Kōrero: Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino

Whārangi 2. Te whakamahi i te waipiro

Ngā whakaahua

Waihoki ki ētahi iwi o te motu, kāore e ārikarika ngā urupare a te Māori ki te waipiro. He rite tonu te wā ka puta mai te waipiro (te pia, te waina, te wehikē rānei) ki ngā whakangahau a te hunga whānau, hoa hoki. Ko ētahi o ōna hua, ko te whakahoahoa, ko te kanikani, ko te waiata me te pahupahu. Heoi, arā anō ōna kino e hua ai te whakamā, e raru ai te whānau, te rōpū, e haukotia ai ngā mahi whai take.

Kupu whakataki

Kāore te Māori i inu waipiro i mua i te taenga mai o Tauiwi; i tōna kawenga mai ki konei, kāore te nuinga i rata atu. Nā whai anō i tapaina iho ko te ‘waipiro’, ko te ‘wai kaha’, ko te ‘waipai’ rānei ki ērā i pārekareka ki tēnei inu. Heoi nō te tekau tau 1850 kātahi anō ka toremi te Māori i roto i te waipiro; nō konā, āta kuhuna haeretia te waipiro ki roto i te ao Māori.

He huhua ngā rangatira ka whakahē ki te waipiro i roto i ā rātou hapori, ā, ka whakatika ki te aukati i tōna kawenga haeretanga. Ka tū anō ngā hapū, ā, ka rāhuitia te inu waipiro i te marae, ka whakahaeretia rānei te whai wāhi ki te waipiro. I te tau 1884, ka tono a Ngāti Maniapoto kia noho ‘maroke’ Te Rohe Pōtae katoa. Koinei te rāhui waipiro nui rawa i Aotearoa. I te pito o te rautau 1800 me te ati o te rautau 1900 ka tūhono ētahi Māori ki ngā rōpū whakahē i te waipiro.

Ngā āwangawanga a te Māori

I te tau 1874 ka puta te petihana a ngā iwi Māori o Whanganui ki te Whare Paremata, ‘Ko te whakarawakore i a matou..kaore e whanau pai ana o matou uri i te nui o te kaiwaipiro a te taane a te wahine, ka waiho hei mate mo te tamaiti. Ko te whakapohehe tetahi i nga whakaaro o te tangata, a, ka tuhi pohehe ki nga pukapuka whai ritenga, ka waiho tena hei mate, me te whakakuare i nga tangata whakaaro nui o tenei iwi o te Maori. Tetahi ko te putake tenei o etahi o nga mate uruta e pa nei ki te tangata Maori, na te waipiro i taki mai. Me etahi e pa ana ki a matou, ka taka i i runga i te hoiho, he mate ki te wai, na te haurangi ano enei mate i taki mai. Me te tahuri hoki ki nga wahine a nga tangata, mahi ai i tetahi mahi tinihanga, ko taua kai ano ki te taki mai i tena mate.1

He wā anō ko te waipiro e para ana i te huarahi mō te hoko whenua; hei whakakore anō i te mamae o ngā aitūā me ngā raupatu whenua. Kātahi ka horapa te mahi a te porohaurangi mai i te tekau tau 1870. He āhuatanga tēnei ka kitea ki ngā taone iti, heoi nō te tekau tau 1890 kātahi anō ka ōrite ngā tatauranga hāmene waipiro a te Māori me Tauiwi. Nō te ati o te rautau 1900, ka tohutohu ngā rata Māori tuatahi ko te waipiro te raru nui mō ngā take whakahiato ora a te Māori.

Te urupare a te kāwanatanga

Kei ngā petihana Māori ki te kāwana me te paremata ngā whakaaro a te Māori ki te waipiro me tōna whakamahinga. Heoi ahakoa te pīrangi mā te kāwanatanga te hokotanga o te waipiro, ka whakahē tonu ētahi mā rātou ake e hautū ērā take mō rātou anō.

He maha ngā ture i whakamanahia e pā ana ki te Māori me te waipiro. Arā:

  • ko te Ture Hoko Waipiro ki te Māori 1847. Nā runga i tēnei ture ka rāhuitia te hoko wehikē ki te Māori, ā, ka whakawhāititia te hoko o ētahi atu momo waipiro ki te Māori
  • te Ture Hoko Wehikē ki Ngā Rohe Pāmamao 1870. Ko te kaupapa o tēnei ture he hanga i te pūnaha raihana ki ngā wāhi Māori
  • te Ture Raihana Māori 1878. Ko te kaupapa o tēnei ture he whakatau rohe ‘maroke’ ki ngā kāinga taiwhenua Māori
  • te ture Whakahaere Hoko Waipiro ki te Porohaurangi 1895. Nō konei ka aukatia te wahine Māori kia kaua ai e hoko waipiro, hāunga ērā kua moe tāne Pākehā
  • te Whakahounga Ture Raihana 1904. Nō konei i rāhuitia ai te tāne Māori ka kaua ai e hoko waipiro mō te kawe atu.

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua

Nā te Whakahounga Ture Raihana 1948 ka wetekina ngā ture tāmi i te whai wāhi a te Māori ki te waipiro. Ka kaha tautokona e ngā mōrehu hōia Māori i honea mai i te pakanga, ahakoa te noho whakakeke a ētahi o te iwi Māori. Heoi, ko tā te motu whānui, kia ōrite te noho ki a tauiwi. Ahakoa ngā panonitanga ture, ka pākati tonu ngā kaipupuri pāparakāuta i te hunga Māori mai i ō rātou whare i te mahara atu he porohaurangi te mahi.

Hikohiko te uira

Tērā te whakapae a te hunga ātete i te rāhui waipiro ki te Rohe Pōtae, e hoko ana ngā Māori i te inu ‘Lightning Rod’ (he methylated spirits, he wehikē me te inu rōpere) ki ngā kāuta. Nāwai ka puta te heitara a ētahi tērā pea he kaupapa whakamataku noa iho tēnei i te hunga Māori, kia pōti ki te whakahē i te rāhui waipiro.

Nō te noho ki ngā taone ki te whai mahi ka taunga te mahi inu waipiro ki te mahi a te iwi Māori. Ka waipiro kore ngā marae, engari karapinepine ai te iwi ki ngā whare me ngā karāti hei whakanui i ngā mārena me ngā rua tekau mā tahi.

Ngā porohaurangi

Nō te pito o te rautau 1900 e ōrite ana te tatauranga inu waipiro mō ia rā i waenganui i te Māori me Tauiwi. Engari arā anō ōna rerekētanga. Neke atu i te hauwhā o te Māori kāore e inu waipiro. He iti iho hoki ngā wā e inu ai te tangata Māori. Engari ka inu ana, he kaihoro ia. I te tekau tau 1980 e rua whakarea te rahi ake o tōna inu (i te wā kotahi) i te inu waipiro o tauiwi. Nō te tekau tau 2000 ka heke tēnei tatauranga, ā, 40 ōrau te kaha ake o te inu a te Māori i te inu waipiro a Tauiwi. Ka haere tonu te ia o ēnei tatauranga, engari ka heke haere te rahi o ngā Māori e inu ana.

He kino ake te porohaurangi haere (mō te tangata me tōna whānau) i te āta inu i ngā wā maha. Kātahi ka kino ake ngā pānga i te hanganga o te taupori Māori, arā, haurua kei raro iho i te 24 tau te pakeke. Kāti, koinei te wā e tino tāmia te tangata e ngā mate o te waipiro. E rua whakarea ake te pānga o te Māori e ngā mate o te waipiro, ā, e whā whakarea ake ka mate i tētahi tū āhua i takea mai i te waipiro.

Ka whakamahi te Māori i ngā ratonga hauora whānui, Māori hoki mō te whakakore i ngā tūkinotanga o te inu waipiro.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1874, session I, J-01, http://atojs.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/atojs?a=d&d=AJHR1874-I.2.2.6.1&e=-------10--1------2%22grog+is+the+cause%22-- (last accessed 27 November 2012). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Megan Cook, 'Te tupeka, te waipiro me te tarukino - Te whakamahi i te waipiro', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tupeka-te-waipiro-me-te-tarukino/page-2 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Megan Cook, published 5 Sep 2013