Kōrero: Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia

?–1872

Nō Ngāti Tamaterā, nō Ngāti Maru; he kaihautū

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990, and updated in April, 2002.

I whānau a Tāraia Ngākuti i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1700–1799. Ko tētehi o ōna īngoa ko Te Tumuhuia. He tama ia nā Te Kaharunga rāua ko Rewa, te tamāhine a Te Rangitūmamao. I heke iho ōna mana i a Hineipu, te tuahine o Te Mangapai, he rangatira nui o roto o Ngāti Tamaterā me Ngāti Maru. Ko ia tētehi o ngā toa whakamutunga i raupatungia ai ngā whenua o te pae ki Hauraki me Moehau (Coromandel Peninsula), i riro mai i a Ngāti Huarere, te iwi taketake o reira. He uri a Tāraia nō ngā moemoe i waenganui i a Ngāti Huarere rāua ko Ngāti Maru. He kaihautū nui ia i roto i ngā tau tekau mai i 1820.

Mai i tōna pakeketanga, ka hou atu ki roto i ngā pakanga. Nō te tau 1818, ka takahia atu a Moehau e ngā ope taua o Ngā Puhi. Ko ngā mea i ora ake, i taki omaoma ki ngā whāruarua i uta huna ai. I te tau 1821, ka hinga i a Hongi Hika te pā o Te Tōtara i Pārāwai (Thames); ka whakarērea e te nuinga o Ngāti Maru a reira, ka taki nuku atu ki Waikato, akuanui pea ki te pā o Haowhenua e tata ana ki Horotiu (Cambridge). Nō te tau 1823, nō te 1824 rānei, ka hoki a Ngāti Maru rāua ko Ngāti Tamaterā ki Moehau me Hauraki. I taua wā anō, ka tae atu a Te Maitaranui o Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Awa, ki te tono atu ki a Te Rangianini, hei tuakana ki a Tāraia, ki te āwhina i a ia ki te ngaki i ngā mate o Te Toroa rāua ko te toa wahine a Te Rangiwaitatao, e huanga tahi ana; nā Ngāti Kahungunu i patu. Ko Tāraia tētehi o ngā kaihautū o Ngāti Maru, he wāhanga anō o te ope nui tonu i rūpeke ki Ruatāhuna i te 1824. I a Pōmare I o Ngā Puhi e whakaeke ana i te pā o Titirangi e tata ana ki Waikaremoana, kei te tāoro haere a Tāraia i Moumoukai, i Waikōtero me ētehi atu o ngā pā o reira; kātahi ka huri atu ki te whakapae i te pā o Pukekaroro (arā, e mōhiotia ana ko Ōkūrārenga, ēngari nō muri nei ka tapaina ko Kaiuku), i Nukutaurua i Te Māhia.

Ahakoa whawhai tahi ai a Ngāti Maru rāua ko Ngāti Tamaterā i te taha o Ngā Puhi, me te maumahara anō rāua ki ngā hara o Ngā Puhi ka ngakia a tōna wā. Nō Mei 1826, i Te Rore i roto o Waikato, ka tūpono rātou ki te ope taua o Ngā Puhi e ārahina ana e Pōmare; ka karapotia, ka patua. E kī ana nā Te Rangianini rāua ko Tāraia ngā matā i pupuhi, i mate ai a Pōmare. Nō konei i kīia ai, i hoki mai te mana o Ngāti Maru rāua ko Ngāti Tamaterā ki a rāua, kua kore e tātakungia e Ngā Puhi.

Mai i te tīmatanga o te tekau tau mai i 1820, ka ngana a Tāraia rātou ko tana iwi ki te apo pū, hei ārai atu i ngā takatakahanga mai a Ngā Puhi. Tae rawa ki 1830, i te kaha nui o ā rātou rākau Pākehā, ka tukuna ētehi kia riro mai he poaka, he muka harakeke, he tūmau rānei. He aha rā, kātahi ka tupu tētehi kino i waenganui i ngā wehewehenga o roto o Marutūāhu whānui tonu – e whā ēnei iwi i heke katoa iho i a Marutūāhu, te tama a Hoturoa, o te waka o Tainui. Ka tautohetohe ngā rangatira rā ki a rātou anō, kia riro mai te mana o ngā whenua kauri e whakahinga mai ai ngā Pākehā hokohoko ki a rātou. Nō tētehi o aua tautohetohe nei, nō te whakamutunga pea o te tekau tau mai i 1820, e ngana ana a Mangakiekie, he rangatira nō Ngāti Naunau, hapū o Ngāti Maru, ki te tuku Pākehā tua rākau ki runga i te whenua o Moehau-o-Tama (Cape Colville). I tukuna atu e ia a Pōtiki me ana tāngata 60 o Ngāti Pare ki te pana; kātahi ka whai atu ia me tana ope taua 200 o Ngāti Tamaterā. Matika tonu atu a Ngāti Naunau, ka whakarērea te pā o Motukahakaha. Ka whakaritea e Tāraia he kānataraka mō te hoko papa rākau i te whenua o Ōpitonui, ki tētahi Pākehā (te āhua nei ko William Eppes Cormack). He whāiti atu tōna pānga ki taua whenua, nā tōna hekenga iho i a Ngāti Huarere anake. Kāore, nā te whakatau a te kaiwhakawā a H. A. H. Monro, o te Kōti Whenua Māori, he kaha tairanga nō ngā mana o Tāraia, e taea noatia e ia te hoko whenua, ahakoa i whea, ahakoa nō wai, e kore e āhei tētehi ki te whakahē.

Riro kau mai a Ngāti Maru rāua ko Ngāti Tamaterā i ā rātou pū i ngā tau tekau mai i 1820, ka whai tonu atu i ngā tikanga a Ngā Puhi ki te tāoro haere i ngā iwi o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Pakanga ai a Te Rangianini rāua ko Tāraia ki a Ngāi Tai i Tōrere, ki a Ngāti Porou me Te Whakatōhea i Wharekahika (Hicks Bay). Ka horo ngā pā e rua a Papa-araara me Ōmouiti, ka riro herehere te tokomaha. Nō Ōpape, i tere huakina e Te Whakatōhea a Ngāti Maru; kāti, nā ngā pū a Te Rangianini rāua ko Tāraia, ka putu ērā. He nui ngā iwi o Ngāti Rua rāua ko Ngāi Tai i mau hereheretia ki Moehau me Hauraki. Kei ētehi kōrero e kī ana, nō te tau 1828, nō te 1829 rānei, i haere a Tāraia i te taha o Te Ahukaramū rāua ko Nēpia Taratoa, i te hekenga o Ngāti Raukawa ki Kapiti, e karangatia ana ko Te Heke Whirinui. Ēngari, kua takoto kē te kōrero a Te Hākeke o Ngāti Apa, ki te Kōti Whenua Māori e kī ana, he āhua pōhēhē noa iho ērā kōrero; ko te āhua nei, kua noho wehewehe kē aua iwi i taua wā, ahakoa mai rā anō, he tino hoa rātou. I te pakanga hoki o Haowhenua i tū tata atu i Ōtaki i te tau 1834, i reira a Tāraia me Ngāti Maru e āwhina ana i a Ngāti Raukawa, e pakanga ana ki a Te Āti Awa.

I te tau 1840, ka tau atu a John Logan Campbell rāua ko tōna hoa ko William Brown, ki Waiomū, i te tai hauāuru o Moehau, ka tae atu a Tāraia kia kite i a rāua. I aituā te tama a Tāraia, a Te Rite, i te pahūtanga o te kāho paura pū; ka wera te waewae. Nā ngā Pākehā rā i tapuhi. Ko te utu a Tāraia, he karanga i tōna iwi kia tōia atu te kaipuke i hangaia e aua Pākehā rā, mai i te ngahere ki te moana.

Kīhai a Tāraia i tāpiri atu i tōna īngoa ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, i te wā i haria e Meiha Thomas Bunbury te pukapuka rā, ki ngā rangatira o Moehau, i te 4 o Mei 1840. Kāore e kore, ko ia anō tētehi o te tokorua i tae ki taua hui, ēngari kīhai ia i whakaae ki te kaupapa rā. Ko tētehi āhuatanga i kore ai ia i pai ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, he pupuri nōna ki ana tikanga o mua, kia riro mā tōna ringa kaha ngā raruraru e whakatika.

I te tau 1842, ka tae mai he pukapuka kōrero taunu ki a Tāraia, nā ngā rangatira o Ngāi Te Rangi ki Tauranga. Ka ara ake anō ngā riri i waenganui i ngā iwi e rua nei. Te rūpeketanga o te ope taua a Tāraia, 50 ngā tāngata; kātahi ka whakatika atu mā te awa o Waihou, kia eke atu i ngā hiwi e hipa atu ai ki Tauranga, kia tae atu ki reira i te ahiahi pō. Ka horo te pā o Ōngare, e tata ana ki Katikati, i runga i te ohorere; ka mate te rangatira a Te Whanake, me ētehi atu. Ko ētehi anō i mau hereheretia. He mea kainga tētehi wāhi o ngā tinana o te rangatira me tētehi atu; ka haria ngā māhunga ki Pārāwai.

Nō te rōpū Karaitiana ngā hunga i matemate rā; hoki rawa atu ki Pārāwai, ka whakaputaina ōna riri ki ngā Karaitiana o reira. Tērā tētehi kāinga Karaitiana, ka whakataungia he karakia i roto i te whare tapu. Nō Pūrua, i tōna kāinga anō (tekau māero pea te tawhiti atu i Pārāwai), ka pīroringia ngā māhunga o ngā rangatira e rua, ki waenganui i ngā iwi Karaitiana e taki karakia ana.

Ka tīmata te pōnānā o ngā iwi o Hauraki. Kātahi ka haere te kōrero, tērā ngā iwi o Tauranga e tae atu ki te ngaki i ō rātou mate, ina hoki, e toru ngā waka mau toa kua rewa atu i Ōtūmoetai. Nō Hune, ka tukuna a Hōri Karaka (George Clarke), te kaitiaki matua mō ngā Māori, me te pīhopa, me Te Herewini (G. A. Selwyn), ki te tirotiro i te raruraru nei. Tata tonu ka rere a Te Karaka ki te nanao i a Tāraia, kātahi ia ka whakaaro me waiho. Nō Hūrae, ka tukuna a Willoughby Shortland, te hēkeretari a te kāwanatanga (Colonial Secretary), rātou ko Te Karaka me te āpiha ākonga a A. D. W. Best, ki te whakatau i te āiotanga.

Ahakoa whakaae a Tāraia ki ana hara e rua, kia rīpenetā ia, kore rawa. Ko tāna kī, kāore ia i whakamau i tana tohu ki te Tiriti o Waitangi; tētehi, te mea kāore te Pākehā i raruraru, kāore he take o te kāwana ki ana mahi. Kei whakamātau tētehi ki te whakawhiu, ki te tārona i a ia, ko te patu ia i ētehi Pākehā i taua wā tonu, hei utu mō tōna matenga. Ka hia nei te roa, he whawhai tonu tōna iwi ki ngā iwi o Tauranga; e hia hoki ōna whanaunga i mate i a rātou, tae atu ki tōna whaea; tētehi, kua whakanoho kē rātou i runga i te whenua i Katikati e kī ana ia nōna. Heoi, whakaae tonu ia ki ngā waihangatanga a Shortland kia rata katoa ai, tae atu ki te tuku ki te Karauna i te whenua i tautohengia ai rātou.

Nā tēnei raruraru, ka whai ake ko te tautohetohe i waenganui i ngā iwi o Maketū me Tauranga. I muri iho, ka puta te kōrero i waenganui i ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga, pēnā e eke ana i runga i te ture, te whakawhiu i te Māori, kāore anō kia haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero nei, ka tau te kupu a te tari mō ngā whenua o tāwāhi (Colonial Office), kia awhitia te iwi Māori, anō he tāngata nō Ingarangi; ahakoa rā, e taea noatia te waiho i te nuinga o ngā tikanga Māori ki a rātou anō, ā, he wā ka āhei ki roto i ngā whakahaere a te Karauna.

Nō te 1850, ka ārahina atu e Tāraia, he ope taua ki te ngaki i te whānakotanga o tētehi toki tapu, he mea hari e Ngāti Manawa i te urupā. Ka whakakaohia e Tāraia tana ope, kātahi ka rewa ki te huaki i a Ngāti Manawa me ō rātou uku i kārangaranga noatia, i Te Takatakanga, i te awa o Whirinaki. Waimarie rawa, nā ngā kōrero whakaratarata a te minita, a James Preece me ana kaiako Māori, ka tau te āiotanga. Nō taua wā nei anō, ka mate a Te Rangianini, ka mahue iho a Tāraia hei rangatira mō ngā iwi e rua, mō Ngāti Maru, mō Ngāti Tamaterā.

I roto i ngā tau e rua tekau, kua tō haere te rā ki runga i a ia, ka pōrearea katoa ia i ngā tautohetohe whenua. Nō te kitenga i te kōura i Moehau i te tau 1852, ka ākina atu ia kia whakawāteangia ōna whenua i Moehau-o-Tama me Kauaeranga, kia karia. Ka haere ia ki Ākarana (Auckland), kia rongo ia e pēhea ana ngā whakaaro o Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey); te mutunga iho, kore rawa ia i whakaae kia rawekengia ōna whenua, kia mātua kite rā anō ia i te pēheatanga o tēnei mea te rīhi. Ēngari, pai rawa atu ia ki a Kerei; nō te mahuetanga o tērā i a Niu Tīreni i te tau 1853, ka waiata poroporoaki ia ki a ia.

Nō ngā tau tekau mai i te 1860, he whakahinga tō Tāraia ki te Kīngitanga; heoi, nā tōna kaumātuatanga, kua kore ia e kaha ki te whawhai. Kia noho pūmau tonu ia ki te kāwanatanga, ka hoatu te moni £50 i te tau, hei penihana mōna. Tērā tētehi wāhanga o Ngāti Maru i āwhina i a Waikato i roto i ngā pakanga; nō mua i te riri i Ōrākau, ka tukuna e Tāraia he kāho paura mā Rewi Maniapoto. He mea āta karakia rawatia te paura, kia ū ai ki te patu i te Pākehā. Nō te tau 1866, hei whakaohooho anō i ngā riri, ka tukuna e te Kīngi, e Tāwhiao he kākahu riri ki a ia i Ōhinemuri; kāore a Tāraia i nanao atu.

I mate a Tāraia i Pārāwai i te marama o Maehe 1872. Kei tētehi kōrero, kua hipa kē ia i te 80 tau. Kotahi, e hia rānei ana tamāhine, i ora i muri i a ia. Kua roa kē ia e whakatapungia ana; kore rawa atu ia i whakaae ki te kaupapa Karaitiana; kia āta whakaae ōna whakaaro, tana tū rānei, ki ngā takahurihuringa o te ao, kāore kau. I te tau 1866, ka kite a Tiemi Make (James Mackay), te waha kōrero a te kāwanatanga, e patu ana a Tāraia i te tūmau, he poka noa nōna ki te takahi i ōna tapu. I mau tonu te māia ki a ia, me te kaha ki te hāereere, ā mate noa. Kei tōna whakaahua, nā Gottfried Lindauer i whakairo, he kanohi mārō, he mata raunui.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia - Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated April, 2002. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t13/taraia-ngakuti-te-tumuhuia (accessed 15 October 2019)