Kōrero: Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino

Whārangi 1. Te whakamahi i te tupeka

Ngā whakaahua

Te kai tuatahi

Nō ngā tau tōmuri o te rautau 1700 ka pā te ngutu Māori ki te tupeka, arā, i ngā taenga tuatahi mai o te Pākehā. Kīhai i roa ka apohia e te Māori, mā te paipa uku, mā te ngaungau rānei kainga ai. Ko te ‘kai paipa’ me te ‘momi paipa’ ngā kārangaranga ingoa mō te kai i tēnei kai. Arā atu anō ōna kārangaranga ingoa he ‘kai hikareti’, he ‘momi hikareti’ rānei. Ka ahu mai te kupu ‘tupeka’ i tōna hoa Pākehā, arā,  ‘tobacco’.

Ko te pū, ko te puehu kariri, ko te waipiro me te tupeka ngā taonga hokohoko i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1800. Ka whakamahia te tupeka e te Pākehā hei utu i te Māori (tae atu ki ngā taitamariki) mō ētahi mahi, hei taonga rānei. Kāti, ka whiwhi ngā rangatira i haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tupeka, i te kāho tupeka rānei. Kia whiwhi rā anō ki ngā tipu, kātahi ka whakatōkia ki ngā māra kai o ngā pā.

He atua, he tangata rānei?

I te kitenga o te auahi e puta mai ana i te waha o Kāpene Kuki, ka tāwhiua ia e Te Ihutakura o Ngāi Tahu ki te wai. Ka mea a Ihutakura ki ōna hoa Māori, mēnā ka poko te ahi, he tangata noa te urukehu nei. Ki te kā tonu te ahi kāti he atua a ia, me patu. Nō te tāwhiunga i te wai, poko tonu atu te kāpura o te paipa, ā, ka kīia a Kuki he tangata noa iho.

Auahi ana ngā paipa a te Māori, pakeke mai, tamariki mai hoki. Kua waia noa atu te tāne Māori ki te momi, ā, he pērā anō ngā kuia Māori i whakaahuatia i te wā i kiriweti te marea ki te wahine Pākehā momi paipa. Ka momi anō ngā rangatahi me te hunga taitamariki, engari kāore i te mōhiotia mēnā i horapa whānui tēnei āhua. I te tau 1899, ka puta te kōrero i te niupepa Māori o Te Puke ki Hikurangi:

Me korero ake tatau mo te tupeka, me te tikareti, e Kainganuitia ana tenei auahi e nga taane e nga wahine, me nga tamariki taane wahine, ko ta te Pakeha tikanga mo tenei kai mo te tupeka, ma nga taane Kaumatua anake e kai, kia rite ra no nga tau o nga tamariki taane, ka kai ai i te paipa tupeka, kaore rawa nga wahine e kai, me nga Tai-Tamahine.1

Ngā whakawhiu o te kai tupeka

Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1900 rā anō ka whakaae ngā mana hauora he pānga kino tō te kai tupeka – pērā i te mate pukupuku, te mate manawa, me te mate romahā. Hei ahakoa, kīhai i whakamāramatia ēnei mate ki te Māori i ngā rautau o 1800 me 1900, nā te mea:

  • he kongakonga noa iho ngā mōhiohio e pā ana ki te hauora Māori
  • He tokoiti anake te Māori ka whai wāhi ki te pūnaha hauora, ā, kāore i tuhi tikatia ngā take mate o te Māori
  • I whakawarea ngā tahumaero tupeka i te kaha o ngā mate hōrapa, ngā mate maha me te pahemo i te wā o te tamarikitanga

Kei ngā rangahau o ngā taunaki o mua ka kitea ngā whakawhiu o te tupeka. Hei tauira, i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900, ko te mate romahā te mate nui rawa mō ngā tākuta Māori (i te tau 1907 e 24.4 ōrau ka kite i te tākuta mō tēnei mate).

Ngā ātete tuatahi

Arā anō nga ātete ki te kai tupeka a te Māori. I te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900, ka aukati te poropiti o Tūhoe a Rua Kenana i te kai tupeka. Kātahi ia ka panaia i tōna marae i Maungapōhatu. I runga i te Ture Kaunihera Māori 1900, ka whakamanahia ngā kaunihera kia whakakore i te tupeka ki te hunga tamariki, me te hāmene i ngā kaihoko tupeka. Tē mōhiotia mēnā i whakamahi ngā kaunihera i tēnei ture – nā te korekore o ngā ratonga, ka hāngai kē te whakaaro ki ētahi atu raru nui.

Te ia whakamahi

Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1900 rā anō kātahi anō ka whakaae ngā mana ki ngā mōrearea o te kai tupeka. Tae rawa ake ki taua wā kuatangata whenua te tupeka me te kai hikareti (kua āhua mahue ngā paipa i taua wā) ki ngā kāinga Māori. Ahakoa ka puta ake ngā taipitopito mō te kai tupeka a te Māori, ka horapa tonu ngā mate e hua ai i te tupeka; arā, ngā mate romahā me ngā mate manawa.

I te tau 1962 ka puta te rangahau e pā ana ki ngā Māori noho taiwhenua. E ai ki ngā tatauranga, 58 ōrau o te hunga tāne; 70 ōrau o te hunga wāhine i kai tupeka. Mō te taupori whānui (ngā Māori me tauiwi); 38 ōrau o ngā tāne, 31 ōrau o ngā wāhine ka kai tupeka. Nāwai, ā, ko te wahine Māori tonu te papa. Mō tauiwi ko te hunga tāne kē.

Tau ruamano

I te tau 2011-12, 41 ōrau o ngā pākeke Māori (18 ōrau mō ngā pākeke) ka momi tupeka. Ahakoa te teitei, e paheke ana tēnei tatauranga mai i te tau 1991; i te wā e 50 ōrau o te taupori Māori i momi tupeka. Ka mutu nō te tau 2009 ko ngā wāhine Māori (20-24 tau te pakeke) te rōpū kaha rawa te kai tupeka: e 61 ōrau i kai tupeka. Ki te whakataurite atu ki a tauiwi, e rua whakarea ake te pānga o te Māori e te auahi tupeka o tētahi (second hand smoke) i roto i te kāinga me te motukā. 11.5 tau noa iho te tau toharite i tīmata ai tēnei hunga ki te momi. Mō tauiwi, 12.7 te pakeke.

Te tinei mō ake tonu atu

Mai i te tau 1999 ka hua ngā mahi pai a ngā hōtaka Māori mō te auahi kore. Ko ētahi kaupapa āwhina i te Māori ko te Quitline me ngā hōtaka whai pānga. Kō atu i te 62 ōrau o ngā kaimomi Māori i ngana ki te whakamutu i te momi i roto anō i te rima tau, ā, tae atu ki te tau 2009 – he ōrite tēnei tauira ki tērā o tauiwi. Ka mutu i te tau 2011 kua heke iho te tau tīmata ki te momi, arā, ko te hunga kōtiro Māori 14-15 tau te pakeke. I heke tēnei tau mai i te 16.3 ōrau ki te 11.3 ōrau. He tini ngā marae e auahi kore ana; tae atu ki ngā kōhanga reo me ngā kura kaupapa Māori katoa.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Te Puke ki Hikurangi, June 1899, p. 1. Translation by Basil Keane. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Megan Cook, 'Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino - Te whakamahi i te tupeka', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tupeka-te-waipiro-me-te-tarukino/page-1 (accessed 21 August 2019)

Story by Megan Cook, published 5 Sep 2013