Kōrero: Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino

Whārangi 3. Ngā whakapōauau

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te hītori o te whakamahi whakapōauau

Kīhai te Māori o mua i whakamahi i ngā whakapōauau. Nō muri i ngā tau o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka pā te Māori ki tēnei tūāhua, i te noho tāone hoki. I te tekau tau 1970 ka horapa te momi tarukino i te hunga rangatahi. Kia pakeke haere tēnei hunga, kātahi ka tangata whenua te tarukino ki roto i ngā hapori Māori. Arā anō ētahi atu whakapōauau i whakamahia e ētahi rangatahi Māori.

I te tekau tau 1980 ka tahuri ētahi rangatahi Māori ki te hongi i ngā aerosols, te kurū, te penehīni, te haurehu, te waiwai peita, te peita me te methylated spirits. E kīia ana ēnei ngārara he ‘solvents’, ā, ko tōna mate he whakarerekē i te roro. I ētahi wā ka mate tonu he tangata i te whakamahi i tēnei ngārara.

Ngā tau rua mano

E ai ki te rangahau i te tau 2007-8, e 64.6 ōrau te hunga Māori i waenganui i te 16 me te 64 tau te pakeke kua whakamātau i tētahi whakapōauau. Koinei te tatauranga nui rawa mō tētahi iwi o Aotearoa. Mō te hunga Māori i whakamātau i tētahi whakapōauau, 30.8 ōrau i whakamātau i te 14 tau, heke iho rānei te pakeke. Mō tauiwi, e 16.9 ōrau te rahi. E 28 ōrau o te Māori kua raweke whakapōauau i te 12 marama i hipa; ā, e 17 ōrau mō te Pākehā; e 17.9 ōrau mō ngā iwi o ngā Moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa; e 5.7 ōrau mō ngā iwi o Āhia.

Ngā whakapōauau i whakamahia

Ko ētahi o ngā whakapōauau kei Aotearoa i te tau ruamano ko te tarukino, te ecstasy, te amphetamine, ngā rongoā whakahau, ngā whakapōauau o te tangata me te taiao, te ketamine, te GHB, te nitrous oxide me te pire BZP. Ko te tarukino me te pire BZP ngā tino whakapōauau ki te Māori. I te tau 2012 ka puta te pūrongo a te Rūnanga o Ngā Iwi o te Ao mō ngā tatauranga momi tarukino ki Te Moananui (Oceania) (ngā motu o Aotearoa, Ahitereiria me ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa), arā, e 9-15 ōrau o tōna taupori kei te momi tarukino. Ki te whakataurite atu ki tērā o te ao, e 3-5 ōrau noa iho te tatauranga.

Nō te tau 2000 ka tau mai ngā pire pāti BZP ki Aotearoa. Nō te tau 2005 ka tāpuitia ētahi āhuatanga ōna, ā, nō te tau 2008 ka rāhuitia tēnei whakapōauau. I mua atu, 23 ōrau o te hunga pakeke Māori kua raweke i tēnei kai, ā, e 14.4 ōrau o te hunga pakeke Pākehā i whāwhā atu ki tēnei kai.

Ko ētahi atu whakapōauau a te Māori ko te taimiri Pī me ngā solvent. E ai ki te rangahau o te tau 2007-8 kei runga te Māori e haere ana i ngā tatauranga kai Pī, arā, e 9.8 ōrau o te Māori; e 7.9 ōrau o te Pākehā, e 3.7 ōrau o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, e 1.8 ōrau o ngā tāngata Āhia ka mau i tēnei ngārara mō ake tonu atu. Ko ngā kēnge motupaika o tauiwi ngā tino kaihoko i te Pī, engari kua whai wāhi anō te Mangarū, te Mangu Kaha me te Rōpū Tribesman ki tōna hoko. Mai i te tau 1007-8 ki te tau 2011 ka heke iho te whakamahi Pī mā te haurua.

He tokoiti tonu te rangatahi Māori ka kai tonu i ngā solvents. I te tekau tau 2000, ko ngā tino o ngā whakapōauau nei mō te rangatahi ko te butane me te butane-propane. I waenganui i ngā tau 2000 me 2011, 61 ngā tāngata i mate i te hongi butane. 30 he Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Megan Cook, 'Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino - Ngā whakapōauau', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tupeka-te-waipiro-me-te-tarukino/page-3 (accessed 16 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Megan Cook, i tāngia i te 5 Sep 2013