Kōrero: Te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki

Whārangi 3. Ngā mahi whakamārama reo i te tekau tau 2000

Ngā whakaahua

Te paheketanga o ngā ratonga whakamārama reo

Mō te tino nuinga o te rautau 1900, i paheke haere te tokomaha o ngā kaiwhakamārama reo, nā te āhei o ngā Māori ki te kōrero Pākehā, me te kūare o te nuinga ki te kōrero Māori. Ko te tipunga o te pōhēhē tērā ko te reo Pākehā te reo ‘mō ngā kaupapa katoa’, o Aotearoa. I tērā wā kāore te Pāremata i aro ki tētahi kaiwhakamārama reo. Ōrua mai kua whāiti noa te reo Māori ki ngā marae, me te hunga ngaio ki ngā tikanga me te reo Māori. 

Te reo Māori hei reo whai mana

I muri i ngā whakapātaritari ki te hunga tōrangapū, ka whakamanahia te reo Māori hei reo ōkawa o Aotearoa, ā, ka rangona whānuitia i ngā wāhi tūmatanui. Kātahi ka matomato te tipu o ngā tuhinga reorua, ā, ka piki haere ake te maha o ngā kaiwhakamārama reo. Ko rātou i tū ki mua i te kōti, ka āhei te kōwhiri i tō rātou reo tuku kōrero. I te tau 1996 ka whakaputaina te reo Māori ki te pepa tatauranga ā-motu. 

Nga tangata taumata rau

I te tau 1990 ka whakaputaina te pukapuka tuatahi (o ngā pukapuka e rima) o Ngā tāngata taumata rau i te Tari Taiwhenua me Allen and Unwin New Zealand. Ko tōna kaupapa he whakamāori i ngā hautaka Māori o te Dictionary of New Zealand biography. Neke atu i te 20 ngā kaiwhakamārama reo mai i ngā rohe huri noa i mahi ki te kaupapa nei, ka mutu hei whakaū i te reo ā-iwi o ngā tīpuna. Ko tēnei te whakamāori nui rawa mai anō i te whakamāoritanga o te Paipera i ngā rautau ki mua.  

Ngā māngai Māori

I te tau 1990 ka whakataua e te kaikōrero o te Paremata ka kore anō te māngai e whakamārama i āna ake kōrero. Whai i muri i te tau 1999 ka tohua tētahi kaiwhakamārama reo mō te Paremata. I te tau 2004, ka tū te ratonga whakamārama reo o te Paremata, me ngā kaiwhakamārama reo tokotoru (nāwai tokowhā rātou). I te tau 2010 ka rangona ngā whakamārama i roto i te whare, ki te taiwhanga tūmatanui me te hōngere Paremata. 

Pūnaha mātauranga

Nō te whakatuwheratanga o ngā kura kaupapa ka whakatenatenahia te whakamāoritanga o ngā rauemi marautanga. I roto i ngā whakamātautau kura tuarua, whare wānanga hoki, ka āhei te tauira ki te whakautu i tōna whakamātautau ki te reo. I te tau 2013 ka whakamāoritia ngā whakamātautau NCEA. 16 ngā momo kaupapa, pērā i te mahi kaute, i te mahi pakihi, i te ahupūngao, me te Pāniora. Ko ngā tauira whare wānanga ka aromatawaitia i roto i te reo Māori, ā, mā te whare wānanga anō e whakarite ngā whakamāramatanga. 

Te Ture Pāremata tuatahi i te reo Māori, me te reo Pākehā

I te tau 2013 ka puta te whakamāoritanga tuatahi o te katoa o tētahi ture. I mua atu ka whakaturehia te ture, kātahi ka whakamāoritia. Kāti, ko te Ture (Whakahoki i te Mana) o Mokomoko, te ture tuatahi kia whakaputaina ki ngā reo e rua. 

Te whakamāori i te reo Māori i te ipurangi

Nō te tipu haeretanga o ngā whakawhitinga pūhiko ka whanake haere ngā pūnaha whakamārama reo hei kapo atu mō te tangata reo Māori, me te tangata reo Pākehā. I te tau 2009 ka tāpirihia te reo Māori ki te ratonga whakamārama reo ā-ipurangi, arā, te Ketewhao Whakamārama reo o Google. Mai i te tau 2012 ka whakamāoritia a Facebook. I te tau 2013 ka whai wāhi te hunga turi ki te reo Māori i te Papakupu Ipurangi Reo Rotarota o Aotearoa. 

Native speaker

I tipu ake a Rangi McGarvey i roto i te reo Māori, ā, nō te haerenga rā anō ki te kura ka ako ia i te reo Pākehā. I te tau 1999 ka whai ia i te tohu kaiwhakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki. I whakapau kaha a Makaawe ki ngā pūtahi kāwanatanga, ki ngā pūrongo whakamāori, ki te mahi kaiwhakamārama reo hoki i te Paremata. I ngā huihuinga reorua, pērā i ngā hui a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, i tuku ia i ngā whakamārama wawe o te reo Māori. ‘Inā noa te pukahu o ngā mahi i ēnei rā, tērā i nanahi. E areare mai ana ngā tari, ā, e kaha ana te iwi ki te kōrero i te reo Māori.’1

Te raihana me te whakangungu

I waihangatia te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori i raro i te Ture Reo Māori i te tau 1987. Tētahi o ngā kawenga o Te Taura Whiri he whakatewhatewha, he tuku tohu ki te hunga whakamārama reo. Ko te Toi Reo Māori te ingoa o te Tohu Whakamārama Reo. Ka whakawhiwhia ki ērā ka puta i te whakamātautau ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki. I te tau 2014, 116 ngā kaiwhakamārama reo, ā, tokowhā he Pākehā.

I te tau 2014, ka whakaako te Whare Wānanga o Waikato i te tohu whakamārama reo. Ko Te Rōpū Whakamārama ā-waha, ā-tuhi o Aotearoa te rōpū ā-motu mō ngā kaiwhakamārama reo. 

Te whakamārama ki reo kē,  i reo kē hoki

Ahakoa ko ngā whakamāramatanga o te reo Māori me te reo Pākehā e whakaawe nei i te hītori o Aotearoa, he nui noa atu ngā reo kua whai wāhi ki te ahurea o te motu. He Tiamana, he Itari, he Wīwī kē te reo taketake o ētahi o ngā mihinare tōmua i tae mai i te rautau 1800. Nō muri i te whakapākehātanga o ā rātou reta, maharatanga, tuhinga hoki, ka puta ētahi māramatanga hou e pā ana ki ngā tūtakitakinga tōmua ki te Māori. 

Te reo rotarota o Aotearoa

I te tau 1985 ka tū te whakangungu tuatahi mō ngā kaiwhakamārama reo rotarota o Aotearoa. I te tau 1992 ka tīmata te tītohu ki Te Wānanga Aronui o Tāmaki-makaurau, ā, nāwai ka whakawhānuitia ki te tohu paetahi. Nō te tau 1997 ka tū te kaporeihana o Te Kāhui Kaiwhakamārama Reo Rotarota o Aotearoa. 

Pūrangiaho māramatanga

I te tau 2005 ka waihanga a Julia Marshall i a Gecko Press hei whakaputa i ngā pukapuka tamariki. Ko te nuinga o ngā pukapuka he mea whakamārama i tētahi atu reo. I noho a Marshall ki Sweden, ā, i tumeke ia ki ngā pukapuka tamariki 20 a Ulf Stark i whakamāramatia ki reo kē – heoi kāore i whakapākehātia. ‘Ka kī au, kātahi te mea rerekē, ka whakahoki mai rātou, e kāo, he ritenga noa’. Inā te pai o te pukapuka …kāore i whakapākehātia. Hoki atu, hoki atu, ko taua āhua anō rā.’2 Ko ētahi o ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa pērā i a Catherine Chidgey rāua ko Linda Burgess kua mahi kē mā Gecko. He nui ngā tohu kua whakawhiwhia ki a Gecko.

Ngā toi tuhinga 

He nui ngā mahi a ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa kua whakamāramatia ki reo kē, ā, kua whakamāoritia ngā mahi a Witi Ihimaera me Patricia Grace mā.

Nō te tau 2008 ka tuwhera Te Tumu Whakawhiti Tuhinga o Aotearoa ki Te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika-a-Māui; ki te rangahau i ngā take e pā ana ki te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ki te taunaki i ngā kaiwhakamārama reo ā-tuhi me te whakawhanake i ngā whakamārama reo ā-tuhi. I te tau 2011 ka tīmata a Toi Aotearoa ki te whakarato i te whakamāramatanga o ngā tuhinga o Aotearoa ki ngā reo manene. I ia tau, neke atu i te 10 ngā puka ka whakaputaina i roto i te reo Tiamana. I te tau 2012 ka piki ki tua atu i te 100. I tērā tau ko Aotearoa te manuhiri tūārangi ki te ahurei pukapuka o Frankfurt. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Personal communication, Mei 2014. Back
  2. Tohutoro Caren Wilton, ‘Found in translation,’ New Zealand Listener, 17 Hānuere 2009, p. 39. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Mark Derby, 'Te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki - Ngā mahi whakamārama reo i te tekau tau 2000', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whakamarama-reo-a-tuhi-a-waha-hoki/page-3 (accessed 20 November 2017)

Story by Mark Derby, published 22 Oct 2014