Kōrero: Te Māori i te ohanga

Whārangi 6. Noho tāone

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā kaimahi o te taiwhenua

Tae rawa ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, he iwi mahi taiwhenua te Māori. Nō te tau 1900, 95 ōrau o te Māori e noho ana ki ngā taiwhenua. I te tatauranga o te tau 1926, neke atu i te 10,000 te tokomaha o ngā Māori e mahi ana ki ngā mahi ā-ringaringa. Tāpiri atu, 7,000 ngā kaimahi ihu oneone kei ngā taiwhenua e mahi ana. Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1900, he iwi mahi taiwhenua te Māori.

Mātauranga

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900, ka puta mai te rōpū iti o ngā ngaio Māori. Ko tā rātou kaiārahi ko Āpirana Ngata, ā, i puta katoa mai rātou i Te Aute.

Ahakoa tēnei, ko te whakaaro a ētahi kaimahi kāwanatanga me noho rawa te Māori ki ngā mahi ihu oneone. Ka whakahau te Tari Mātauranga kia tahuri te kāreti o Te Aute ki te ako i ngā mahi ahuwhenua, kaua i ngā mahi ngaio. I te tau 1931, ka whakapae te kaiwhakarite o te Tari Mātauranga a T. B. Strong, me ako i te Māori ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua, ā, me ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā mahi a te hoa wahine kaiahuwhenua.

I ngā tau tōmua o 1900, he maha ngā kaiwhakahaere, kotahi te rōia, me ngā kaiārahi ture (kotahi te tāne, kotahi te wahine), tae atu ki ngā tākuta tokowhā me ngā tākuta niho tokorua.

Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I te tekau tau 1930, 10 ōrau o te taupori Māori kei te tāone e noho ana. Nāwai ā, ka kake ki te 80 ōrau. I tū tēnei āhuatanga whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. E kī ana te Ture Manpower 1944 ko ngā tāngata kīhai i tae ki te pakanga me mahi ki ngā ahumahi kei ngā tāone. Ko te nekenga tērā o ngā wāhine Māori ki ngā wheketere kei ngā tāone. Tokoono ngā āpiha toko i te ora Māori i whakamahia e te Tari Māori hei āwhina i ngā wāhine Māori te wehe mai i te kāinga. E kī ana te tatauranga o te tau 1945, ka kake ngā kaimahi Māori whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

Mai i te taiwhenua ki te tāone

Whai muri i te pakanga, ka neke ētahi hōia Māori ki ngā tāone hei whakamahi i ngā pūkenga i akona i roto i te ope a Tū. He nui rātou i whai mahi mō te tari Māori, hei kaiako rānei.

I te nekenga o ngā Māori ki ngā tāone noho ai, ka mahi rātou i ngā mahi tāone. Ko te nuinga o ēnei mahi kei ngā whare patu mīti, ngā rori, ngā wheketere, ngā rerewē, te waihanga whare, te mahi ā-ringa, te hī ika, te maina me ngā mahi ihu oneone.

Te pānoni ahumahi

Kāre i roa, ka paheke te nui o Ngāi Māori e mahi ahuwhenua ana. I te tau 1951, tata tonu ki te 40 ōrau o ngā tāne Māori e mahi ana ki ngā ahuwhenua, ngāngahere, te whaiwhai kararehe me te hī ika. I tērā wā e 20 ōrau anake o ngā Pākehā e mahi ana i ērā mahi. Nō te tau 1971, 13 ōrau noa iho o te taupori Māori kei ērā mahi, ā, ko te hunga Pākehā, 12 ōrau te rahi.

Heoi, ka kake ngā tāngata Māori i roto i ngā mahi whakangao. I te tau 1936, neke atu i te 2,000 ngā tāngata Māori me ngā wāhine Māori e 1,000 te tokomaha e mahi ana ki te wāhanga whakangao. Nō te tau 1971, hautoru o ngā Māori katoa e mahi ana i te wāhanga whakangao.

I te tau 1951, neke atu i te haurua o ngā wāhine Māori e mahi ana ki te wāhanga ratonga. Nō te tau 1971, kua heke tēnei whika ki te hauwhā.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te Māori i te ohanga - Noho tāone', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-maori-i-te-ohanga/page-6 (accessed 21 August 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010