Kōrero: Te Māori i te ohanga

Whārangi 7. Ngā hanganga ture, tekau tau atu i 1980

Ngā whakaahua

Te hanga hou anō

I te tekau tau atu i 1960, ko ērā kaimahi kāre e whai pūkenga, pūkenga iti rānei kua whakamahia e ngā ahumahi kāwanatanga. He nui rawa ngā Māori e mahi ana ki ngā ngāherehere, ngā rerewē, ngā rori me ngā mahi hiko a te kāwanatanga tae atu hoki ki te Poutāpeta.

I ngā tekau tau 1980 me 1990, ka whakahouhia katoa ēnei ahumahi, i noho kore mahi ai te rahi. Ka whakahouhia anō ngā ahumahi tūmataiti kei reira te nui o Ngāi Māori e mahi ana, pērā i ngā mahi whakangao me ngā whare patu mīti. I te tau 1986, e 8 ōrau o ngā tāngata mahi he Māori, heoi nō te tau 1992, 26 ōrau o ngā tāngata kāre i whai mahi, he Māori. Nō konā, e 25 ōrau te rahi o te Māori e noho kore mahi ana, ā, 10 ōrau anake te nui o te taupori whānui kīhai i whai mahi.

Hui Taumata

I whakatūhia te Hui Taumata i te tau 1984. Ka whakaritea e te hui kia whakatūhia te Komihana o te Hui Taumata hei tuku pūrongo atu ki te minita Māori. He kaupapa tēnei hei whakakaha ake i te ohanga Māori.

Te whakarite anō te hunga mahi

I te tau 1986, 39 ōrau o ngā Māori kei ngā ahumahi tuarua, pērā i te mahi whakangao, te waihanga, te mahi hiko, wai hoki.

Nō te tau 2003, ka heke tēnei whika ki te 25 ōrau. Ka kake te nui o ngā Māori kei roto i te wāhanga ratonga, pērā i te pakihi, te hanga rori, te hauora me te hapori me te mātauranga ki te 65 ōrau. Ka āhua rite tonu te rahi o ngā Māori ki ngā ahumahi tuatahi (ahuwhenua, ngahere, hī ika) mai i te 10 ōrau i te tau 1986 ki te 9 ōrau i te tau 2003.

Ngā whakataunga tiriti

I whakatūria te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i te tau 1975 kia tirotiro ai i ngā whatinga o te Tiriti o Waitangi e te Karauna. I te tau 1985 i whakaaengia te tirohanga ki ngā kereme mō ngā whatinga o mua. Nā ngā kitenga o te rōpū i hoatu te kawanatanga i te pūtea ki ngā iwi. Nā ngā whakataunga nei i whakaritea te pūtake moni e taea ai e ngā iwi te uru ki te ohaoha. Ko ngā whakataunga nunui ko ā Ngāi Tahu rāua ko Tainui. Ko te nui o te pūtea ki ia iwi ko $170 miriona.

Te hī ika

Nā ngā kēhi kōti, nā ngā ripoata a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti i whakaritea he whakataunga mō taua wā tonu, me te whakataunga whakamutunga mō te hī ika. Ko tētahi āhuatanga o te whakataunga mō taua wā tonu i hoatu tētahi wāhanga o te pūnaha whakahaere roherohenga o Aotearoa ki te iwi Māori – i te timatanga kāore he hua mō ngā kai hī ika Māori nō taua pūnaha – me te moni. I whakaturengia tēnei i roto i te Maori Fisheries Act 1989. I te tau 1992 nā te whakataunga whakamutunga i hoatu te kawanatanga i te $150 miriona ki te hoko i tētahi haurua o te kamupene Sealord, me tētahi wāhanga o te roherohenga hao ika hōu e puta mai ā muri ake. I te timatanga o te mano tau 2000 e tata ki te $700 miriona te uara o ngā rawa hī ika Māori.

Te ono rākau

Nō te whakarerekētanga ohaoha o te tekau tau 1980, i whakaritea e te kawanatanga te tuku rawa, kei roto ngā rawa ono rākau, ki ngā kamupene kawanatanga. He nui ngā whenua Karauna e tipua ana ai te rākau i pāngia e te kereme Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā reira, i whakaae te Karauna kia pupuritia ngā moni rēti i roto i te pūtea tiaki, ā, nā te itareti o ngā moni rēti i mahi hei pūtea mō te iwi ki te rangahau i ngā whenua. I whakatūria Ngā Kaitiaki Rēti Ngahere Karauna i te tau 1990. Ina whakaritea mā wai ngā whenua e tū ai ngā ngahere, ka whakahokia ngā rawa ki te iwi.

He tekau tau piki heke

I ngā tekau tau o 1980 me 1900, ka haere ētahi o ngā moni whakataunga tiriti a ngā iwi ki ngā wāhanga ngāherehere, ahumoana hoki. Ōrua mai, ka riro ngā mahi a ngā Māori i ngā hanganga ture hou o ngā tekau tau 1980 me 1990.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te Māori i te ohanga - Ngā hanganga ture, tekau tau atu i 1980', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-maori-i-te-ohanga/page-7 (accessed 18 October 2017)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010