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Māori smoking, alcohol and drugs – tūpeka, waipiro me te tarukino

by Megan Cook

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ko te Māori tētahi o ngā iwi tokoiti o te ao kīhai i kai waipiro. Kāore āna ritenga mō te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino. Nō te maunga mai  o te tupeka e te iwi Pākehā ka whāwhā tonutia atu e te Māori. Nō te tau rua mano e rua whakarea te rahi ake o te hunga Māori kai tupeka i tērā o tauiwi. I te taunga mai o te waipiro, o te wai kaha rānei ka ngana ngā kāinga Māori ki te aukati i tērā kai.


Māori use of tobacco

Te kai tuatahi

Nō ngā tau tōmuri o te rautau 1700 ka pā te ngutu Māori ki te tupeka, arā, i ngā taenga tuatahi mai o te Pākehā. Kīhai i roa ka apohia e te Māori, mā te paipa uku, mā te ngaungau rānei kainga ai. Ko te ‘kai paipa’ me te ‘momi paipa’ ngā kārangaranga ingoa mō te kai i tēnei kai. Arā atu anō ōna kārangaranga ingoa he ‘kai hikareti’, he ‘momi hikareti’ rānei. Ka ahu mai te kupu ‘tupeka’ i tōna hoa Pākehā, arā,  ‘tobacco’.

Ko te pū, ko te puehu kariri, ko te waipiro me te tupeka ngā taonga hokohoko i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1800. Ka whakamahia te tupeka e te Pākehā hei utu i te Māori (tae atu ki ngā taitamariki) mō ētahi mahi, hei taonga rānei. Kāti, ka whiwhi ngā rangatira i haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tupeka, i te kāho tupeka rānei. Kia whiwhi rā anō ki ngā tipu, kātahi ka whakatōkia ki ngā māra kai o ngā pā.

He atua, he tangata rānei?

I te kitenga o te auahi e puta mai ana i te waha o Kāpene Kuki, ka tāwhiua ia e Te Ihutakura o Ngāi Tahu ki te wai. Ka mea a Ihutakura ki ōna hoa Māori, mēnā ka poko te ahi, he tangata noa te urukehu nei. Ki te kā tonu te ahi kāti he atua a ia, me patu. Nō te tāwhiunga i te wai, poko tonu atu te kāpura o te paipa, ā, ka kīia a Kuki he tangata noa iho.

Auahi ana ngā paipa a te Māori, pakeke mai, tamariki mai hoki. Kua waia noa atu te tāne Māori ki te momi, ā, he pērā anō ngā kuia Māori i whakaahuatia i te wā i kiriweti te marea ki te wahine Pākehā momi paipa. Ka momi anō ngā rangatahi me te hunga taitamariki, engari kāore i te mōhiotia mēnā i horapa whānui tēnei āhua. I te tau 1899, ka puta te kōrero i te niupepa Māori o Te Puke ki Hikurangi:

Me korero ake tatau mo te tupeka, me te tikareti, e Kainganuitia ana tenei auahi e nga taane e nga wahine, me nga tamariki taane wahine, ko ta te Pakeha tikanga mo tenei kai mo te tupeka, ma nga taane Kaumatua anake e kai, kia rite ra no nga tau o nga tamariki taane, ka kai ai i te paipa tupeka, kaore rawa nga wahine e kai, me nga Tai-Tamahine.1

Ngā whakawhiu o te kai tupeka

Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1900 rā anō ka whakaae ngā mana hauora he pānga kino tō te kai tupeka – pērā i te mate pukupuku, te mate manawa, me te mate romahā. Hei ahakoa, kīhai i whakamāramatia ēnei mate ki te Māori i ngā rautau o 1800 me 1900, nā te mea:

  • he kongakonga noa iho ngā mōhiohio e pā ana ki te hauora Māori
  • He tokoiti anake te Māori ka whai wāhi ki te pūnaha hauora, ā, kāore i tuhi tikatia ngā take mate o te Māori
  • I whakawarea ngā tahumaero tupeka i te kaha o ngā mate hōrapa, ngā mate maha me te pahemo i te wā o te tamarikitanga

Kei ngā rangahau o ngā taunaki o mua ka kitea ngā whakawhiu o te tupeka. Hei tauira, i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900, ko te mate romahā te mate nui rawa mō ngā tākuta Māori (i te tau 1907 e 24.4 ōrau ka kite i te tākuta mō tēnei mate).

Ngā ātete tuatahi

Arā anō nga ātete ki te kai tupeka a te Māori. I te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900, ka aukati te poropiti o Tūhoe a Rua Kenana i te kai tupeka. Kātahi ia ka panaia i tōna marae i Maungapōhatu. I runga i te Ture Kaunihera Māori 1900, ka whakamanahia ngā kaunihera kia whakakore i te tupeka ki te hunga tamariki, me te hāmene i ngā kaihoko tupeka. Tē mōhiotia mēnā i whakamahi ngā kaunihera i tēnei ture – nā te korekore o ngā ratonga, ka hāngai kē te whakaaro ki ētahi atu raru nui.

Te ia whakamahi

Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1900 rā anō kātahi anō ka whakaae ngā mana ki ngā mōrearea o te kai tupeka. Tae rawa ake ki taua wā kuatangata whenua te tupeka me te kai hikareti (kua āhua mahue ngā paipa i taua wā) ki ngā kāinga Māori. Ahakoa ka puta ake ngā taipitopito mō te kai tupeka a te Māori, ka horapa tonu ngā mate e hua ai i te tupeka; arā, ngā mate romahā me ngā mate manawa.

I te tau 1962 ka puta te rangahau e pā ana ki ngā Māori noho taiwhenua. E ai ki ngā tatauranga, 58 ōrau o te hunga tāne; 70 ōrau o te hunga wāhine i kai tupeka. Mō te taupori whānui (ngā Māori me tauiwi); 38 ōrau o ngā tāne, 31 ōrau o ngā wāhine ka kai tupeka. Nāwai, ā, ko te wahine Māori tonu te papa. Mō tauiwi ko te hunga tāne kē.

Tau ruamano

I te tau 2011-12, 41 ōrau o ngā pākeke Māori (18 ōrau mō ngā pākeke) ka momi tupeka. Ahakoa te teitei, e paheke ana tēnei tatauranga mai i te tau 1991; i te wā e 50 ōrau o te taupori Māori i momi tupeka. Ka mutu nō te tau 2009 ko ngā wāhine Māori (20-24 tau te pakeke) te rōpū kaha rawa te kai tupeka: e 61 ōrau i kai tupeka. Ki te whakataurite atu ki a tauiwi, e rua whakarea ake te pānga o te Māori e te auahi tupeka o tētahi (second hand smoke) i roto i te kāinga me te motukā. 11.5 tau noa iho te tau toharite i tīmata ai tēnei hunga ki te momi. Mō tauiwi, 12.7 te pakeke.

Te tinei mō ake tonu atu

Mai i te tau 1999 ka hua ngā mahi pai a ngā hōtaka Māori mō te auahi kore. Ko ētahi kaupapa āwhina i te Māori ko te Quitline me ngā hōtaka whai pānga. Kō atu i te 62 ōrau o ngā kaimomi Māori i ngana ki te whakamutu i te momi i roto anō i te rima tau, ā, tae atu ki te tau 2009 – he ōrite tēnei tauira ki tērā o tauiwi. Ka mutu i te tau 2011 kua heke iho te tau tīmata ki te momi, arā, ko te hunga kōtiro Māori 14-15 tau te pakeke. I heke tēnei tau mai i te 16.3 ōrau ki te 11.3 ōrau. He tini ngā marae e auahi kore ana; tae atu ki ngā kōhanga reo me ngā kura kaupapa Māori katoa.

Footnotes
    • Te Puke ki Hikurangi, June 1899, p. 1. Translation by Basil Keane. Back

Māori use of alcohol

Waihoki ki ētahi iwi o te motu, kāore e ārikarika ngā urupare a te Māori ki te waipiro. He rite tonu te wā ka puta mai te waipiro (te pia, te waina, te wehikē rānei) ki ngā whakangahau a te hunga whānau, hoa hoki. Ko ētahi o ōna hua, ko te whakahoahoa, ko te kanikani, ko te waiata me te pahupahu. Heoi, arā anō ōna kino e hua ai te whakamā, e raru ai te whānau, te rōpū, e haukotia ai ngā mahi whai take.

Kupu whakataki

Kāore te Māori i inu waipiro i mua i te taenga mai o Tauiwi; i tōna kawenga mai ki konei, kāore te nuinga i rata atu. Nā whai anō i tapaina iho ko te ‘waipiro’, ko te ‘wai kaha’, ko te ‘waipai’ rānei ki ērā i pārekareka ki tēnei inu. Heoi nō te tekau tau 1850 kātahi anō ka toremi te Māori i roto i te waipiro; nō konā, āta kuhuna haeretia te waipiro ki roto i te ao Māori.

He huhua ngā rangatira ka whakahē ki te waipiro i roto i ā rātou hapori, ā, ka whakatika ki te aukati i tōna kawenga haeretanga. Ka tū anō ngā hapū, ā, ka rāhuitia te inu waipiro i te marae, ka whakahaeretia rānei te whai wāhi ki te waipiro. I te tau 1884, ka tono a Ngāti Maniapoto kia noho ‘maroke’ Te Rohe Pōtae katoa. Koinei te rāhui waipiro nui rawa i Aotearoa. I te pito o te rautau 1800 me te ati o te rautau 1900 ka tūhono ētahi Māori ki ngā rōpū whakahē i te waipiro.

Ngā āwangawanga a te Māori

I te tau 1874 ka puta te petihana a ngā iwi Māori o Whanganui ki te Whare Paremata, ‘Ko te whakarawakore i a matou..kaore e whanau pai ana o matou uri i te nui o te kaiwaipiro a te taane a te wahine, ka waiho hei mate mo te tamaiti. Ko te whakapohehe tetahi i nga whakaaro o te tangata, a, ka tuhi pohehe ki nga pukapuka whai ritenga, ka waiho tena hei mate, me te whakakuare i nga tangata whakaaro nui o tenei iwi o te Maori. Tetahi ko te putake tenei o etahi o nga mate uruta e pa nei ki te tangata Maori, na te waipiro i taki mai. Me etahi e pa ana ki a matou, ka taka i i runga i te hoiho, he mate ki te wai, na te haurangi ano enei mate i taki mai. Me te tahuri hoki ki nga wahine a nga tangata, mahi ai i tetahi mahi tinihanga, ko taua kai ano ki te taki mai i tena mate.1

He wā anō ko te waipiro e para ana i te huarahi mō te hoko whenua; hei whakakore anō i te mamae o ngā aitūā me ngā raupatu whenua. Kātahi ka horapa te mahi a te porohaurangi mai i te tekau tau 1870. He āhuatanga tēnei ka kitea ki ngā taone iti, heoi nō te tekau tau 1890 kātahi anō ka ōrite ngā tatauranga hāmene waipiro a te Māori me Tauiwi. Nō te ati o te rautau 1900, ka tohutohu ngā rata Māori tuatahi ko te waipiro te raru nui mō ngā take whakahiato ora a te Māori.

Te urupare a te kāwanatanga

Kei ngā petihana Māori ki te kāwana me te paremata ngā whakaaro a te Māori ki te waipiro me tōna whakamahinga. Heoi ahakoa te pīrangi mā te kāwanatanga te hokotanga o te waipiro, ka whakahē tonu ētahi mā rātou ake e hautū ērā take mō rātou anō.

He maha ngā ture i whakamanahia e pā ana ki te Māori me te waipiro. Arā:

  • ko te Ture Hoko Waipiro ki te Māori 1847. Nā runga i tēnei ture ka rāhuitia te hoko wehikē ki te Māori, ā, ka whakawhāititia te hoko o ētahi atu momo waipiro ki te Māori
  • te Ture Hoko Wehikē ki Ngā Rohe Pāmamao 1870. Ko te kaupapa o tēnei ture he hanga i te pūnaha raihana ki ngā wāhi Māori
  • te Ture Raihana Māori 1878. Ko te kaupapa o tēnei ture he whakatau rohe ‘maroke’ ki ngā kāinga taiwhenua Māori
  • te ture Whakahaere Hoko Waipiro ki te Porohaurangi 1895. Nō konei ka aukatia te wahine Māori kia kaua ai e hoko waipiro, hāunga ērā kua moe tāne Pākehā
  • te Whakahounga Ture Raihana 1904. Nō konei i rāhuitia ai te tāne Māori ka kaua ai e hoko waipiro mō te kawe atu.

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua

Nā te Whakahounga Ture Raihana 1948 ka wetekina ngā ture tāmi i te whai wāhi a te Māori ki te waipiro. Ka kaha tautokona e ngā mōrehu hōia Māori i honea mai i te pakanga, ahakoa te noho whakakeke a ētahi o te iwi Māori. Heoi, ko tā te motu whānui, kia ōrite te noho ki a tauiwi. Ahakoa ngā panonitanga ture, ka pākati tonu ngā kaipupuri pāparakāuta i te hunga Māori mai i ō rātou whare i te mahara atu he porohaurangi te mahi.

Hikohiko te uira

Tērā te whakapae a te hunga ātete i te rāhui waipiro ki te Rohe Pōtae, e hoko ana ngā Māori i te inu ‘Lightning Rod’ (he methylated spirits, he wehikē me te inu rōpere) ki ngā kāuta. Nāwai ka puta te heitara a ētahi tērā pea he kaupapa whakamataku noa iho tēnei i te hunga Māori, kia pōti ki te whakahē i te rāhui waipiro.

Nō te noho ki ngā taone ki te whai mahi ka taunga te mahi inu waipiro ki te mahi a te iwi Māori. Ka waipiro kore ngā marae, engari karapinepine ai te iwi ki ngā whare me ngā karāti hei whakanui i ngā mārena me ngā rua tekau mā tahi.

Ngā porohaurangi

Nō te pito o te rautau 1900 e ōrite ana te tatauranga inu waipiro mō ia rā i waenganui i te Māori me Tauiwi. Engari arā anō ōna rerekētanga. Neke atu i te hauwhā o te Māori kāore e inu waipiro. He iti iho hoki ngā wā e inu ai te tangata Māori. Engari ka inu ana, he kaihoro ia. I te tekau tau 1980 e rua whakarea te rahi ake o tōna inu (i te wā kotahi) i te inu waipiro o tauiwi. Nō te tekau tau 2000 ka heke tēnei tatauranga, ā, 40 ōrau te kaha ake o te inu a te Māori i te inu waipiro a Tauiwi. Ka haere tonu te ia o ēnei tatauranga, engari ka heke haere te rahi o ngā Māori e inu ana.

He kino ake te porohaurangi haere (mō te tangata me tōna whānau) i te āta inu i ngā wā maha. Kātahi ka kino ake ngā pānga i te hanganga o te taupori Māori, arā, haurua kei raro iho i te 24 tau te pakeke. Kāti, koinei te wā e tino tāmia te tangata e ngā mate o te waipiro. E rua whakarea ake te pānga o te Māori e ngā mate o te waipiro, ā, e whā whakarea ake ka mate i tētahi tū āhua i takea mai i te waipiro.

Ka whakamahi te Māori i ngā ratonga hauora whānui, Māori hoki mō te whakakore i ngā tūkinotanga o te inu waipiro.

Footnotes

Māori use of drugs

Te hītori o te whakamahi whakapōauau

Kīhai te Māori o mua i whakamahi i ngā whakapōauau. Nō muri i ngā tau o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka pā te Māori ki tēnei tūāhua, i te noho tāone hoki. I te tekau tau 1970 ka horapa te momi tarukino i te hunga rangatahi. Kia pakeke haere tēnei hunga, kātahi ka tangata whenua te tarukino ki roto i ngā hapori Māori. Arā anō ētahi atu whakapōauau i whakamahia e ētahi rangatahi Māori.

I te tekau tau 1980 ka tahuri ētahi rangatahi Māori ki te hongi i ngā aerosols, te kurū, te penehīni, te haurehu, te waiwai peita, te peita me te methylated spirits. E kīia ana ēnei ngārara he ‘solvents’, ā, ko tōna mate he whakarerekē i te roro. I ētahi wā ka mate tonu he tangata i te whakamahi i tēnei ngārara.

Ngā tau rua mano

E ai ki te rangahau i te tau 2007-8, e 64.6 ōrau te hunga Māori i waenganui i te 16 me te 64 tau te pakeke kua whakamātau i tētahi whakapōauau. Koinei te tatauranga nui rawa mō tētahi iwi o Aotearoa. Mō te hunga Māori i whakamātau i tētahi whakapōauau, 30.8 ōrau i whakamātau i te 14 tau, heke iho rānei te pakeke. Mō tauiwi, e 16.9 ōrau te rahi. E 28 ōrau o te Māori kua raweke whakapōauau i te 12 marama i hipa; ā, e 17 ōrau mō te Pākehā; e 17.9 ōrau mō ngā iwi o ngā Moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa; e 5.7 ōrau mō ngā iwi o Āhia.

Ngā whakapōauau i whakamahia

Ko ētahi o ngā whakapōauau kei Aotearoa i te tau ruamano ko te tarukino, te ecstasy, te amphetamine, ngā rongoā whakahau, ngā whakapōauau o te tangata me te taiao, te ketamine, te GHB, te nitrous oxide me te pire BZP. Ko te tarukino me te pire BZP ngā tino whakapōauau ki te Māori. I te tau 2012 ka puta te pūrongo a te Rūnanga o Ngā Iwi o te Ao mō ngā tatauranga momi tarukino ki Te Moananui (Oceania) (ngā motu o Aotearoa, Ahitereiria me ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa), arā, e 9-15 ōrau o tōna taupori kei te momi tarukino. Ki te whakataurite atu ki tērā o te ao, e 3-5 ōrau noa iho te tatauranga.

Nō te tau 2000 ka tau mai ngā pire pāti BZP ki Aotearoa. Nō te tau 2005 ka tāpuitia ētahi āhuatanga ōna, ā, nō te tau 2008 ka rāhuitia tēnei whakapōauau. I mua atu, 23 ōrau o te hunga pakeke Māori kua raweke i tēnei kai, ā, e 14.4 ōrau o te hunga pakeke Pākehā i whāwhā atu ki tēnei kai.

Ko ētahi atu whakapōauau a te Māori ko te taimiri Pī me ngā solvent. E ai ki te rangahau o te tau 2007-8 kei runga te Māori e haere ana i ngā tatauranga kai Pī, arā, e 9.8 ōrau o te Māori; e 7.9 ōrau o te Pākehā, e 3.7 ōrau o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, e 1.8 ōrau o ngā tāngata Āhia ka mau i tēnei ngārara mō ake tonu atu. Ko ngā kēnge motupaika o tauiwi ngā tino kaihoko i te Pī, engari kua whai wāhi anō te Mangarū, te Mangu Kaha me te Rōpū Tribesman ki tōna hoko. Mai i te tau 1007-8 ki te tau 2011 ka heke iho te whakamahi Pī mā te haurua.

He tokoiti tonu te rangatahi Māori ka kai tonu i ngā solvents. I te tekau tau 2000, ko ngā tino o ngā whakapōauau nei mō te rangatahi ko te butane me te butane-propane. I waenganui i ngā tau 2000 me 2011, 61 ngā tāngata i mate i te hongi butane. 30 he Māori.


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How to cite this page: Megan Cook, 'Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tupeka-te-waipiro-me-te-tarukino/print (accessed 21 August 2019)

Story by Megan Cook, published 5 Sep 2013