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Translation and interpreting – te whakamāori ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki

by Mark Derby

I ngā tau tōmua o te noho o te iwi Pākehā ki Aotearoa he tino tangata te kaiwhakamārama, i āhei ai rātou te whakawhiti kōrero me te Māori. He nui ngā tuhinga e tautohetia ana tōna mārama, pērā i te Tiriti o Waitangi. He tūranga hira tō te kaiwhakamārama reo i roto i ngā mahi whakarauora i te reo Māori.


First English–Māori translations

He paku rerekē nei te tikanga mahi o te kaiwhakamārama reo ā-tuhi me te kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha. Ko te kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha ka whakamārama wawe i te kupu kī. Ko te kaiwhakamārama ā-tuhi ka mahi ki ngā tuhinga, me te aro ki te hopu i te tikanga o te kōrero. 

Ko Tupaia rāua ko Kuki

Nō te whānau reo o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa te reo Māori. Nō konei ka noho te rangatira o Tahiti a Tupaia hei kaiwhakamārama reo mā Kāpene Kuki i tōna haerenga tuatahi ki Aotearoa i te tau 1769. I Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ka rokohangatia ngā Māori i runga i ngā waka e rua. Ka whakatata atu ki te kaipuke, ā, ka whakawhiti kōrero rāua ki a Tupaia. He mārama tonu ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero a te hunga nei.1

Te whiunga kupu a te Atua

Nō tētahi pō i te tau 1845, ka oho ake te mihinare a Robert Maunsell i te auau o te kurī. I tōna ohonga, e mura ana tōna whare, ā, ka wera hoki tāna whakamāoritanga o te Paipera Tawhito. 13 tau i muri mai, ka whakatau ake a Maunsell. ‘Kua oti te kupu a te Atua te tā ki te reo Māori … tiwhatiwha katoa te ao i ngā tau 13 ki mua, i te weranga o tōku whare, o ōku pepa me ōku tuhinga i roto i te haora me te hāwhe.’2

Ko Ruatara rāua ko Marsden

Nō te tīmatatanga o te noho a te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, me whakawhitiwhiti kōrero rātou me te Māori e puta ai te ihu. He tūranga hira tō te kaiwhakamārama reo ki ngā taha e rua. Ko te rangatira o Ngāpuhi ko Ruatara tētahi i whai i ngā mihinare pērā i a Samuel Marsden ki roto o Pēwhairangi i te tau 1814. Nāna i whakamāori te kauhau a Marsden i te Kirihimete i taua tau. ‘Ka kī atu ngā Māori ki a Ruatara, tē āro i a rātou te tikanga o aku kōrero. Ka whakahoki ia kia kaua rātou e māharahara, māna tonu e whakamārama ngā kōrero. I te mutunga o taku kauhau, ka whakamārama ia i aku kōrero ki te minenga.’3

Ko Dicky Barrett 

Ko te hunga Pākehā i noho ki waenganui i te Māori, ā, i ako ki te reo i kīia he Pākehā-Māori. Ko tētahi o ngā Pākehā nei ko te kaihoko ko Dicky Barrett. E ai ki a Henry Williams ko ia te kauwaka kawe whakaaro i waenganui i te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni me te Māori’.4 Heoi ko te reo Māori a Barrett nā ngā kaipatu wēra i homai, ā, i ōrite ki te kūkū Ingarihi a ngā Hainamana’. Nāwai ka kitea e te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi he koretake a Barrett hei kaiwhakamārama reo, arā, i te tāpaetanga hoko o tētahi whenua, kīhai ia i whakamārama tika i ngā kōrero ki ngā Māori’.6

Te whakamārama i ngā Karaipiture

Nāwai ka taunga ētahi mihinare ki te reo Māori, ā, he nui ngā whiti o Te Paipera me ētahi atu tuhinga Karaitiana tapu i whakaputaina ki  te reo Māori. Nō te tau 1837, kua oti kē i a William Williams te whakamāori i te Paipera Hou me te nuinga o te puka o ngā īnoi whānui. I kite a William Colenso i te uaua o te whakamāori i te kupu kōrero. E ai ki a ia he reo tohunga te reo Māori … ko tōna oro, ko tōna iere, ko ōna kupu whakawhāiti, ko tōna whānuitanga, he mea mīharo … e whai hua ana ngā tikanga maha i roto i te reo … tata tonu e kore e taea te whakamārama ki te reo Pākehā.’7

Footnotes

Treaty of Waitangi, publications and Parliament

Te Tiriti o Waitangi 

Ko te whakamāoritanga ongaonga rawa atu ko te whakamāramatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā Henry Williams rāua ko tana tama nā Edward i whakamāori te tiriti i te pō kotahi, arā, i te 4 o Huitanguru i te tau 1840. Ehara te tokorua nei i te mātanga ki te reo Māori pērā i ētahi o ngā mihinare pērā i a Colenso. Ka whakaae a Te Karuwhā, ‘I roto i tēnei whakamāoritanga ka mahue ngā rerenga kōrero Ingarihi, tā te mea kāore ōna ritenga i te reo Māori, e whakaputaina ai te wairua me te āhua tonu o te tiriti.’1 Nā reira ka rerekē te tikanga o ngā rerenga o te Tiriti reo Māori, nā te āhua tonu o tā Te Karuwhā whakamāori i te reo Pākehā.

Tino rangatiratanga

I roto i te wāhanga Māori o te tiriti ka whakanōhia te tino rangatiratanga (‘full, exclusive and undisturbed possesion’) ki ngā rangatira Māori, o ō rātou whenua, o ō rātou kāinga, me ō rātou taonga katoa. E rima tau i mua kua haina ngā rangatira o Te Ika-a-Māui i Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga, arā, te Declaration of Independence. Nāwai, nāwai ko aua rangatira anō ka tāmoko i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te āhua nei i te mahara ētahi o ngā kaihaina o te tiriti ki ngā kōrero o te Whakaputanga mō te tino rangatiratanga, ā, kīhai rātou i mārama e tuku atu ana rātou i te mana motuhake ki te Karauna.  

Te mārama ki te tiriti

I te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te 6 o Hongongoi i te tau 1840 ka māharahara a Colenso mō te kore e mārama o ētahi rangatira ki te tiriti.2 Ki a Kāwana Hopihana, tino nui te whakapaunga kaha a te taha Ingarihi ki te whakamārama i te tiriti ki ngā rangatira.3 I ēnei rā tonu nei, e tautohe tonutia ana ngā whakaritenga o te tiriti. 

Ngā niupepa reo Māori

I te tau 1842 ka whakaputaina te niupepa reo Māori tuatahi o Te Karere o Nui Tireni. Nā te kāwanatanga i whakaputa tēnei niupepa hei whakawhiti i ngā whakaaro a te kāwanatanga ki te Māori. I ngā tekau tau o muri mai he nui noa atu ngā whakaputanga ka whakamāoritia, i te taunga haere o te Māori ki te pānui i tōna ake reo, engari kāore i pai ki te pānui Ingarihi.

Pei Te Hurinui Jones

Mā te matatau ki ngā reo e rua ka hua ake te whakamāramatanga tōtika. He Pākehā te matua tāne o Pei Te Hurinui Jone, ā, he wahine rangatira nō Ngāti Maniapoto tōna whaea. He iti noa iho ōna tohu kura, engari ka maiangi ia hei kaituhi autaia i roto i ngā reo e rua. Ko ētahi o ngā tuhinga nāna i whakamāori ko tā Edward Fitzgerald The rubáiyát of OmarKhayyám, ko ngā whakaari a Rūrūtao a The merchant of Venice, a Julius Caesar me Othello. I te tau 2002 ka hangaia te kiriata Māori o The merchant of Venice, arā, Te tangata whai rawa o Wēneti.

Te pueatanga o ngā ratonga whakamāori reo

I te mutunga o te rautau 1800 ka kaha hiahiatia ngā kaiwhakamārama reo ki ngā kōti, ngā tari kāwanatanga me ngā huihuinga ōkawa a te Pākehā me te Māori. I tērā wā, tata tonu ki te katoa o te iwi Māori e kōrero Māori ana, engari he itiiti noa iho i kōrero Pākehā. He rite tonu he hawhekaihe ngā kaiwhakamārama reo, he Pākehā rānei i tipu ake i te mātotorutanga o te iwi i ngā kaīnga Māori. 

Te whakamahi i te reo ki te Whare Paremata

Mai anō i te tau 1840 he take ongaonga te whakamahi i te reo Māori i roto i te Pāremata, i roto i ngā ture. Nō te tau 1858 kātahi anō ka tāia he ture ki te reo Māori, ahakoa ko te huhua noa o ngā ture kua oti kē te whakahipa, pērā i ngā ture whenua Māori. Nō te kōwhiringa mai o ngā māngai Māori tuatahi i te tau 1868, he itiiti noa iho te reo Pākehā i a rātou. Kīhai anō i whakamāoritia ngā kauhau a ngā Pākehā i ngā wā katoa, nā reira kīhai ngā māngai Māori i whai wāhi ki ngā tautohetohe o te whare.

Nō te tekau tau 1880 e toru ngā kaiwhakamārama reo o te Paremata hei whakapākehā i ngā kauhau a ngā māngai Māori, me te whakamāori anō i ngā tuhinga kāwanatanga. I te tau 1913 ka whakaturea e te Kaikōrero o te whare kia kaua anō ngā māngai e mātau ana ki te kōrero Pākehā e kōrero i te reo Māori, ki te kore he kaiwhakamārama reo i reira. Nō te tekau tau 1930, ka whakatau ngā māngai Māori mā rātou anō ā rātou kōrero e whakamārama. 

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Allen & Unwin, Port Nicholson Press with assistance from the Historical Publications Branch, Dept. of Internal Affairs, 1987, p. 13. Back
    • Tohutoro The Treaty of Waitangi, p. 59. Back
    • Tohutoro The Treaty of Waitangi, p. 54. Back

Translation into the 2000s

Te paheketanga o ngā ratonga whakamārama reo

Mō te tino nuinga o te rautau 1900, i paheke haere te tokomaha o ngā kaiwhakamārama reo, nā te āhei o ngā Māori ki te kōrero Pākehā, me te kūare o te nuinga ki te kōrero Māori. Ko te tipunga o te pōhēhē tērā ko te reo Pākehā te reo ‘mō ngā kaupapa katoa’, o Aotearoa. I tērā wā kāore te Pāremata i aro ki tētahi kaiwhakamārama reo. Ōrua mai kua whāiti noa te reo Māori ki ngā marae, me te hunga ngaio ki ngā tikanga me te reo Māori. 

Te reo Māori hei reo whai mana

I muri i ngā whakapātaritari ki te hunga tōrangapū, ka whakamanahia te reo Māori hei reo ōkawa o Aotearoa, ā, ka rangona whānuitia i ngā wāhi tūmatanui. Kātahi ka matomato te tipu o ngā tuhinga reorua, ā, ka piki haere ake te maha o ngā kaiwhakamārama reo. Ko rātou i tū ki mua i te kōti, ka āhei te kōwhiri i tō rātou reo tuku kōrero. I te tau 1996 ka whakaputaina te reo Māori ki te pepa tatauranga ā-motu. 

Nga tangata taumata rau

I te tau 1990 ka whakaputaina te pukapuka tuatahi (o ngā pukapuka e rima) o Ngā tāngata taumata rau i te Tari Taiwhenua me Allen and Unwin New Zealand. Ko tōna kaupapa he whakamāori i ngā hautaka Māori o te Dictionary of New Zealand biography. Neke atu i te 20 ngā kaiwhakamārama reo mai i ngā rohe huri noa i mahi ki te kaupapa nei, ka mutu hei whakaū i te reo ā-iwi o ngā tīpuna. Ko tēnei te whakamāori nui rawa mai anō i te whakamāoritanga o te Paipera i ngā rautau ki mua.  

Ngā māngai Māori

I te tau 1990 ka whakataua e te kaikōrero o te Paremata ka kore anō te māngai e whakamārama i āna ake kōrero. Whai i muri i te tau 1999 ka tohua tētahi kaiwhakamārama reo mō te Paremata. I te tau 2004, ka tū te ratonga whakamārama reo o te Paremata, me ngā kaiwhakamārama reo tokotoru (nāwai tokowhā rātou). I te tau 2010 ka rangona ngā whakamārama i roto i te whare, ki te taiwhanga tūmatanui me te hōngere Paremata. 

Pūnaha mātauranga

Nō te whakatuwheratanga o ngā kura kaupapa ka whakatenatenahia te whakamāoritanga o ngā rauemi marautanga. I roto i ngā whakamātautau kura tuarua, whare wānanga hoki, ka āhei te tauira ki te whakautu i tōna whakamātautau ki te reo. I te tau 2013 ka whakamāoritia ngā whakamātautau NCEA. 16 ngā momo kaupapa, pērā i te mahi kaute, i te mahi pakihi, i te ahupūngao, me te Pāniora. Ko ngā tauira whare wānanga ka aromatawaitia i roto i te reo Māori, ā, mā te whare wānanga anō e whakarite ngā whakamāramatanga. 

Te Ture Pāremata tuatahi i te reo Māori, me te reo Pākehā

I te tau 2013 ka puta te whakamāoritanga tuatahi o te katoa o tētahi ture. I mua atu ka whakaturehia te ture, kātahi ka whakamāoritia. Kāti, ko te Ture (Whakahoki i te Mana) o Mokomoko, te ture tuatahi kia whakaputaina ki ngā reo e rua. 

Te whakamāori i te reo Māori i te ipurangi

Nō te tipu haeretanga o ngā whakawhitinga pūhiko ka whanake haere ngā pūnaha whakamārama reo hei kapo atu mō te tangata reo Māori, me te tangata reo Pākehā. I te tau 2009 ka tāpirihia te reo Māori ki te ratonga whakamārama reo ā-ipurangi, arā, te Ketewhao Whakamārama reo o Google. Mai i te tau 2012 ka whakamāoritia a Facebook. I te tau 2013 ka whai wāhi te hunga turi ki te reo Māori i te Papakupu Ipurangi Reo Rotarota o Aotearoa. 

Native speaker

I tipu ake a Rangi McGarvey i roto i te reo Māori, ā, nō te haerenga rā anō ki te kura ka ako ia i te reo Pākehā. I te tau 1999 ka whai ia i te tohu kaiwhakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki. I whakapau kaha a Makaawe ki ngā pūtahi kāwanatanga, ki ngā pūrongo whakamāori, ki te mahi kaiwhakamārama reo hoki i te Paremata. I ngā huihuinga reorua, pērā i ngā hui a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi, i tuku ia i ngā whakamārama wawe o te reo Māori. ‘Inā noa te pukahu o ngā mahi i ēnei rā, tērā i nanahi. E areare mai ana ngā tari, ā, e kaha ana te iwi ki te kōrero i te reo Māori.’1

Te raihana me te whakangungu

I waihangatia te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori i raro i te Ture Reo Māori i te tau 1987. Tētahi o ngā kawenga o Te Taura Whiri he whakatewhatewha, he tuku tohu ki te hunga whakamārama reo. Ko te Toi Reo Māori te ingoa o te Tohu Whakamārama Reo. Ka whakawhiwhia ki ērā ka puta i te whakamātautau ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki. I te tau 2014, 116 ngā kaiwhakamārama reo, ā, tokowhā he Pākehā.

I te tau 2014, ka whakaako te Whare Wānanga o Waikato i te tohu whakamārama reo. Ko Te Rōpū Whakamārama ā-waha, ā-tuhi o Aotearoa te rōpū ā-motu mō ngā kaiwhakamārama reo. 

Te whakamārama ki reo kē,  i reo kē hoki

Ahakoa ko ngā whakamāramatanga o te reo Māori me te reo Pākehā e whakaawe nei i te hītori o Aotearoa, he nui noa atu ngā reo kua whai wāhi ki te ahurea o te motu. He Tiamana, he Itari, he Wīwī kē te reo taketake o ētahi o ngā mihinare tōmua i tae mai i te rautau 1800. Nō muri i te whakapākehātanga o ā rātou reta, maharatanga, tuhinga hoki, ka puta ētahi māramatanga hou e pā ana ki ngā tūtakitakinga tōmua ki te Māori. 

Te reo rotarota o Aotearoa

I te tau 1985 ka tū te whakangungu tuatahi mō ngā kaiwhakamārama reo rotarota o Aotearoa. I te tau 1992 ka tīmata te tītohu ki Te Wānanga Aronui o Tāmaki-makaurau, ā, nāwai ka whakawhānuitia ki te tohu paetahi. Nō te tau 1997 ka tū te kaporeihana o Te Kāhui Kaiwhakamārama Reo Rotarota o Aotearoa. 

Pūrangiaho māramatanga

I te tau 2005 ka waihanga a Julia Marshall i a Gecko Press hei whakaputa i ngā pukapuka tamariki. Ko te nuinga o ngā pukapuka he mea whakamārama i tētahi atu reo. I noho a Marshall ki Sweden, ā, i tumeke ia ki ngā pukapuka tamariki 20 a Ulf Stark i whakamāramatia ki reo kē – heoi kāore i whakapākehātia. ‘Ka kī au, kātahi te mea rerekē, ka whakahoki mai rātou, e kāo, he ritenga noa’. Inā te pai o te pukapuka …kāore i whakapākehātia. Hoki atu, hoki atu, ko taua āhua anō rā.’2 Ko ētahi o ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa pērā i a Catherine Chidgey rāua ko Linda Burgess kua mahi kē mā Gecko. He nui ngā tohu kua whakawhiwhia ki a Gecko.

Ngā toi tuhinga 

He nui ngā mahi a ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa kua whakamāramatia ki reo kē, ā, kua whakamāoritia ngā mahi a Witi Ihimaera me Patricia Grace mā.

Nō te tau 2008 ka tuwhera Te Tumu Whakawhiti Tuhinga o Aotearoa ki Te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika-a-Māui; ki te rangahau i ngā take e pā ana ki te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ki te taunaki i ngā kaiwhakamārama reo ā-tuhi me te whakawhanake i ngā whakamārama reo ā-tuhi. I te tau 2011 ka tīmata a Toi Aotearoa ki te whakarato i te whakamāramatanga o ngā tuhinga o Aotearoa ki ngā reo manene. I ia tau, neke atu i te 10 ngā puka ka whakaputaina i roto i te reo Tiamana. I te tau 2012 ka piki ki tua atu i te 100. I tērā tau ko Aotearoa te manuhiri tūārangi ki te ahurei pukapuka o Frankfurt. 

Footnotes
    • Personal communication, Mei 2014. Back
    • Tohutoro Caren Wilton, ‘Found in translation,’ New Zealand Listener, 17 Hānuere 2009, p. 39. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Mark Derby, 'Te whakamārama reo ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whakamarama-reo-a-tuhi-a-waha-hoki/print (accessed 25 August 2019)

Story by Mark Derby, published 22 Oct 2014