Kōrero: Te Māori i te ohanga

Whārangi 3. Te hinonga Māori, 1840 ki 1860

Ngā whakaahua

Atu i te tau 1840 ki 1860, ka tino whai rawa ngā rakihinonga Māori. Ko ngā Māori ngā kaiwhakataka i te huawhenua mā ngā tāone e tipu haere ana. Ka whakatakotohia e rātou he moni whakangao ki ngā whao ahuwhenua, mira puehu paraoa me ngā kaipuke, ā ka whai hua tā rātou kawe utanga ki ngā mākete.

Mākete

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1840, ka tipu te ohanga i te whakatūnga o ngā tāone o Tāmaki, Te Whanganui-a-Tara, Ngāmotu me Whakatū.

I ngā tau tōmua o te tāone o Te Whanganui-a-Tara ko ngā Māori e hoko ana i te rīwai, te witi me te poaka me te Pākehā. I tērā wā ko ngā Māori e whāngai ana i te taupori o Whakatū, ā, nō te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau 1830, e kawe ana a Ngāi Tahu i ōna utanga mai i Taieri me Moeraki kia hokona ki Otākou, e pātata ana ki Otepoti.

Witi

He āhua roa tonu te wā ka mārama te Māori ki te whakatipu witi, ā, kāre i pērā ki te rīwai.

Hikaka katoa ana a Ruatara ki te hoko i te witi ki Poihākena, ā, ka hauhaketia e ia te witi ki Aotearoa nei i te tau 1813. Kia whiwhi rā anō i a ia te mīhini oro witi, me te whakamahi hoki o taua mīhini, kātahi ka kite tōna iwi ki te kaupapa ake o te witi. Ko te piki tūranga o Ruatara ko Hongi Hika, ā, e rua tau i muri mai ka tipu anō tōna māra witi. He kai nui te witi, ina rā ka taea te pupuri mō te wā roa, te hoko ki tāwāhi rānei.

Ngā mira puehu paraoa

He nui ngā moni ka whakamahia mō te whakahaere mira puehu paraoa. I ngā tekau tau o 1840 me 1850, ka whakatūhia ngā mira ki Waikato, Taranaki, Whanganui, Rotorua me Wairarapa. I tērā wā, e 50 te nui o ngā mira ka whakatūhia ki Waikato. Nō te tau 1856, ka kitea te koretake o ēnei mira ki ērā e whakamahi ana i te koromamao ki Tāmaki me Ahuriri. Ka monemone haere te oranga o te iwi i te pupuri ki tētahi mea kua ngaro tōna wāriu.

Te kawe utanga

Atu i te tekau tau 1840, he nui ngā iwi ka hoko i ngā kaipuke hei kawe i ō rātou utanga ki ngā tāone Pākehā. Ko ngā iwi i Pēwhairangi, Hauraki, Te Moana-a-Toi, Te Tai Rāwhiti me Tūranga i hoko kaipuke. Ko te nuinga, e 10 ki te 20 tone te taumaha, arā, ngā waka pai mō ngā haerenga poto. I te tau 1858, i te kautetanga o ngā waka mō te porowini o Ākarana, e 51 te rahi o ngā kaipuke kua rēhitatia, e 36 nō te Māori. He utu nui te kaipuke kotahi mō ngā iwi. Nā te takerehaea, te nui o ngā utu tapitapi me te taupokitanga o ētahi i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, he iti anake ngā kaipuke e rewa tonu ana i te pokaputanga o 1860.

Te hingatanga o te mākete

I ngā tau 1855–56, ka paheke te utu o te witi me te rīwai ki Ahitereiria. Nō te tau 1859, kua mutu katoa ngā mahi hoko witi ki Ahitereiria. Ka tūpuhi hoki te oneone i te whakatipu.

I ngā tau 1863 me 1864 ka mutu ngā mahi tauhokohoko i te pakarutanga mai o ngā riri whenua i waenga i te Māori me te Pākehā. He maha ngā wahapū hokohoko a te Māori i aukatia e te kāwanatanga. Atu i te tekau tau 1860, ka paheke te ohanga Māori.

 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Te Māori i te ohanga - Te hinonga Māori, 1840 ki 1860', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-maori-i-te-ohanga/page-3 (accessed 22 August 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010