Kōrero: Ngā heke i te Wai Nui

Whārangi 6. Ngā hōparatanga whakaotinga ki Poronihia

Ngā whakaahua

Ko ngā kauhoetanga whakamutunga i ahu ki ngā wāhi pāmamao rawa o Poronihia – a Hawaii, a Te Pito-o-te-henua, a Aotearoa, tae rawa ki Amerika ki te Tonga.

Ko te pito rāwhiti o Poronihia, tata kore nei ōna tāngata, ko ngā moutere ririki noa anake ngā maramara whenua tērā ka kitea. He tahora nui te moana me hōpara e kitea ai ngā moutere kāore anō kia tūhuratia. Tērā tonu pea kāore e kitea he moutere e te kaumoana, tērā tonu pea kāore e tūhuratia he whenua hōu. Kāore he hua i te tuku waka heke e waha ana i ngā tāngata, ā rātou tipu, ā rātou kararehe. Ko te whakapae, ko ngā kaihōpara ngā tāngata i haere tuatahi. Oti ana tā rātou tūhura i te whenua hōu, kua hoki ki ō rātou ake moutere, hei muri mai kua whai ko ngā kaumoana heke i ō rātou tapuwae, kua mōhio hoki rātou e haere ana rātou ki whea.

Ka tawhiti atu tāu haere whakaterāwhiti i Poronihia, ka uaua atu te hoe i runga i te mōhio. Nāwai ā, ka ako ngā kaumoana me pēhea te hoe i tēnei pito o te moana. Tohu ai ngā tauira rorohiko ki te mea i whai ngā kaumoana e hoki whakateuru ana ki te kauhoe ahopae (latitude sailing). Whakamahia ai e ngā kaumoana e hoki whakateuru ana ko ngā whetū kōmata (kei tōna tūhoehoetanga, e iri ana taua momo whetū kei runga i ētahi moutere kei te mōhiotia) e tae ai rātou ki te ahopae o te wāhi e rapu nei rātou i te wā kei runga ake tonu rātou i te hau. Mai i reira ka rere hau kia tae ki taua moutere.

I ngā hoenga onamata atu i te manawa o Poronihia ki ōna pito tawhito, ko te tikanga o te heke, he haere atu, he hoki mai – nā ngā hau ka aukati i te hokinga tika atu o te kaumoana ki tōna ake kāinga; tūtū kē rātou ki tēnā, ki tēnā moutere, wānangatia rāneitia ngā tohu a Tawhirimatea.

Ki te tonga, ki Aotearoa

He wāhi uaua a Aotearoa kia haerea e te kaumoana, i te mea ko ngā hau ka pā ki a ia, kei te taha tonga rawa o te kōpae pokapū (tropics). He huarahi māmā e tae koe ki Aotearoa, ko te hoe rere i te hau rāwhiti kei runga; ko te wā tika mō tēnei haerenga ko ngā rā tōmua o te raumati, i mua i te karawhiu o ngā hau pūkeri nui. I takahia tēnei ara e ētahi waka e rua, a Hōkūle‘a rāua ko Hawaiki nui i te marama o Nōema i te tau 1985.

Ko tētahi anō rautaki ko te haere mai i ngā hau raki, ki te pito whakamua rā anō o te frontal system e tata mai ana, ki muri rānei i te high pressure system. Kotahi wā i te wiki ka pēnei te āhua o ngā rangi.

Tērā pea i whāia e ngā kaumoana ngā manu e heke ana, hei tā ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori. Hei te marama o Oketopa heke ai te koekoeā i Porinihia ki Aotearoa, hei te marama o Hepetema heke ai te hākoakoa. Mā reira mōhiotia ai ehara, he whenua kei kō atu, engari kāore tonu i te mōhiotia pēhea tōna tawhiti. Ko ngā taunga tuatahitanga tērā tonu pea i nga tai o te tokerau, nō muri huraina ai te motu whānui.

Ngā moutere ki Wharekauri (Rēkohu)

He Māori mai i Aotearoa ngā tāngata i tae tuatahi ki Wharekauri. Me kī, ko Wharekauri te pito rawa o ngā kaunga moana a ngā tīpuna onamata; me uaua ka tae koe ki reira, nā ngā hau ā-uru e kore koe e whakahokia mai ki te hipa koe i a Wharekauri. Nā reira ko Wharekauri te moutere mutunga rawa o ngā moutere o Poronihia kia huraina (i te tau 1350), no muri noa mai i te tūhuratanga o Amerika ki te Tonga (i mua i te tau 1000).

Te papatairitenga moana, me tōna pānga ki ngā hekenga i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

I ngā tau 10,000 ki mua, nā te mahanatanga haere o te āhuarangi o te ao, ka koero ngā kōpaka o ngā tiri o te moana. Nō konei ka kake te papatairitenga moana ki runga. 6,000 tau ki mua, kua tae rawa te papatairitenga moana ki tōna taumata, ā, he torutoru ngā mita te roa ake i te papatairitenga moana o ēnei rā. Heke iho i ngā mano tau, ka paheke haere te papatairitenga moana. He maha ngā rau tau ka pahure kātahi ka tipu he whenua ki runga i ngā pūkawa roke kanae e puea mai ana. Nō te hekenga o te wai o te moana ki ngā motu teitei, kua hangaa ngā papatahi taha moana, pai mō te noho. Nō mua tata nei ka tūhuratia i ngā rangahau tātai arowhenua ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, nō te wā i paheke te papatairitenga o te moana, kua tīmata anō ngā hōparatanga ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa: nō te hekenga o te mata o te wai, kua maha ake ngā moutere hei noho, ā, kua puea mai ngā whenua hōu ki ngā moutere i te nōhia.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Geoff Irwin, 'Ngā heke i te Wai Nui - Ngā hōparatanga whakaotinga ki Poronihia', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-heke-i-te-wai-nui/page-6 (accessed 28 June 2019)

Story by Geoff Irwin, published 8 Feb 2005, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017