Kōrero: Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Whārangi 2. Ngā whakamāramatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

He mea reo Māori, reo Pākehā hoki

He rerekē te tikanga o te tiriti reo Māori ki te tikanga o te tiriti (the treaty) reo Pākehā. He nui te taupatupatu i ngā rerekētanga. I te wā i waitohua ai, kāore i te mārama mēnā i āta whakaarohia tēnā kupu, me tēnā kupu. He nui ake pea te hira o ngā matapaki ā-waha i mua i ngā waitohutanga i tā ngā pukapuka ā-tuhi.

Ka waitohua e te nuinga o Ngāi Māori te tuhinga i tuhia ki te reo Māori.

Upoko Tuatahi

Te reo Māori: ka tuku ngā rangatira i ‘te Kawanatanga katoa’ ki te kuini – arā, tā te kāwana mana, te kāwanatanga rānei i runga i te whenua.
 
Te reo Pākehā: ka tuku ngā rangatira i 'all the rights and powers of sovereignty' i runga i te whenua ki te kuini.
 

Upoko Tuarua;

Te reo Māori: ka whakaaetia, ka oatitia hoki ki ngā rangatira ‘te tino rangatiratanga’ – te whakahaere i te rangatiratanga – o ō rātou whenua, kāinga, taonga katoa. Ka whakaae ngāi Māori ki te tuku ki te Karauna te mōtika kia mahi tahi me rātou mō te hoko whenua.
 
Te reo Pākehā: ka whakaae, ka oatitia hoki ki ngā rangatira te ‘exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands and estates, forests, fisheries, and other properties’. Ko te tūmanako o te Karauna ko te mōtika motuhake kia mahi tahi me te Māori e pā ana ki ngā hoko whenua.
 

Upoko Tuatoru

Te reo Māori: Ka kī taurangi te Karauna ka whiwhi ngāi Māori ki te whakahaumaru a te kuini me ngā mōtika katoa a ngā kirirarau Piritānia. He whakamāoritanga tika tēnei o ngā kupu Ingarihi, ahakoa kāore i whakamāramahia ēnei mōtika.

Ko ngā take kia waitohu

I te tau 1840, i whakatau ētahi rangatira Māori kia waitohu, kia kaua e waitohu rānei, nā runga i ngā kupu Māori, ā, i muri i te whaiwhakaaro ki ētahi kaupapa. I hiahiatia e rātou kia whakahaeretia te taunga mai o te tangata me te tautoko kia whakahaere i ngā tāngata whai me te hoko whenua. Ka whiwhi ngā hapori Māori i te hokohoko me te whiwhinga pūtea ukauka i ngā kōwhiringa mahi. Mā tēnei hononga hou e taea ai te karo i te whawahi i waenganui i ngā iwi kua piki te kaha i ngā tekau tau i mua.

Ahakoa i mōhio ngā rangatira mā te whakahaerenga koroniara e whakatū ētahi herenga kia whakahaere mana, i otai ngā āpiha ka noho tonu ō rātou ake rangatiratanga i raro i te Upoko Tuarua o te tiriti (i roto i te tuhinga reo Māori). Ko te whakapae i puta ka tuaritia te mana i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngā rangatira. Ka whakanuia tēnei mana tuari e ērā atu atikara tiriti, hei painga mō ngāi Māori.

Reasons for not signing

Kāore ētahi rangatira i whai wāhi ki te waitohu i te tiriti, nā te mea, te āhua nei, kāore he hui tiriti i tū ki Taranaki, ki Wairarapa hoki, ā, he ngōuruuru ki ētahi atu rohe, pērā i Te Matau-a-Māui. I ētahi wā kāore i reira ngā rangatira, ā, nā te whāwhai kāore ngā kaiwhiriwhiri i tatari kia hoki mai rātou.

Ahakoa i tae tētahi tārua o te tiriti ki waenga o Te Ika-a-Māui, e kore ngā rangatira o Te Arawa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa e waitohu ai. He iti iho te pānga o te ao Pākehā ki ngā iwi tuawhenua i tō ngā iwi takutai moana i taua wā. I uaratia e ngā rangatira tō rātou tū motuhake, ā, kāore i te rata ki noho tō rātou mana i raro i te mana o te kuini o Piritānia. I whakahē hoki te rangatira mana nui o Waikato, a Te Wherowhero kia waitohu, ā, koia pea te take.

I roto i ngā takiwā i te whawhai tonu ngā iwi, kāore i rata ngā rangatira kia raweke a Piritānia. E kore a Tāraia (Ngāti Tamaterā me Ngāti Maru) nō Hauraki rāua ko Tūpaea (Ngāi Te Rangi) nō Tauranga e whakaae kia waitohu i te tiriti nā te mea i hiahia rāua kia mau tonu ki ngā whakahaere katoa o ō rātou kaupapa, me te whakatau i ō rāua ake tautohetohe.

Ahakoa tērā ētahi rangatira mana nui kāore i waitohu i te tiriti, i riro pea i te Karauna o Piritānia i te mana mō ana mahere whakatū koroni. Heoi anō, ehara i te mea he kaha rawa tōna whaimana, ā, kāore e kore ka werohia ā tōna wā.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Claudia Orange, 'Te Tiriti o Waitangi - Ngā whakamāramatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tiriti-o-waitangi/page-2 (accessed 15 July 2024)

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 28 Mar 2023 me te āwhina o Claudia Orange