Kōrero: Pōmare I

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Pomare I

?–1826

Nō Ngā Puhi, nō Ngāti Manu; he toa, he tangata hoko

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko te īngoa tūturu o Pōmare ko Whētoi, te tama ā Puhi o Ngāti Manu. I whānau i te mutunga o te rau tau 1700–1799. He uri nō ngā hapū o Ngā Puhi, o Ngāti Rangi, o Ngāti Rāhiri, o Ngāti Hine me te iwi tūtahi nei a Ngāti Wai. Tirohia ngā kōrero mō Hōne Heke Pōkai kei reira te whakapapa. I Oketopa o 1814, ka kauhau a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden), te minita whakahaere i te mīhana ki New South Wales, ki ngā iwi o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Ko tana kaupapa kōrero ko te huringa o Pōmare o Tahiti hei Karaitiana. Koia te wā ka mau a Whētoi ki a Pōmare hei īngoa tūturu mōna. Ko tana tuahine mātāmua te whaea o Whiria i karangatia rā i muri mai ko Whētoi, ko Pōmare II hoki.

Ko Ngāti Manu he iwi nō Tautoro ki te tonga o Kaikohe, ēngari nā ngā tautohe ki a Ngāti Toki i te wā i a Pōmare e ora ana, ka wehe atu te iwi rā i Tautoro. I aru ētahi i a Hautai, he whaea nō Pōmare. I noho ki Manurewa, i te taha o Taumārere. I ahu mai i konei a Pōmare me te hunga nā rātou rā i tū ai te pā me ngā papa kāinga ki Kororāreka (Russell), Matauwhi, Ōtūihu, Waikare me Te Kāretu. Ko Pōmare te rangatira o Matauwhi, he koro ki te tonga o Kororāreka. I karangatia taua kāinga ko te kokorutanga o Pōmare (Pōmare Bay). Ko tōna iwi tata i Pāroa me Te Rāwhiti ko te iwi o Ngare Raumati. E rua ngā whakatupuranga i pakanga ai tēnei iwi ki a Ngā Puhi.

Kua kaha haere te torotoro mai o ngā kaipuke o tauiwi i taua wā. Ko tō rātou hiahia he whakawhiti rawa mō te kai, mō te wahie, mō te wai me te haere hoki ki uta whakatā ai. Ko ngā rawa hoko he taonga rino, ā, taro ake, he pū me te paura pū. I pērā anō hoki te ngākau nui ki te mahi hokohoko o ngā mihinare i tae ake. Ko te whakaaro mātua o Pōmare he whakamahi i aua mahi hokohoko hei painga mōna. Na, ka tahuri ki te hoko taputapu mahi ahu whenua kia pai ai te hua o te kai, ā, ko ngā pāinga ka tukuna ki te Pākehā kia riro mai ai he pū. Nā ngā pū i hokona pēneitia mai i kore ai rātou i wehi i te kotahitanga o ngā iwi o te tai whakararo o Pēwhairangi, i raro i a Hongi Hika, rātou ko Tāreha, ko Rewa (Mānu), ko Ruatara.

Ko ngā mihinare tuatahi i pā ki a Pōmare he rākau te hiahia. Horo tonu tā Pōmare whakatinana i taua tono rā. Ki te titiro a te hunga mihinare nei ki a ia, arā, he tangata; hihiko te hinengaro, apo, kaha ki te whakahirahira i a ia anō, whakamanamana, ūpoko mārō, tūtahi. Ahakoa anō, ki a rātou he tangata aroha ki te tangata. O ngā rangatira Māori katoa o Pēwhairangi ko ia te mea i paingia e te hunga mihinare hei āwhina i ā rātou mahi. He tangata mōhio ki te titiro mehemea he tōtika ngā rawa hoko a te Pākehā, kīhai rānei. He tino tohunga hoki ki te pakipaki ūpoko tangata. I Hūrae o 1815, ka haere a Pōmare ki Poihākena (Port Jackson) mā te Active. I te tau 1819 ka whakaae te hunga mihinare ko rātou ko Hongi Hika, ko Te Whareumu, ko Rākau, ngā tino rangatira tokowhā o Pēwhairangi. Ahakoa i aro ia ki te Rongopai, ko te whakapae nā tana kite kē i te maha o ngā painga mai i te Pākehā i noho rata ai ki te hunga mihinare. Koia anō hoki i manaakitia ai e ia a Te Kēnara (Thomas Kendall), ā, i noho ai ia hei whakamarumaru mōna.

Kua ōrite i tēnei wā te kaha o Pōmare ki tō Hongi Hika me ērā atu o ngā kaingārahu, nō te mea e mau pū ana tōna iwi. I ngā tau e whitu i mua i te matenga o Pōmare, anea ana ngā rohe maha tonu i āna taua. Nā ngā waitaua a Pōmare i whatungarongaro ai te tangata, i tūhonohono ai tēnā iwi ki tēnā iwi hei whakakaha i a rātou, i tino whakarerekētia ai te noho a te iwi Māori mai i taua wā. Ki te pā te rongo kōrero noa iho e tata ana a Pōmare, mau ana te wehi, me te mea nei e huakina mārikatia ana e ia. Ahakoa te wehi ki a Pōmare, he kaha kē atu te wehi ki a Hongi.

I te hōtoke o 1820 ka whati a Pōmare me tāna tira taua ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. I tētahi o āna whakaeke pā ki reira, e ono marama a ia e awhi ana i te pā o Te Whetū-matarau i Te Kawakawa (Te Araroa). He maha ngā hapū o Ngāti Porou i mau i taua mahi a Pōmare. Ko te rangatira i taua pā ko Te Rangi-i-pāia, te wahine a Ngārangitokomauri. Ko ia tonu tētahi o ngā kaiārahi. Ka puta te matekai ki te pā o Te Whetū-matarau, ka huri te iwi rā ki te kai tangata. Kua mōhio a Pōmare ki taua mate nā, ka whati tāna tira, ka whakataruna ki te hoki ki Pēwhairangi. Ēngari kīhai i roa, ka hoki mai anō. Mau ana te iwi rā i te putanga mai ki te rapu wai, kai hoki. Ka hinga te tini o Ngāti Porou. Ka riro i a Pōmare a Te Rangi-i-pāia hei wahine māna ki Pēwhairangi.

I te tau 1821 ka haumi atu a Pōmare ki a Hongi me ērā atu ngārahu o Pēwhairangi e kawe riri ana ki Tāmaki (Panmure). Nā ka whakaekea te pā o Mauinaina. He wā anō kua whati a Ngā Puhi ki roto o Hauraki, ka whakaekea te pā o Te Tōtara, i te manga o Waiwhakauranga, i Pārāwai (Thames). He rite te whakaekenga o tēnei pā ki tērā o Te Whetū-matarau. Ko te kōrero i whakahē a Pōmare i tēnei mahi kōhuru i te pā, nā reira i taka mai ai tāna ope i te tira o Ngā Puhi. I te tau 1822 ka haere a Pōmare i te rohe mai ki Ngā Kurī-a-Whārei-ki-Tihirau (Bay of Plenty). Ko te pā tuatahi i hinga ko Ngāuhiapō ki Tūhua (Mayor Island). I muri mai ka whāia haeretia ngā iwi o Ngāti Awa, o Ngāti Pūkeko me ētahi atu mā te whārua o te awa o Whakatāne ki roto o Tūhoe.

He poto te wā i te kāinga, ka piri atu a Pōmare ki te waitaua nui o Ngā Puhi e ahu ana ki te rohe o Rotorua. He huaki i te motu o Mokoia te kaupapa. Na, nō mua i te taenga ake o Hongi ka whakaekea a Mokoia e Pōmare rāua ko Te Wera Hauraki. Kātahi ka taieritia mai, ā, nā te taenga ake o Hongi i ora ai. I konei ka puta ake te noho tauwhāinga o Pōmare rāua ko Hongi. I te mea i whakapōraru peatia ia e tēnei taieritanga, te take i noho tautohe ai a Pōmare ki a Hongi. Kātahi ka wero i a Hongi, me waiho mā te pū e whakatau te take o tana riri, arā, me whawhai ā rāua ope tētahi ki tētahi. Kīhai a Hongi i whakaae. Ka hinga te pā o Mokoia, ka makere mai a Pōmare me Te Wera Hauraki i te mātua nui o Ngā Puhi, ka whati ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nō muri i ētahi whawhai whakapāpā ka whakamātau a Pōmare ki te hohou i te rongo ki te iwi o Te Rangi-i-pāia. Ko te whakautu a Ngāti Porou he tuki i a ia i Te Uma-o-te-aowetea. Ka patua anō e Pōmare. Heoti, nō muri tata tonu mai ka momoho te maungārongo. Ka pōwhiritia a Te Rangi-i-pāia e tōna iwi, ēngari kāhore i noho. I hoki tahi me Pōmare ki Pēwhairangi.

I te tau 1824 ka rere a Pōmare ki te rohe o Kaipara i te marama o Maehe. Ko te whakaaro he huaki i ngā hoariri o Ngāti Whātua te take. Ka rite tērā, ka neke ki Te Wairoa ki te raki o Ahuriri (Napier). Nā Te Maitaranui, nā te rangatira o Te Urewera, te karanga kia āwhinatia ia ki te ngaki i ōna mate i a Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka hinga i a Pōmare te pā o Titirangi ki Waikaremoana, ka uru atu ia ki te waitaua e muru haere ana i ngā iwi o te rohe o Te Wairoa. I ngā marama whakamutunga o taua tau anō ko te whakaaro nā Pōmare i āwhina a Te Whatanui me Ngāti Raukawa ki tana pakanga ki ngā iwi o Heretaunga. I te hokinga o Pōmare ki Pēwhairangi ka haere tahi atu me ētahi o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa i runga i tana whakakīkī tērā pea ka riro mai he pū mā rātou. Nā Pōmare i tuku he whenua noho mō Ngāti Kahungunu i Te Kāretu. Ko ia i tētahi pito o te papa kāinga e noho ana i tana whare, i a Te Kata-o-te-kawariki.

I te tau 1826 ka puta anō a Pōmare, he haere pakanga anō te take. Nō konei a Pōmare ka hinga, ka mate. E taupatupatu ana ngā kōrero ko Ngāti Maru, ko Waikato rānei, te hoariri. Ēngari kotahi tonu te kupu, koia nei ngā iwi nāna ia i patu i Hune o 1826. Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero e kī ana i karapotia tāna tira i Te Rore ki te awa o Waipā, kātahi ka whakangaromia. I kainga katoatia tāna tira, ā, ko tāna tama ko Tītaha tētahi.

He maha ngā āhuatanga i mahue mai ki roto o ngā iwi o Pēwhairangi i te matenga o Pōmare. I hua kore ngā whakamātaunga maha ki te ngaki i tōna mate. Nā te matenga o Pōmare ka ngākaurua te whakapono o Ngā Puhi e kore rātou e mate i tētahi atu. Nō muri mai i tōna matenga ka whakaīngoatia ia ko Pōmarenui nō te mea ko Pōmare II anō hoki te īngoa o tāna irāmutu, arā, o te whākapi ki tōna mana rangatira.

E hia kē nei ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki a Pōmare. Ko Waihanga o te hapū o Te Kapotai he mea patu e Pōmare mō tana pūremutanga. He whaea a Waihanga nō Tiki. Ko Hirepo, ko Heikai, me Heitiki ētahi atu o ngā īngoa karanga o Tiki. I te patunga o Tiki e te uri o Te Māhurehure i te Maehe o 1828, tata tonu a Ngā Puhi ki Te Hokianga ka pakanga ki ngā iwi o Pēwhairangi. Ko tētahi atu o ngā wāhine a Pōmare ko Hoi, te whaea o tā rāua tama, o Raukatauri. Ka mate a Pōmare, ka moe a Te Rangi-i-pāia i a Te Kariri, ka hoki rāua ki Te Tai Rāwhiti noho ai.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Pōmare I - Pomare I', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1p19/pomare-i (accessed 23 August 2019)