Kōrero: Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Whārangi 6. Te whakatinana i te tiriti – 1900 ki te 1940

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ka pupū ake ngā tūmanako Māori

Ahakoa te hokona tonutia o ngā whenua Māori, i whakapiki te pai o ngā hononga i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me te Māori i ngā tekau tau tuatahi o te rautau 20. Nā reira, i puea ake te tūmanako a te Māori ka whakautea e te kāwanatanga ngā mōtika tiriti a te Māori.

Ka piki ake te whai wāhi atu o te hunga rangatira Māori kua riro i te mātauranga i roto i te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā, ā, i tīmata ki te urupare i ngā raruraru ā-pāpori. Ko te tangata rongonui o tēnei rōpū ko Āpirana Ngata nō Ngāti Porou, he mema Pāremata nō te pōtitanga Māori ki te Tai Rāwhiti mai i te tau 1905 ki te tau 1943. I ngā 1920 i whakauru a Ngata i ngā kaupapa hei whakawhakanake i te whenua Māori me te whakarōpū i ngā whai pānga whenua tīmokamoka. I whiwhi ngā hinonga pāmu Māori ki te pūtea Māori mō te wā tuatahi.

Te whakatau nawe?

I roto i ngā 1920 i tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te urupare i ētahi nawe Māori. I te tau 1921 i whakaae tētahi Kōmihana Kerēme Whenua Iwi Taketake i ngā nawe a Ngāi Tahu mō te hoko whenua. I te tau 1928 i whakaaengia e te Kōmihana Sim i ngā nawe maha a ngā iwi i raupatuhia ō rātou whenua i muri i ngā pakanga o ngā 1860. I ngā kaupapa e rua, ka tāria ngā 1940 kia whakaritea he whakataunga, me te aha, he utu ā-tau iti ki ngā poari taratī.

Te whakahoki i ngā mōtika hī ika

I whakamātau ngāi Māori mō ngā tau huhua kia whiwhi ki ngā tūmomo mōtika hī ika, engari kāore i angitu. I te tīmatanga o ngā 1920 i tūtohu te kāwanatanga i ngā kerēme wā roa o Te Arawa ki ngā mōtika tuku iho ki ngā roto i te rohe o Rotorua, ā, i whakaae ki te utu paremata mō te rironga atu o ngā mōtika hī ika, tāpukenga hoki i roto i ngā roto. I te tau 1926 i whakatauhia tētahi whakaaetanga ōrite me Ngāti Tūwharetoa e pā ana ki ana mōtika ki Taupō-nui-a-Tia me ngā pūkaki e pā tata ana. Nā ngā whakaaetanga nei i puea ake ngā tūmanako Māori mō ētahi atu mōtika tiriti.

Te kaupapa tōrangapū a Rātana

I te tuatahi he kaupapa poropiti te Hāhi Rātana, engari ka uru ki te tōrangapū i ngā 1920 me te whāinga motuhake kia whiwhi ki ngā mōtika tiriti. Nāna te karanga kia whakaaetia ā-ture te tiriti. E ai ki te Hāhi Rātana, ki te kore tēnei e whiwhia, e kore e taea te whakamana me te whakatinana i te tiriti.

Ka waihanga te kaupapa tōrangapū a Rātana i te hononga ki te Pāti Reipa, ā, ka toa ana kaitono pāremata i t katoa o ngā tūru Māori e whā i te pōtitanga matawhānui o 1943. Ka whai ngā mema pāremata o Rātana kia whakamanahia ā-ture te tiriti i roto i ngā 30 tau i muri iho.

Te koha i te Whare Tiriti

Ka āta warea Tiriti o Waitangi e ngā Pākehā o Aotearoa i te tīmatanga o te rautau 20, engari ka arohia te hunga tūmatanui i te tau 1932. I taua tau ka kohaina e te kāwana-tianara, Lord Bledisloe me tana wahine te whare a James Busby ki Waitangi ki te motu. I waitohua te tiriti i mua i te aroaro o taua whare ki Waitangi, i runga i te whenua e pā tata ana. I tū tētahi hui nui ki te marae o Te Tii i te tau 1934 hei tohu i tēnei koha. I tohu hoki te huringa tau 100 o te tīpakonga a ngā rangatira o te Tai Tokerau i te kara o ngā Whakaminenga o ngā Hapū o Nu Tireni hei kara o te whenua motuhake o Nu Tireni.

Ko ngā whakanuitanga rautau, 1940

Ka hiahia te kāwanatanga kia whakaatuhia te whakahīhī ā-motu me te kotahitanga mō te rautau o te waitohu o te tiriti i te tau 1940. Kāore i pērā te rikarika a te Māori, nā te mea he hōhā ngā iwi maha ki te mahi ngoikore a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki te tiriti. Heoi anō, ka whakamahia e Āpirana Ngata ngā whakanuinga rautau ki te miramira i te ngoikore o te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki ngā oati tiriti, me te whakahau i te kāwanatanga kia whakatau i ngā nawe tiriti.

I waihangatia te whare rūnanga ki Waitangi, e tata ana ki Whare Tiriti o Busby, ā, i huakina mō ngā whakanuinga o 1940. Ka waihangatia, ka whakairohia hoki te whare i raro i te tirohanga a Ngata. Ki a ia, he tohu tēnei o ngā hoa rangapū e tū ngātahi ana.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Claudia Orange, 'Te Tiriti o Waitangi - Te whakatinana i te tiriti – 1900 ki te 1940', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tiriti-o-waitangi/page-6 (accessed 20 July 2024)

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 28 Mar 2023 me te āwhina o Claudia Orange