Kōrero: Te Māori i te ohanga

Whārangi 4. Ngā tāpaetanga whenua

Ngā whakaahua

Te whai hiranga o te whenua

Kei te whakataukī nei e kitea ana te whakahirahira o te whenua: ‘Te toto o te tangata he kai. Te orange o te tangata he whenua.’

Nō te rironga o te whenua ka riro hoki te oranga o te tangata. Tuatahi, i hokona atu ngā whenua ki te Pākehā, i runga i te wawata ka whakatūhia he kāinga Pākehā ki ērā whenua. Hikaka ana te Māori kia whai wāhi ki ngā mākete, me ngā hangarau hou o te ao Pākehā.

I whai angitu ngā hokohoko tōmua a te Māori ki ngā tāngata whai me ō rātou tāone nā te mea i roto tonu te mana whenua o ngā whenua whakatipu kai i ngā ringaringa Māori. Nō te whakataunga o ngā tāpaetanga whenua, ka tukuna ngā whenua mōmona e pātata ana ki ngā tāone ki te Pākehā. I roto i te rau tau 1800, ka riro ngā whenua nunui mai i te ringaringa Māori ki te Pākehā. Nō konei ka hinga ngā ohanga ā-iwi

Te Waipounamu

Nō te tekau tau 1860, tata tonu i te katoa o Te Waipounamu kei ngā ringaringa Pākehā e mau ana. I waenga i te tau 1844 me 1863, he nui ngā miriona eka whenua ka hokona e te kāwanatanga mai i a Ngāi Tahu i roto i ngā hoko e iwa. I te tau 1848, e 20 miriona ngā eka whenua ka hokona ki Waitaha.

Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1890 ko ngā whakatewhatewha a te kāwanatanga ki ngā whenua e tuwhera ana ki a Ngāi Tahu, ā, ka kitea e 10 ōrau anake o te iwi e whai wāhi ana ki ētahi whenua whai oranga. Nō konā ka tukuna ētahi whenua ki ngā Māori e noho kore whenua ana. Kīhai a Ngāi Tahu me ētahi atu iwi o Te Waipounamu kia rongo i ngā painga o te noho Pākehā.

Te raupatu

Nō te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua kite te Māori i ngā whakawhiu o te raupatu. Ki Wairarapa, Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Manawatū, he nui ngā iwi i hokona ai te maha o ō rātou whenua. Nō te mārōtanga o te Māori kia pupuri i ō rātou whenua, ka titi tonu te kaupapa kaiā whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka pakaru mai te pakanga i ngā rīriri rangatiratanga, mana, whenua hoki. Ko te hua o ērā pakanga ka raupatuhia te 3 miriona eka ki Taranaki, Waikato, Tauranga, Te Moana-a-Toi, arā, e 15 ōrau o ngā whenua Māori. Ko ētahi i whakahokia, heoi i ētahi wā tē whakahokia ki ngā tāngata nō rātou kē taua whenua.

Te huringa o te mana pupuri whenua

Atu i 1865, ka tae mai ngā ture hou a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kāre te kōti i whakamana i te mana whenua ā-iwi.

Ka riro ngā taitara ki te hunga takitahi o te iwi. Kāre he moni hei whakawhanake i ō rātou whenua.

He nui ngā whenua ka hokona hei utu i ngā nama kōti, te noho i te wā o te kōti me ngā mahi rūri.

 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te Māori i te ohanga - Ngā tāpaetanga whenua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-maori-i-te-ohanga/page-4 (accessed 24 August 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010