-a-Māui me tētahi wae ki Te Waipounamu – koinei te haki a Māui, te tipuna ruanuku o te Māori, nāna i hī ake te ikawhenua e takoto nei.

I te tau 1897 i te kuhunga o ngā manuhiri ki roto i te pāremata o te Kotahitanga, ka whakatau rātou ki te haka pōwhiri. Ko tā te kapa haka he piupiu i ngā ‘haki Pākehā’. Tokowhā ngā haki o te marae: ko ‘te haki o te Tiriti o Waitangi’ (ko te haki Whakaminenga pea), ko Rongopai ki raro iho, ko Māui ki raro iho i tērā me tō Pāora Pōtangaroa ki raro rawa. Tērā tētahi whakaahua e whakaatu ana i te noho o te pāremata i te tau 1897 me te Haki Uniana.


Loyalists and flags

Te Haki o Moutoa

Ko ētahi Māori ka kūpapa atu ki te Pākehā, ā, ka noho anō ngā haki hei tohu whakamana. I te tau 1865 ka takohatia ki a Mete Kīngi Te Rangi Paetahi te haki hīraka e karangatia ai ko te haki o Moutoa. Nāna i ārahi te taua kūpapa Māori o Whanganui me ngā kōkiri i te pā o ngā Hauhau ki te moutere o Moutoa i te marama o Mei 1864. E 20 pauna te utu o te haki nei ā, nā ngā wāhine Pākehā o Whanganui, o Rangitīkei me Manawatū i whatu. Kei runga ko te karauna, me ngā ringa kōtui o te Pākehā me te Māori e kī ana ‘Moutoa’.

Tangiharuru

Ka takohatia hoki te haki ki ngā Māori i whawhai i te taha o te Pākehā ki roto o Te Urewera, ā, ka tapaina ko Tangiharuru, arā, he tipuna i ahu mai i Waikato i noho ki tētahi wāhanga o te Urewera. I werowerohia te haki nei ki te kāriri, ā, e kī ana ētahi Māori nā tōna mana i wawao ngā hōia 30 mai i ngā Hauhau kotahi mano te rahi.

Kāhui Ariki me ngā haki

I ngā tau o 1860 ka takoha a Kuini Wikitōria i te haki o Te Rakau i Mataahu ki te kaingārahu o Ngāti Porou, ki a Rāpata Wahawaha. I te tau 1901 ka tukuna anō e te rangatira o Ngāti Tūwharetoa e Te Heuheu tētahi haki ki a Kīngi Erueti, ā, he mea whakaae e ia, ā, ka whakahokia ki a Te Heuheu. I te tau o muri mai ka takohatia e te Pirinihi o Wera te Haki Uniana ki te kāwana o Aotearoa kia tukuna ki a Te Arawa. I a Te Arawa anō tētahi Haki Uniana i tukuna e te Tiuka o Etinapara i te tau 1870.

Te tohu whero

Mai i te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 ka tīmata te whakaari a te Māori i te haki whero ki runga marae me ngā ingoa o ō rātou tīpuna, marae, iwi, waka hoki. Nā Kāwana Hōri Kerei tēnei tikanga i tīmata i tāna takoha i ēnei haki ki ngā marae hou. He mea rāhui kē ēnei haki mō ngā kaipuke hoko, engari nā te ture i whakaae kia tukuna ki te tuawhenua, me te tāpiri kupu mā ki te reo Māori.

Āraiteuru

Ka whakarewaina e Tame Parata te haki o Āraiteuru ki Puketeraki i Ōtepoti i te tau 1903. Ko Parata te mema Pāremata mō te Tai Tonga. Ka tukuna te waipū i runga i te whakatangi o te Pēne Parāhe o Kaikorai i a ‘God save the king’. He taniwha a Āraiteuru, nāna i ārahi mai tētahi o ngā waka tīpuna mai i Hawaiki ki Aotearoa. He mā te taha whakarunga, he pango te taha whakararo. Kei runga i te wāhanga mā ko te waka taua me ngā kaihoe, ā, ko te kaihautū kei mua e taki ana i ngā toa me te mere. He tohu tēnei mō ngā utanga i mauria mai e Āraiteuru. Kei te wāhanga mā ko te ingoa o Āraiteuru.


Flags and protest

Ngā rōpū mautohe

Mai i te tekau tau 1970 ka whakaaturia e ngā rōpū mautohe ō rātou haki hei tohu porotēhi, ā, ka kitea nuitia ki te rā o Waitangi. Ko ētahi haki ka whakamahia ko te haki o te Kotahitanga, ko te haki o Te Whakaminenga, ko te haki Tino Rangatiratanga, me tērā o te Mana Motuhake o Tūhoe.

Tino rangatiratanga

I takea mai te haki tino rangatiratanga i te tau 1989, i te rōpū mautohe o Te Kawariki. Nā Hiraina Marsden rātou ko Jan Dobson ko Linda Munn i toa i te whakataetae. I whakaputaina te tauira whakamutunga ki te Rā o Waitangi i te tau 1990.

Ko te wāhanga pango ka tohu mō Te Korekore, ko te wāhanga mā ko Te Ao Mārama. Ko te wāhanga whero ko Te Whei Ao, ko Papatūānuku tonu. Ko te koru he tohu mō te koiora.

Kōwhiringa haki Māori

I ngā marama o Hūrae me Ākuhata i te tau 2009 ka tū te kōwhiringa mō tētahi haki Māori ā-motu. E whā ngā haki i noho hei kōwhiringa: ko te haki o Aotearoa, ko te haki whero o Aotearoa, ko te haki o te Whakaminenga me te haki tino rangatiratanga. Neke atu i te 1,200 ngā tukunga, ā, neke atu i te 80 ōrau ka kōwhiri i te haki tino rangatiratanga. I te Rā o Waitangi i te tau 2010 ka rere te haki ki ngā wāhi nui o Aotearoa, pērā i te Piriti Nui o Tāmaki-makaurau, i te Paremata, i Te Papa me Tāmaki Paenga Hira.


How to cite this page: Malcolm Mullholland, 'Ngā haki – Māori and flags', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-haki/print (accessed 4 June 2020)

He kōrero nā Malcolm Mullholland, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012