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Te Tiriti o Waitangi – the Treaty of Waitangi

by Claudia Orange

Ko te tino tikanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi (Treaty of Waitangi i roto i te reo Pākehā), te pukapuka taketake o Aotearoa, he rangapū i waenganui i Ngāi Māori me te Karauna o Piritānia. Ahakoa ko tūmanako kia whakakotahi, nā ngā māramatanga rerekē ki te tiriti, me ngā whatinga, i tutū ai te puehu. Mai i ngā 1970 i mōhio haere te hunga tūmatanui ki te tiriti, ā, i whānui haere te whakapau kaha ki te whakahōnore i te tiriti me ōna mātāpono.


Creating te Tiriti o Waitangi – the Treaty of Waitangi

He aha te Tiriti o Waitangi?

Ko te Tiriti o Waitangi (e kīia nei Treaty of Waitangi ki te reo Māori), he whakaaetanga i wahangatia i te tau 1840 i waenganui i ngā māngai o te Karauna o Piritānia me (ā tōna wā) ngā rangatira Māori neke atu i te 500. Ko te putanga ko te whakaputanga o te kāwanatanga o Piritānia mō Aotearoa e Rūtene-Kāwana Wiremu Hopihana i te Mei o te tau 1840. Ka waitohua e te nuinga o Ngāi Māori te tiriti reo Māori.

He rerekē ngā tikanga o te tiriti reo Pākehā me te tiriti reo Māori. Nā reira, he rerekē ngā kawatau a te Māori, me ā te Pākehā, nō ngā kupu o te tiriti. Mai i taua wā, kua tāpaetia he wero ki Aotearoa kia whakatau i ēnei rerekētanga.

Aotearoa i mua i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I ngā 1830 ko Aotearoa he whenua motuhake, i whakahaeretia e ngā hapū, ā, he rohe tawhiti o te koroni whare herehere Piritānia, o Niu Haute Wēra. I te wā e whakawhānui ana te hokohoko me ngā kaipuke, e whakawhirinaki ana ngā hononga i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā ki te mahi tahi i runga i te rangimārie, engari i ētahi wā ka puta mai te whakarekereke. Kāore te ture Piritānia i kapi i te whakahaere i ngā kirirarau Piritānia i Aotearoa, nā reira i tono ētahi kainoho Pākehā ki te kāwanatanga Piritānia kia hāpaiora ko te whakamau rongo te take. E ngākau kore ana taua kāwanatanga Piritānia.

Ka nui ake te āwangawanga o te kāwanatanga Piritānia ki ētahi atu āhuatanga. E ai ki ngā rongo kōrero kua hokona e ngā Pākehā whakapae ngā takiwā nui rawa o Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu. I taua wā tonu, kua mārō ngā mahere a te Kamupene Niu Tireni e noho ana ki Rānana mō te whakataunga whakahaere o Aotearoa. I te tau 1939 i whakarite te kamupene ki te hoko whenua ki ngā taha e rua o Te Moana-o-Raukawakawa, ā, ka tuku kaipuke ki reira e kawe ana i ngā manene rua rau.

Mai i te mana motuhake ki te koroni o Piritānia

Ka whakatau rawa te kāwanatanga o Piritānia ki te mahi i Aotearoa i te tau 1839. I kopoua te kāpene o te tauā moana, a Wiremu Hopihana, hei māngai ki te whenua rangatira, ki Aotearoa, ā, hei rūtene-kāwana ki ngā wāhanga o te motu e whakaaetia ai e ngā hapū me ngā rangatira kia tuku ki Piritānia. I whakahaua ia e ana tohutohu ki te whiriwhiri mō te sovereignty o ngā wāhanga katoa o Aotearoa, me te whakatū i te koroni o Piritānia. I a ia e haere ana i Piritānia ka whiwhi a Hopihona i te kupu āwhina i George Gipps, te kāwana o Niu Haute Wēra.

Te tuhi hukihuki me te whakamāori i te tiriti 

Ka tae atu a Hopihona ki Pēwhairangi i te 29 o Hānuere i te tau 1840. I whakarite ia i ētahi tuhinga mō te tiriti me te āwhina o tana hekeretari, o James Freeman. Nā James Busby, te Rehireneti Piritānia (tūnga ōkawa hei māngai ōkawa), i whakatikatika ēnei me te whakauru kōrero anō. I tētahi pō, ka whakamāoritia ngā tuhinga ki te reo Māori e te mihinare Te Wiremu Karuwha me tana tama Eruera.

Ka tāpaetia tēnei tiriti reo Māori (te tiriti) ki ngā Māori e tata ana ki te 500 i tonoa ki Waitangi i te 5 o Pēpuere. Ka tū tētahi taupatupatu hihiko mō ngā whakaaweawe pea o te tiriti ki ō rātou rangatiratanga, whenua, hokohoko hoki, engari kaore i ū tētahi whakaaetanga i te otinga o hui rā kotahi.

Rewa

Ko tētahi rangatira nō Ngāpuhi, nō Ngāi Tawake hoki e taupatupatu ana i te tiriti i te 5 o Pēpuere 1840 ko Rewa nō Kororākea (e mōhiotia ana hoki ki te ingoa Russell). Ka tohutohua pea e Pīhopa Pomaparie, e noho tata ana ki a ia. Ka kī a Rewa ki te hui kāore te Māori i te hiahia ki te kāwana, nā te mea ehara rātou i te 'tangata mā, tauiwi rānei'. Ahakoa kua riro kē he whenua maha e ngā Pākehā, 'nō tātou tēnei whenua ... ko mātou te Kāwana - ko mātou, ngā rangatira o tēnei whenua nō ō mātou mātua tīpuna.'1

Te wā i waitohua tuatahitia te Tiriti

I te pō o te tuarima, i whakaemi mai ngā rangatira ki Te Tii, e tata ana ki te awa o Waitangi ki te kōrerorero mēnā ka tuku rātou i tō rātou whakaaetanga ki te tiriti. I te aonga ake, te 6 o Pēpuere 1840, me te paku taupatupatu, neke atu i te 40 ngā rangatira i whakaae ki te waitohu i te tiriti. I tuhia tēnei pukapuka ki te reo. I tuhi ētahi i ō rātou moko hei waitohu. I reira te Pīhopa Katorika Wīwī, a Jean Baptiste François Pompallier i taua rā, ā, i tono kia whakaaetia ngā whakapono hāhi katoa i roto i te koroni hou. I whakaae a Hopihona (engari kāore tēnei oati i tāpirihia ā-tuhi).

I ngā rā whai muri mai, i tāpirihia ētahi atu waitohu me ngā tohu whakaaetanga ki te tiriti i Waimate ki te Tokerau me Hokianga. Kāore i te mārama ngā waitohu me ngā ingoa katoa, engari ko tōna 240 tāngata i waitohu i tēnei hīti tūturu. Kāore ngā rangatira katoa i whakaae, ā, ka kaha whakahē ētahi i te waitohutanga.

He tere a Hopihona ki te tuku pūrongo ki te kāwanatanga Piritānia kua angitu tana kaupapa. Ka kī ia kua riro i a ia te whakaaetanga ki te sovereignty Piritānia, otriā nō ētahi rangatira i waitohu i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni o 1835, i whakaputa ngā rangatira 52 (mea ake) - te nuinga nō Te Taitokerau, i te kīngitanga me te mana o ō rātou whenua.

Ngā kaiwaitohu wāhine

Ka aro atu ngā mihinare i whai wāhi atu ki ngā huihuinga tiriti i te mana o ngā wāhine rangatira, ā, ka kohikohi i ētahi waitohu i a rātou. Kāore e iti iho i te 13 ngā wāhine i waitohu ai puta noa i te motu. Ko ētahi o ngā wāhine i waitohu i te tiriti ko Te Rangitopeora (Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Raukawa) ki Kāpiti; rātou ko Kahe Te Rau-o-te-Rangi (Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Mutunga me Te Āti Awa) ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara; Rere-o-maki (Te Arawa me Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi) ki Whanganui; Ana Hamu (Ngāpuhi) ki Waitangi me Ereonora (Te Rarawa) ki Kaitāia.

Tirohia tā mātou rauemi hāngai mō ngā wāhine rangatira i waitohu i te Tiriti ki konei.

Te kohikohi i ētahi atu waitohu

Ka tino māuiui a Hopihona i mua i tana kohikohi i ētahi atu waitohu. Ka tukuna ki ngā āpiha e rua me ētahi mihinare te kawenga kia whiwhi whakaaetanga ki te tiriti puta noa i te motu. I haria haeretia ētahi tārua o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te motu i roto i ngā marama e whitu i muri iho. Ko tōna 50 hui kē i tū puta noa i te motu, me te whakaemi mai a ngā rangatira ki te matapaki me te whaiwhakaaro mai ki te pukapuka, ā, mēnā ka waitohu rātou. I haria ngā tārua ki ngā wāhi i te wāhanga whakararo o Te Ika-a-Māui, tae atu ki te Tai Rāwhiti, Waikato, Manukau me Tauranga, ā, i hāria ngā mea e rua ki ngā wāhi tawhiti, ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, Kāpiti me Te Waipounamu. E iwa ngā tārua e toe ana, ā, ka noho i raro i te tiakitanga me te manaaki a Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga. 

Neke atu i te 500 ngā rangatira, tae atu ki ētahi wāhine, i waitohu i te Tiriti o Waitangi. E tata ana ki te katoa i waitohu i te tārua reo Māori. Kotahi anake te tārua reo Pākehā i waitohua e ngā rangatira 39 ki te Whanga o Manukau me Te Pūaha o Waikato. I waitohua tēnā tārua, me tēnā tārua e ngā kaititiro Pākehā, he rerekē taua hunga i tēnā wāhi, i tēnā wāhi.

Ina hiahia ana koe kia kite i tā mātou rauemi hāngai mō ngā rangatira neke atu i te 500 i waitohu i te tiriti, me ngā huinga waitohu me ngā wāhi, tirohia ki konei.

Footnotes
    • W. Colenso, The authentic and genuine history of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealand, February 5 and 6 1840. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Kaitā Kāwanatanga, 1890, wh. 19. Ki muri

Interpretations of te Tiriti o Waitangi – the Treaty of Waitangi

He mea reo Māori, reo Pākehā hoki

He rerekē te tikanga o te tiriti reo Māori ki te tikanga o te tiriti (the treaty) reo Pākehā. He nui te taupatupatu i ngā rerekētanga. I te wā i waitohua ai, kāore i te mārama mēnā i āta whakaarohia tēnā kupu, me tēnā kupu. He nui ake pea te hira o ngā matapaki ā-waha i mua i ngā waitohutanga i tā ngā pukapuka ā-tuhi.

Ka waitohua e te nuinga o Ngāi Māori te tuhinga i tuhia ki te reo Māori.

Upoko Tuatahi

Te reo Māori: ka tuku ngā rangatira i ‘te Kawanatanga katoa’ ki te kuini – arā, tā te kāwana mana, te kāwanatanga rānei i runga i te whenua.
 
Te reo Pākehā: ka tuku ngā rangatira i 'all the rights and powers of sovereignty' i runga i te whenua ki te kuini.
 

Upoko Tuarua;

Te reo Māori: ka whakaaetia, ka oatitia hoki ki ngā rangatira ‘te tino rangatiratanga’ – te whakahaere i te rangatiratanga – o ō rātou whenua, kāinga, taonga katoa. Ka whakaae ngāi Māori ki te tuku ki te Karauna te mōtika kia mahi tahi me rātou mō te hoko whenua.
 
Te reo Pākehā: ka whakaae, ka oatitia hoki ki ngā rangatira te ‘exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands and estates, forests, fisheries, and other properties’. Ko te tūmanako o te Karauna ko te mōtika motuhake kia mahi tahi me te Māori e pā ana ki ngā hoko whenua.
 

Upoko Tuatoru

Te reo Māori: Ka kī taurangi te Karauna ka whiwhi ngāi Māori ki te whakahaumaru a te kuini me ngā mōtika katoa a ngā kirirarau Piritānia. He whakamāoritanga tika tēnei o ngā kupu Ingarihi, ahakoa kāore i whakamāramahia ēnei mōtika.

Ko ngā take kia waitohu

I te tau 1840, i whakatau ētahi rangatira Māori kia waitohu, kia kaua e waitohu rānei, nā runga i ngā kupu Māori, ā, i muri i te whaiwhakaaro ki ētahi kaupapa. I hiahiatia e rātou kia whakahaeretia te taunga mai o te tangata me te tautoko kia whakahaere i ngā tāngata whai me te hoko whenua. Ka whiwhi ngā hapori Māori i te hokohoko me te whiwhinga pūtea ukauka i ngā kōwhiringa mahi. Mā tēnei hononga hou e taea ai te karo i te whawahi i waenganui i ngā iwi kua piki te kaha i ngā tekau tau i mua.

Ahakoa i mōhio ngā rangatira mā te whakahaerenga koroniara e whakatū ētahi herenga kia whakahaere mana, i otai ngā āpiha ka noho tonu ō rātou ake rangatiratanga i raro i te Upoko Tuarua o te tiriti (i roto i te tuhinga reo Māori). Ko te whakapae i puta ka tuaritia te mana i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngā rangatira. Ka whakanuia tēnei mana tuari e ērā atu atikara tiriti, hei painga mō ngāi Māori.

Reasons for not signing

Kāore ētahi rangatira i whai wāhi ki te waitohu i te tiriti, nā te mea, te āhua nei, kāore he hui tiriti i tū ki Taranaki, ki Wairarapa hoki, ā, he ngōuruuru ki ētahi atu rohe, pērā i Te Matau-a-Māui. I ētahi wā kāore i reira ngā rangatira, ā, nā te whāwhai kāore ngā kaiwhiriwhiri i tatari kia hoki mai rātou.

Ahakoa i tae tētahi tārua o te tiriti ki waenga o Te Ika-a-Māui, e kore ngā rangatira o Te Arawa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa e waitohu ai. He iti iho te pānga o te ao Pākehā ki ngā iwi tuawhenua i tō ngā iwi takutai moana i taua wā. I uaratia e ngā rangatira tō rātou tū motuhake, ā, kāore i te rata ki noho tō rātou mana i raro i te mana o te kuini o Piritānia. I whakahē hoki te rangatira mana nui o Waikato, a Te Wherowhero kia waitohu, ā, koia pea te take.

I roto i ngā takiwā i te whawhai tonu ngā iwi, kāore i rata ngā rangatira kia raweke a Piritānia. E kore a Tāraia (Ngāti Tamaterā me Ngāti Maru) nō Hauraki rāua ko Tūpaea (Ngāi Te Rangi) nō Tauranga e whakaae kia waitohu i te tiriti nā te mea i hiahia rāua kia mau tonu ki ngā whakahaere katoa o ō rātou kaupapa, me te whakatau i ō rāua ake tautohetohe.

Ahakoa tērā ētahi rangatira mana nui kāore i waitohu i te tiriti, i riro pea i te Karauna o Piritānia i te mana mō ana mahere whakatū koroni. Heoi anō, ehara i te mea he kaha rawa tōna whaimana, ā, kāore e kore ka werohia ā tōna wā.


The first decades after te tiriti – 1840 to 1860

Ko ngā whakaaro a te Karauna mō te tiriti

I te nuinga o te wā ka whakamāramahia te Tiriti o Waitangi e ngā āpiha koroniara i runga i te tuhinga reo Pākehā, i iti iho te miramira kia whakapūmau i te mana o ngā rangatira, i tō te mea reo Māori. Kāore anō kia pau te whā tau i muri i te waitohutanga, i whakaae ngā āpiha me kōpiri ngā mōtika tuku iho o ngā rangatira nā te mea ka taupatupatu ki te mana Karauna.

Ahakoa he mana ngā rangatira kāore i waitohu i te tiriti, i tohe te kāwanatanga o Piritānia nā tēnei i noho ngā Māori katoa i raro i te mana o Piritānia. I whakanonoi ngā māngai kāwanatanga me ngā kāwana ka tuku te tiriti i te whakahaumaru me ngā oati ki ngāi Māori, engari i ētahi wā i taupatupatu ēnei takune ki te tikanga ōkawa ina whakamahi ana i ngā take ture me ngā take whenua. Ko te whakarekereke i waenganui i ngā tāngata whai me ngāi Māori ki Wairau i te tau 1843 me te pakanga ki Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1845 he kawainga o ngā pakanga taumaha ake e puta ai ā tōna wā. I ētahi wā ka warea katoatia te tiriti e te kāwanatanga. Hei tauira, ka whakahauraro te kāwanatanga ki te pēhanga a te Kamupene o Aotearoa, ā, ka whakamanahia ana hoko teka o te whenua Māori kia whakatū i te tāone o Pōneke.

Ko ngā whakaaro a te Māori mō te tiriti

He maha ngā Māori kāore i whakapono ka ū tonu te Karauna ki ana herenga i raro i te tiriti. Ka whakatūturuhia aua kārangirangi i te tekau tau i muri i te hainatanga. Ko te 'protector of aborigines', i kopoua e te kāwanatanga kia whakahaumaru i ngā whaipānga Māori, i hapa nā te tū hei kaiwhiriwhiri hoko whenua. I whakakorengia te tūnga i te tau 1846. I te tau 1857, i runga i te āwangawanga ka tango pea te Karauna i te whenua papatua Māori ka tono a Te Wherowero, he rangatira nō Waikato, ki a Kuini Wikitōria. I tukuna tana oati ka whakahōnoretia ngā kī taurangi tiriti ki te Māori e Kāwana Hori Kerei.

He tūhono e kore e motu

I roto i tana pukapuka o 1860 e whakahēhē ana i te pūrongo kāwanatanga ki Taranaki, ka tuhi a William Martin, tētahi Kaiwhakawā Tumuaki o mua, ‘Here in New Zealand our nation has engaged in an enterprise most difficult, yet also most noble and worthy of England. We have undertaken to acquire these islands for the Crown and for our race, without violence and without fraud, and so that the native people, instead of being destroyed, should be protected and civilized … The compact is binding irrevocably. We cannot repudiate it so long as we retain the benefit which we obtained by it.'1

Te panoni o te hangarite o te mana

E whakaatuhia ana te takune a te kāwanatanga ki te whakahōnore i te tiriti i roto i ētahi o ana mahi tuatahi me ngā iwi. Heoi anō, i ngā 1840 he iti te mana o te kāwanatanga i ngā wāhi maha o te motu, kāore he mana rānei. Ko te tūmanako a te Pāremata koroniara, i noho mō te wā tuatahi i te tau 1854, kia whiwhi ki te mana nui ake, ā, kāore i te hiahia kia tuari taua mana me te Māori. Ko te putanga, ka awerehia ngāi Māori i te whai wāhi atu ki ngā whakataunga tōrangapū ā-motu.

I te hīkaka ngā kaiwaitohu Māori mō ētahi pānga – me te nui ake o te hua - ki te Pākehā, engari ka ohorere rātou ki te tokomaha o ngā Pākehā whakakoroni e taetae mai ana ki ngā kāinga matua pērā i Tāmakimakaurau, Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Whakatū. He mea whakawehi te pūtohe a ngā tāngata whai ki te whiwhi whenua Māori i roto i ēnei kāinga, e tata ana rānei, ki ngā Māori o aua rohe kāore i te hiahia ki te hoko i ō rātou whenua. Heoi anō, i ētahi atu takiwā, he pērā anō te ao mō ngā iwi me ngā hapū i mau tonu ki te whakahaere o ō rātou whenua. I ngā rohe maha, i whakawhirinaki ngā tāngata whai ki te Māori mō te whakahaumaru, ngā ratonga kai me te āwhina. I ngā 1840, ka kaha ake te Māori i roto i te hangarite mana i waenganui i a rātou me ngā Pākehā i te nuinga o ngā takiwā.

Te Kīngitanga

I roto i ngā 1840 me ngā 1850 ka whakamakoha te taunga mai o ngā Pākehā, ā, ka kino ake te manawa pā e pā ana ki te whenua. Ko te urupare a ētahi iwi he whakakaha i ngā rūnanga tuku iho. I waihanga ngā iwi o Waikato i te hononga, e whai ana i te kotahitanga, me te aha, ka uru mai ngā iwi i takiwā kē. I te tau 1858 i kopoua a Te Wherowhero he rangatira nō Tainui hei upoko o tēnei hononga, ā, ina tapaina ana ki te ingoa Pōtatau, ka tū hei kīngi Māori tuatahi. Ko tētahi whāinga o te Kīngitanga kia pupuri te mau ki te whenua mā te karo i te hoko. I whakapono te Kīngitanga ka taea te noho ngātahi o te kīngi Māori me te kuini Piritānia i runga i te rangimārie.

Ko ngā waiaro Pākehā ki te tiriti

I te mutunga o ngā 1850, ka noho weherua te whakaaro a te Pākehā ki te tiriti. Ko ētahi Pākehā, pērā i a William Martin (i tuhi i tētahi pukapuka hāngai), i maharara ka whakahēngia pea te hōnore o te Karauna i runga i te tautoko i ngā kī taurangi i roto i te tiriti. Ki ētahi atu, kāore te tiriti e tīaroaro ana ki te anga whakamua o te taunga mai o te Pākehā. E ai ki ngā āpiha kāwanatanga, ko te kīngi Māori hei wero kaikaiwaiūtanga ki te sovereignty a te Piritānia, nā reira, kāore e kore ka tū te whawhai i waenga i te Karauna me ngāi Māori.

Footnotes
    • W. Martin, The Taranaki question. Ōtautahi, Kiwi Publishers, 1998 (i tāngia tuatahitia i te tau 1860), wh. 82. Ki muri

Dishonouring te tiriti – 1860 to 1880

Ko te hui ki Kohimarama, 1860

I te tau 1860 i tīmata te whawhai i waenganui i te Māori me ngā turupa Piritānia i Taranaki nā runga i tētahi hoko whenua tautohetohe. Ko te tūmanako o Kāwana Thomas Gore Browne te whakapakepake i ngā rangatira Māori kia tautoko i ana mahi i Taranaki me te whakahē i te Kīngitanga. I karanga ia i tētahi huinga rangatira ki Kohimārama, Tāmakimakaurau, i waenganui o te tekau tau 1860. I roto i ngā wiki e toru ka tāpaetia, ka whakamāramatia hoki te Tiriti o Waitangi ki ngā rangatira kāore e iti iho i te 200, tae atu ki ētahi i waitohu ai i te Tiriti. Kua kitea e ngā rangatira he rerekē ō rātou ake māramatanga ki te tiriti. Ka mutu, ka whakaaetia e te katoa tētahi mōtini, e kīia nei, ko te kawenata o Kohimārama, i aro atu ki te sovereignty o te Karauna, ā, i whakamana i te rangatiratanga.

He āhua ōrite te mōtini o Kohimārama ki te whakamanatanga ōkawa o te tiriti. I oati te kāwanatanga ki te whakatū i ētahi atu hui kia matapakihia te tuaritanga o te mana, engari kāore ētahi atu i tū. Ahakoa ko te tūmanako o ngā rangatira i tae atu ki te hui kia nui ake te whai wāhi atu ki te mahi whakatau, ka matangurunguru rātou.

Te Riri ki Waikato

I whakahokia ai a George Grey ki te tūnga tuarua hei kāwana i te tau 1861. Ki a ia, ko te Kīngitanga he wero tōtika ki te mana o te Karauna me te anamata o te taunga mai o ngā tāngata whai Piritānia. I urupare te kāwanatanga ki te Kīngitanga mā te urutomo ki a Waikato me ngā turupa Piritānia. Ka huri tēnei mahi ki te pakanga i horapa ki te Waiariki me ētahi atu takiwā. Ko te tautuhi ōkawa mō te whawhai ko te tāmitanga o ngāi Māori i te whakakeke ki te Karauna, engari i whakaae ētahi kaitōrangapū he pakanga ki te whakanonoi i te mana whakahirahira o Piritānia.

I whakaatu ēnei mahi whawhai ki ngāi Māori kāore i tautokohia ō rātou matatika i raro i te tiriti. I tukua ihotia te ngaukino e te raupatu o te whenua Māori ki Waikato, ki Taranaki, ki Waiariki, ki Heretaunga anō hoki i muri i ngā pakanga.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Kāore i aro atu ngā mōtika whenua Māori i oatitia i raro i te tiriti e tēnā kāwanatanga, e tēnā kāwanatanga. Tatū rawa ki te tau 1860 e tata ana ki te katoa o Te Waipounamu kua tangohia i ngāi Māori. Ka whakawhiti te Kōti Whenua Iwi Taketake (whai muri mai ko te Kōti Whenua Māori) i ngā mōtika whenua Māori ki ngā taitara i tukuna e te Karauna, me te aha, he ngāwari ake te hoko i te whenua. Tatū rawa ki te timatanga o ngā 1890, e tata ana ki te rua hautoru o Te Ika-a-Māui kua tangohia, ā, ka haere tonu te ngaromanga whenua puta noa i te mutunga o te rautau 19 me te rautau 20.

Ka whakamakoha te noho a te Pākehā

Tatū rawa ki ngā 1870 te āhua nei kua ngaro te tiriti i te tirohanga a ngā tāngata whai. Tērā pea kāore i te mōhiotia e ngā rau mano manene i waipuketia ai a Aotearoa kia 'whakatuwhera' i te motu. Tatū rawa ki te mutunga o ngā 1870 kotahi ki te tekau te ōwehenga o te taupori Māori ki te taupori Pākehā. Ka piki haere ngā whatinga o ngā mōtika Māori i raro i te tiriti ina hōrapa atu te nōhang puta noa i Te Ika-a-Māui.

Te kore whakahaumaru mā ngāi Māori

Nāwai rā, kua mārama rawa ki ngāi Māori he iti rawa te whakahaumaru a te tiriti. I whai wāhi atu ngā whakataunga kōti, ngā hoko whenua kino me te ture ki te whakararu i ngā oati o te tiriti. Hei tauira, kāore e taea e te tiriti te whakaiti i te whakaaweawe o ngā ture Mahi Tūmatanui o te tau 1864 me te tau 1976. Mā ēnei ture, tae atu ki ngā ture whai muri mai, i āhei te Karauna te whakature i te hoko whenua Māori mō ngā rori, ngā rerewē me ētahi atu mahi tūmatanui.

Kāore i hāpaitia ngā oati o te tiriti ki ngāi Māori o te 'exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands and estates, forests, fisheries, and other properties’ e ngā mahi o ngā tāngata whai pērā i te taumanu takutai moana, te terenga rākau, (te hari i te papa rākau i raro iho i te awa mā te tuku waipuke), i whakamōtī i ngā pā ika, tae atu ki ngā kaupapa wāra i whakamōtī i ngā rāhui tuna me te hī ika wai māori.  He maha ngā wā ka puta mai i ngā mahi a ngā kaunihera ā-rohe me te pānga mai o ngā reiti i te taumahatanga ohaoha me te ngaro o te whenua mō ngā iwi me ngā hapū.


Māori responses to te tiriti – 1880 to 1900

Te tautohetohe i te tiriti

I āta titiro ngāi Māori ki ngā oati i oatitia ki a rātou i roto i te tiriti kia whakatau i ngā raruraru e puta mai ana i te nōhanga me te rironga o te whenua. Mai i ngā 1870 he maha ngā hui i taupatupatu i ngā take ture me te mana, ngā whenua me ngā mahinga ika. I whakatū a Ngāti Whātua, tētahi iwi nō roto mai o te rohe o Tāmakimakaurau, i ārahina e te rangatira, a Paora Tūhaere, i ngā hui nunui mō tēnei take i te tau 1879 me te tīmatanga o ngā 1880. He wāhi matua te marae o Te Tīi, ki Waitangi hei wānanga i ngā take tiriti.

Kei tēnā, kei tēnā o aua hui i whakaritea ngā rautaki hei puretumu i te kore taurite i waenganui i te mana a te Karauna me ā te Māori, me te whiwhi anō ki te whakahaere o ngā take Māori. I tukuna e ngāi Māori ngā petihana rau mō ngā amuamu e hāngai ana ki te tiriti ki te kāwanatanga, engari he moumou wā.

Te petihana i te Karauna

I ngā tau 1883, 1884, 1914 me 1924 i haere ngā apatono o ngāi Māori ki Ingarangi ki te hari i ngā petihana i raro i te mana o te tiriti ki te kuini, te kīngi rānei o Piritānia me te kāwanatanga. Ka tono ia petihana kia arohia ngā mōtika tiriti. I whakahokia katoatia e te Karauna ki te Pāremata o Aotearoa, i whakahē i tana whati i te tiriti. E kore te Pāremata e tautoko ai i te mana o te tiriti pērā i tērā i whakaarohia e te Māori.

Ngā māngai Māori rō Pāremata

I pōtitia ngā mema Māori tuatahi e whā i te tau 1868. Kāore e taea e rātou te whakaaweawe i roto i te Pāremata i whakatuanuitia e ngā kaitōrangapū tangata whai. I whakauru ngā mema pāremata Māori i ngā pire maha e rapu ana kia whai mana te tiriti me te whiwhi i te whakahaere nui ake mā te Māori i runga i ā rātou take. I whakahēngia ā-pōti ēnei e ērā atu mema pāremata.

Ngā pāremata Māori

I whakatū ngāi Māori i ngā whakanōhanga kē ki te whakanonoi i ō rātou mōtika tiriti. Tērā te pāremata Māori e whakarōpū ana i ngā iwi, ko Te Kotahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, i tū i te tau 1892. Ko te tūmanako o ana kaitautoko mā te reo Māori kotahi e tautokohia ai ngā mema pāremata Māori e te Pāremata i Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Heoi anō, i warea e ngā kaitōrangapū i te pāremata o te Kotahitanga, ā, i oti ngā hui i te tīmatanga o te rautau 20.

I whakatū hoki te Kīngitanga i tētahi pāremata, Te Kauhanganui, i ngā 1880. I kaha ake ana mahi i te tīmatanga o te rautau 20, ā, i tū tonu i roto i te tau 21. I te tau 2008, i waitohu ngā māngai o Te Kauhanganui i te whakaaetanga me te kāwanatanga mō te whakahaerenga ngātahi o te Awa o Waikato.


Implementing te tiriti – 1900 to 1940

Ka pupū ake ngā tūmanako Māori

Ahakoa te hokona tonutia o ngā whenua Māori, i whakapiki te pai o ngā hononga i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me te Māori i ngā tekau tau tuatahi o te rautau 20. Nā reira, i puea ake te tūmanako a te Māori ka whakautea e te kāwanatanga ngā mōtika tiriti a te Māori.

Ka piki ake te whai wāhi atu o te hunga rangatira Māori kua riro i te mātauranga i roto i te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā, ā, i tīmata ki te urupare i ngā raruraru ā-pāpori. Ko te tangata rongonui o tēnei rōpū ko Āpirana Ngata nō Ngāti Porou, he mema Pāremata nō te pōtitanga Māori ki te Tai Rāwhiti mai i te tau 1905 ki te tau 1943. I ngā 1920 i whakauru a Ngata i ngā kaupapa hei whakawhakanake i te whenua Māori me te whakarōpū i ngā whai pānga whenua tīmokamoka. I whiwhi ngā hinonga pāmu Māori ki te pūtea Māori mō te wā tuatahi.

Te whakatau nawe?

I roto i ngā 1920 i tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te urupare i ētahi nawe Māori. I te tau 1921 i whakaae tētahi Kōmihana Kerēme Whenua Iwi Taketake i ngā nawe a Ngāi Tahu mō te hoko whenua. I te tau 1928 i whakaaengia e te Kōmihana Sim i ngā nawe maha a ngā iwi i raupatuhia ō rātou whenua i muri i ngā pakanga o ngā 1860. I ngā kaupapa e rua, ka tāria ngā 1940 kia whakaritea he whakataunga, me te aha, he utu ā-tau iti ki ngā poari taratī.

Te whakahoki i ngā mōtika hī ika

I whakamātau ngāi Māori mō ngā tau huhua kia whiwhi ki ngā tūmomo mōtika hī ika, engari kāore i angitu. I te tīmatanga o ngā 1920 i tūtohu te kāwanatanga i ngā kerēme wā roa o Te Arawa ki ngā mōtika tuku iho ki ngā roto i te rohe o Rotorua, ā, i whakaae ki te utu paremata mō te rironga atu o ngā mōtika hī ika, tāpukenga hoki i roto i ngā roto. I te tau 1926 i whakatauhia tētahi whakaaetanga ōrite me Ngāti Tūwharetoa e pā ana ki ana mōtika ki Taupō-nui-a-Tia me ngā pūkaki e pā tata ana. Nā ngā whakaaetanga nei i puea ake ngā tūmanako Māori mō ētahi atu mōtika tiriti.

Te kaupapa tōrangapū a Rātana

I te tuatahi he kaupapa poropiti te Hāhi Rātana, engari ka uru ki te tōrangapū i ngā 1920 me te whāinga motuhake kia whiwhi ki ngā mōtika tiriti. Nāna te karanga kia whakaaetia ā-ture te tiriti. E ai ki te Hāhi Rātana, ki te kore tēnei e whiwhia, e kore e taea te whakamana me te whakatinana i te tiriti.

Ka waihanga te kaupapa tōrangapū a Rātana i te hononga ki te Pāti Reipa, ā, ka toa ana kaitono pāremata i t katoa o ngā tūru Māori e whā i te pōtitanga matawhānui o 1943. Ka whai ngā mema pāremata o Rātana kia whakamanahia ā-ture te tiriti i roto i ngā 30 tau i muri iho.

Te koha i te Whare Tiriti

Ka āta warea Tiriti o Waitangi e ngā Pākehā o Aotearoa i te tīmatanga o te rautau 20, engari ka arohia te hunga tūmatanui i te tau 1932. I taua tau ka kohaina e te kāwana-tianara, Lord Bledisloe me tana wahine te whare a James Busby ki Waitangi ki te motu. I waitohua te tiriti i mua i te aroaro o taua whare ki Waitangi, i runga i te whenua e pā tata ana. I tū tētahi hui nui ki te marae o Te Tii i te tau 1934 hei tohu i tēnei koha. I tohu hoki te huringa tau 100 o te tīpakonga a ngā rangatira o te Tai Tokerau i te kara o ngā Whakaminenga o ngā Hapū o Nu Tireni hei kara o te whenua motuhake o Nu Tireni.

Ko ngā whakanuitanga rautau, 1940

Ka hiahia te kāwanatanga kia whakaatuhia te whakahīhī ā-motu me te kotahitanga mō te rautau o te waitohu o te tiriti i te tau 1940. Kāore i pērā te rikarika a te Māori, nā te mea he hōhā ngā iwi maha ki te mahi ngoikore a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki te tiriti. Heoi anō, ka whakamahia e Āpirana Ngata ngā whakanuinga rautau ki te miramira i te ngoikore o te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki ngā oati tiriti, me te whakahau i te kāwanatanga kia whakatau i ngā nawe tiriti.

I waihangatia te whare rūnanga ki Waitangi, e tata ana ki Whare Tiriti o Busby, ā, i huakina mō ngā whakanuinga o 1940. Ka waihangatia, ka whakairohia hoki te whare i raro i te tirohanga a Ngata. Ki a ia, he tohu tēnei o ngā hoa rangapū e tū ngātahi ana.


Honouring te tiriti – 1940 to 2000s

Te Rā o Waitangi

I muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, i whakamakoha haere te mōhio a te hunga tūmatanui ki te tiriti nā ngā whakamaumaharatanga ki Waitangi. I arotahi ēnei takunetanga ki ngā āhuatanga pai o te hononga tiriti, he mea whakanui hei taunakitanga o ngā whanaungatanga mātāwaka o Aotearoa – i kerēmehia ko te mea pai rawa puta noa i te ao. Kāore i tino kōrerotia ngā uauatanga me ngā whakahorihori i roto i te hononga tiriti.

Te rironga o te whenua Māori

Ka pāmamae tonu ngā nawe whenua ki ngāi Māori i ngā 1950 me ngā 1960. Nā te Maori Affairs Amendment Act 1967 i ngāwari ake te tango whakature te kāwanatanga i ngā 'pānga ohaoha kore' (he poraka iti, kāore i whakawhanaketia) i roto i ngā whenua Māori. I te tau 1975, i raro i te mana o te kuia nō Te Rarawa me Taranaki, a Whina Cooper, i hīkoi ngāi Māori mai i te hiku o te ika ki te Pāremata i Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te porotū i te rironga o te whenua Māori. Nā te hīkoi i aro atu te hunga tūmatanui ki te tiriti hei tūāpapa o te hononga i waenganui i te Māori me te Karauna.

Te panoni o te ingoa

Ko te Rā o Waitangi, te 6 o Pēpuere, i whakamanahia ōkawatia hei rā ā-motu o Aotearoa i te tau 1960. I te tau 1963 ko te Rā o Waitangi he hararei tūmatanui i Te Tai Tokerau. I te tau 1974 i tapaina kētia ko New Zealand Day, he hararei tūmatanui ā-motu. Ka hoki te ingoa ki te Rā o Waitangi i te tau 1976.

Te piki o te porotū

I ngā 1970 me ngā 1980 i whāki ngā porotū ki Waitangi i te āputa i waenganui i te māramatanga o ngāi Māori ki te tiriti me ā te kāwanatanga me te nuinga o te hapori tauiwi. I whai hira ai ēnei tikanga taupatupatu mai i te tau 1974, i te wā i whakamanahia te 6 o Pēpuere, te rā i waitohutia tuatahitia te tiriti, hei rā whakatā tūmatanui. I nui ake, i kaha ake hoki ngā porotū i te Rā o Waitangi, ā, i kitea puta noa i te motu i runga i ngā pāpāho rongo kōrero pouaka whakaata.

Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975

Kua maha ngā tau e akiaki ana ngā mema pāremata Māori kia whai mana ā-ture te tiriti, nā te mea kāore he mana ā-ture ki te kore e whakatiinanahia ai ki te ture o Aotearoa. Ka whakamana te kāwanatanga i te Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, ā, ko te whāinga kia whakapai ake i ngā hononga i waenganui i te Karauna me ngāi Māori. Nā tenei te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i whakatū, ā, i tīmata i te nukuhanga o te mahi a te tiriti i roto i te ao o te motu.

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

Ka auahatia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei kōmihana uiui pūmau ki te whaiwhakaaro i ngā kerēme a te Māori kua whati ngā mātāpono o te tiriti i ngā mahi a te Karauna. Ka taea hoki te taraipuna i ngā tūtohu ki te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki ana kitenga i muri iho i te whakarongo ki ngā kerēme. Heoi anō, i te tuatahi i aukatia tana mana whakahaere ki te whakarongo ki ngā kerēme e puta mai ana i ngā takunetanga mai i te tau 1975, ā, he iti rawa tana whakaweawe ā-pāpori, ā-tōrangapū hoki mō ētahi tau.

I te tau 1985 i whakawhānuitia te mana whakahaere o te taraipuna ki te kapi i ngā mahi me ngā hapa mai i te waitohutanga o te tiriti i te tau 1840. Nā reira i āta tirohia te mauhanga ā-hītori o ngā hononga i waenganui i te Karauna me te Māori. I whakawhānui ngā menemana ki te Treaty of Waitangi Act i te mematanga o te taraipunara me te whakamakoha i tana raukaha ki te rangahau, ki te whakawā, ki te tuhi pūrongo hoki.

Mai i tana waihangatanga, kua pūrongorongo te Taraipunara i ngā uiui maha ki ngā whatinga tiriti i ngā rohe whāiti o te motu, ki ngā take onāianei e pā mai ana ki ngā Māori katoa, pērā i te reo Māori, ngā take pāpori pērā i te hauora me te manatika, wai māori me te hī ika. He maha ngā wā ko te hua o ēnei pūrongo ko te whakatauna i ngā kerēme tiriti; engari kua whakatutukihia ētahi atu whakataunga i waenganui i ngā iwi me te Karauna mā te whiriwhiri tōtika ahakoa kāore he pūrongo a te Taraipunara.

Ngā mātāpono o te tiriti

E tīmata ana i waenga i ngā 1980, tērā ētahi ture hokorua mā whā e whai ana i ngā kōrero mō te tiriti. Pērā i te Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, i kōrero ētahi o ēnei ture (me ngā panonitanga) mō ngā mātāpono o te tiriti. Nā ēnei ture i whakaae ngā kōti ki te whakamārama i te whānuitanga o te whakarewa i ngā mātāpono tiriti i tētahi kēhi e kapia ana e te ture. He nui rawa ngā pānga o tēnei aronga ā-ture mō te kāwanatanga matua me te kāwanatanga ā-rohe.

Te wairua o te tiriti

Pērā i te kōrero a Justice McKay i roto i te Kōti Pīra i tana whakataunga o 1992 mō te kēhi Pāpāho: ‘It is the principles of the Treaty which are to be applied, not the literal words. The English and Māori texts in the first schedule to the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 are not translations the one of the other, and the differences between the texts and shades of meaning are less important than the spirit’.1

Te tiriti i te ao matawhānui

Nā te ture i whakamana ā-ture i te Tiriti o Waitangi i kitea rawatia e te hunga tūmatanui ki ngā ara i ohorere ai ngā tāngata nō Aotearoa. Nā te hiranga ohorere o te tiriti i roto i te ao matawhānui i puta te hiahia ki ngā awheawhe aroā tiriti, ā, i ārahi i ngā kaihītori me ngā ngaio ki te wero i ngā whakaaro kua ū mō te hītori tiriti pai me ngā hononga pai i waenganui i te Karauna me ngāi Māori.

I urupare tēnā kāwanatanga me tēnā kāwanatanga i te wero o te whakapūmau i te whāinga tutahi o te tiriti – kia noho tahi te Karauna me te Māori. Kei roto i tēnei te huhua o ngā whakataunga tiriti ōkawa, i whiriwhiria i waenganui i te Karauna me ngā iwi ki te whakaea i ngā whatinga nō mua, nōnāianei hoki, o te tiriti. Kua tāpirihia hoki ngā hinonga ki te whakamārama atu ki ngā tāngata nō Aotearoa i te wawata o ngā tāngata e rua e noho ana i raro i te tiriti.

Ki ngāi Māori, pērā i a Moana Tuwhare, he rōia nō Ngāpuhi, ko te whāinga matua ko te rangapū pono me te tuari mana tūturu. 'Kua hōhā ngā tāngata o Ngāpuhi i te kore whai wāhi ki ngā hātepe e pāngia tonutia ana tō rātou āpōpō. Ko te hua hira mēnā e hangarite ana te Māori me te Karauna.2

Footnotes
    • Justice Ian McKay, 1992, i tohutoroa i roto i ‘He Tirohanga ö Kawa ki te Tiriti o Waitangi: A Guide to the Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi as expressed by the Courts and the Waitangi Tribunal’. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Te Puni Kokiri, 2001. Ki muri
    • I tohutoroa i roto i in Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi: an illustrated history. Rev ed. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Bridget Williams Books, 2020, p. 273. Ki muri

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Claudia Orange, 'Te Tiriti o Waitangi – the Treaty of Waitangi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tiriti-o-waitangi/print (accessed 23 July 2024)

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange, i tāngia i te 20 o Hune 2012, reviewed & revised 28 o Māehe 2023