Kōrero: Hongi Hika

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Hongi Hika

1772–1828

Nō Ngā Puhi; he rangatira, he amorangi kawe ā riri

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga 1, 1990.

Ko tērā toa ko Hongi Hika i whānau ki te takiwā ki Kaikohe i ngā rohe o Ngā Puhi kei Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). E ai ki ana kōrero ki ngā tāngata Wīwī i te tau 1824, i whānau a ia i ērā wā i te matenga o Marion du Fresne i te tau 1772. Ko Hongi te tuatoru o ngā tama a Te Hōtete rāua ko tana wahine tuarua, ko Tuhikura o Ngāti Rēhia. He uri nō Rāhiri, nō Puhi-moana-ariki, ngā tino tūpuna o Ngā Puhi. Ko ōna ngarenga tata ko Ngāti Tautahi, ko Ngāi Tāwake.

E taitamariki tonu ana ia ka tū ngā pakanga a Ngā Puhi ki a Te Roroa, ki a Ngāti Whātua. He roa e kawea ana ērā riri. Nō te tau 1807–08 ko te riri nui i Moremonui. Ko Pōkaia, hei pāpā ki a Hōne Heke, te kāhu kōrako o te riri. Ahakoa e mau pū ana a Ngā Puhi ka whanga a Murupaenga, te amorangi o Ngāti Whātua, kia warea rātou ki te whāngai hoata ki ā rātou pū, kātahi anō ka kauaeroatia. Ka parekura ko Pōkaia. Ko te whakaaro, i hinga tana tuakana, a Moka, me te teina, a Waitapu. Ka hinga hoki ko ngā mātua o Te Whareumu, o Mānu (Rewa), o Te Koikoi (Kohikohi rānei). Ko Hongi rāua ko Te Koikoi i waimarie. I taki peke ki roto i te repo huna ai. Ka pō ka rere rātou ko ētahi atu o ngā mōrehu. Na, titi rawa ki te ngākau o Hongi Hika tērā parekura nui. Tērā te wā!

Kāore i roa i muri mai kua tū ko Hongi Hika ki te tūranga kawe ā riri o Pōkaia. I Waimate tōna pā tūturu, ko Ōkuratope; i Kerikeri he pā anō. Ka tū atu ana ope ki a Te Roroa, ki a Te Rarawa, ki a Te Aupōuri. Nā ērā pakanga ka tohungatia rātou ki te mau pū, ka mōhio mā te maha o ngā pū e whai tikanga ai te pakanga. Kātahi a Hongi Hika ka huri ki te whakapiri, ki te hokohoko ki ngā Pākehā. Haere rawa ki Poihākena (Port Jackson) i te tau 1814 mā runga i te kaipuke o ngā mihingare, i te Active. I ā rāua kōrerorero ko Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) te kaikawe i te rongopai, ka tau te whakaaro o tērā me whakatū he mīhana ki Pēwhairangi. I tērā wā ko te minita whakahaere a Te Mātenga ki te hunga ki te tonga o Ahitereira, ki New South Wales. I taua tau tonu tū ana. Ka poua tana mīhana ki raro i te maru o Hongi Hika. Tū ana te mīhana, pekapeka mai ana ngā kaipuke. Ka ea ngā tūmanako o Hongi Hika. Ōrite tonu tōna rauhī i ngā mihingare me ngā hēramana i ngā mahi hīanga a tōna iwi. Mā te rongo hoki o te mahea o tērā wāhi e kukume mai ngā Pākehā ki raro i tōna awe. Me te aha hoki? Ka piki ngā mahi hokohoko. Ko ngā kai kei a ia, ko ngā taputapu me ngā pū kei ngā Pākehā.

Tae rawa atu ki te tau 1815, kua tū ko Hongi Hika hei amorangi mō tana iwi. Whāia hoki ka mate tana tuakana a Kaingaroa ka motuhake ki a ia tērā tūranga. He wā ka tūtū mai ko ngā mīhana i Kerikeri i te tau 1817, i Te Waimate i te tau 1823 i raro katoa i tōna maru. Aha pēheatia ngā hua, he uauatanga anō i toko ake i tōna atawhai i ngā mihingare. Ka amuamu ētahi atu o ngā rangatira ki a Te Mātenga mō Hongi. Ka rikarika a Hongi ki ngā mihingare he kore i pai ki te hokohoko, ki te whakaora rānei i ana pū pākarukaru. Āpiti atu hoki, ko tō rātou kiriweti ki a Te Kēnara (Thomas Kendall) mō tana whai i te wahine Māori. Heoi, ka tiaki tonu a Hongi Hika i ngā mihingare. Mehemea hoki rātou ka wehe atu, ka ngawhi te rongo o Pēwhairangi, kua kore ngā kaipuke e tau mai, kua heke te mahi hokohoko a Hongi. Ko ia anō ki ōna whakaaro me ana kaupapa; ā, he kaupapa kē tā ngā mihingare.

Ko te hiahia o Hongi Hika kia riro mai he pū, he paura. Heoi, i whai take tonu ngā pāraharaha i hokona mai e ngā mihingare ki a ia. Ka whakamahia ngā herehere i whakahokia mai i ngā pakanga ki te tonga i muri i te tau 1818. Ki te ahu i te whenua, ki te whakatupu kai. I Waimate, he witi, he kānga. Ka whakapaungia te kaha kia pukahu te tupu o te rīwai hei hokohoko ki ngā kaipuke kia riro mai anō ai he pū, he paura, kia ngata ai tōna hiahia. I te pikinga o te utu mō ngā kai, ka tino pai rawa atu hoki. Ēngari tērā anō te kōrero ko ētahi kei te hokohoko poaka, rīwai ki ngā Pākehā, ko ētahi o te iwi e mate ana i te kore kai.

I te tau 1820 ka taki riro a Hongi Hika, a Te Kēnara me Waikato he taitama nō ngā kāwai rangatira, ki Ingarangi. I te whare wānanga o Cambridge ka tahuri rātou ki te āwhina i te ahorangi, i a Samuel Lee, ki te whakatakoto kōrero kia tāia hei whakamārama i te reo Māori. I whakanuia rātou e te rahi o reira; ā, tūtaki rawa ki a Kīngi Hōri Te Tuawhā (George IV). Ēngari ko te tino kaupapa kē a Hongi Hika he whai kia riro mai anō he pū. Tutuki rawa! Ko te taonga i whakawhiwhia ki a ia ko ngā kākahu maitai o te toa. Whakahirahira ana! Whakamataku ana! Ka hau te rongo e kore rawa a Hongi Hika e whara.

Nā ērā taputapu ka tiketike ake tōna mana. Huri rapa ana ngā ritenga mō te motu katoa i ōna wā. Kua whakataetae ngā iwi ki te hoko pū. Ko ngā mea tuatahi tonu, ko ētahi atu o ngā iwi o Pēwhairangi. He manawapā kei tū tonu atu a Hongi ki a rātou. Ko te mutunga iho ko te whakakotahitanga o ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau ki te pakanga ki ngā iwi kore pū o te taiwhakarunga. Ahakoa he hauā kē ētahi o ngā pū a Ngā Puhi, ki ērā iwi he tikanga whakamataku. Ko te hunga i parekuratia he tataunga i rite, he tataunga i puta kē noa atu. Ko ētahi nā te mataku i patu. I wawā rātou hoki! Ko Ngā Puhi tēnā te haere nā i te nuku o te whenua tukituki ai i ngā iwi kore pū. E pēnei ana te miro o te ia o te pakanga i taua wā: ka hoko pū, ka whawhai. Ka mau herehere, ka whakatipu ngā hua kai, ka hoko pū anō. Pērā tonu, pērā tonu. Ka kitea te tohungatanga o Hongi ki ngā marae o Tūmatauenga.

I te tau 1818 ko Hongi rāua ko Te Morenga ngā tino toa. Nō ngā tau 1820–1823 ka whakakotahi tēnā hia rau o te tangata. Tēnā ope taua me tōna rangatira, tēnā ope me tōna. Ko Hongi Hika te toa o ngā toa. Ka takahia mai te whenua e ngā taua o te amio whenua mai i Pēwhairangi i Te Hokianga, he patu tangata, he mau herehere te mahi. Ko Te Hīnaki me Ngāti Pāoa i Mauinaina i Tāmaki, ko Ngāti Maru i Te Tōtara. He tau ā, ka paheko anō ngā taua o Te Tai Tokerau ki te huaki i a Te Wherowhero o Waikato, ka horo te pā i Mātakitaki pātata atu rā ki Pirongia. Tērā parekura nui! I ohorere i ngā pū, ka taki tū pōrangi. I te tau 1823 ko Te Arawa. Tekau mā rua ngā rangi e tōia ana ō rātou waka mā te tuawhenua kia puta atu ki Rotorua, ki Mokoia ki te tuki i a Ngāti Whakaue, i a Te Arawa nui tonu.

I toa a Ngā Puhi i ēnei pakanga katoa. Matemate ana te tangata. Pēhia kinotia ana ngā iwi o Te Waitematā, o Hauraki, o Waikato, o te rohe o Mātaatua, o Te Arawa. Ka tāpiritia atu ki ngā haere a ngā ope o Te Hokianga i Te Tai Hauāuru, takatū ana ngā iwi. Korikori ana te whenua katoa, tae atu hoki ki Te Waipounamu. Ka heke, ka nuku te tini o te tangata. Noho kē mai he wāhi kē. Hāunga anō ngā mea i mau hereheretia. I te hokinga atu ki Pēwhairangi ka patupatua ētahi. Ka whakarihariha ki ngā mihingare tērā tikanga tuku iho. I ēnei āhua katoa eke ana te kōrero 'i whatungarongaro te tangata.'

Ko wai hoki ka hua koia rā te mutunga atu. A Hongi Hika tonu. Kāore hoki ia i whai ki te raupatu i ngā whenua o ngā iwi, ahakoa te whakahau a ngā mihingare ko ia hei kīngi Māori. Ko tana haere he ngaki i ōna mate kia ea, he mau herehere hoki hei kaimahi. Ehara i te mea he pakanga tōna hoaketanga ake. Kia noho ki te kāinga, he tangata hūmarie, he tangata ngāwari, he tangata ngākau māhaki. He tangata 'ringa raupā'. Ko ia tonu hei whakahaere i ngā kaupapa ahu whenua a tana iwi, ki te whakatō, ki te hauhake i ngā kai, ā, mahi tahi atu hoki rātou ko ngā mea hī ika.

Tokorua ana wāhine e mōhiotia ana. Atawhai atu, ngākaunui atu a Hongi Hika ki tana wahine matua ki a Turikatuku. He wahine matapō. He wahine i whai kupu ki ngā take katoa, ahakoa itiiti, ahakoa nunui. Aro nui atu a Hongi Hika ki ana kupu whakamāherehere. Ko te wahine iti, ko Tangiwhare, he teina tonu nō Turikatuku. He tangata a Hongi Hika i aroha ki ana tamariki. Tokorima i ora roa i muri i a ia.

Nō te tau 1825 ka ea ana mate i Moremonui i tana pakanga ki a Ngāti Whātua i Te Ika-ā-ranganui kei te pūau i a Kaiwaka, i a Waimake. Ahakoa i tahuna ōna waka e te hoariri, ko te kōrero 1,000 o Ngāti Whātua i matemate. Kei tā Hongi 100 noa iho. Ko tana mātāmua tonu, ko Hāre Hongi tētahi o te 70 o Ngā Puhi i parekuratia. Ka rere anō a Hongi Hika ki te whai i ngā mōrehu o Ngāti Whātua e noho marara ana i te riu o Waikato, hei utu mō tana tama. Ko Hongi i wairangitia i te kaha o tōna ngākau pōuri. Ka amuamu tana iwi, he kore nōna e tau ki te kāinga.

Atu i tērā wā ka whakaeke ngā raruraru huhua noa. Ka māuiuitia. Ka tetere tōna turi. Ka tahuri tonu iho hoki tētahi o ana wāhine ki tana hunaonga. Ā, e pākatokato tonu ana tōna ngākau ki tana tama i mate. Nā te arumia e te aituā ka hua te whakaaro kua mākututia a Hongi Hika. Ki tā ngā mihingare, kāore e tatū ana tana noho. He 'rite tonu te rapu kaupapa hou.'

I te tau 1826 ka wehe atu a Hongi i Te Waimate ki Whangaroa i runga i te mana o tōna matua, o Te Hōtete. He maha ana take i riri ai ki a Ngāti Uru, ki a Ngāti Pou. Nā rātou i muru te kaipuke te Mercury. Ko rātou anō te hunga whakaātete ki te mīhana Wēteriana i Whangaroa, ki te tāhae me ērā atu mahi. Whai whakaaro rawa hoki a Hongi ki ngā Pākehā, nō reira ka tū atu ia ki te whiu i ērā iwi o Whangaroa. I te taenga atu o tana ope taua ki Whangaroa i te tau 1827, ka omaoma ētahi o Ngāti Uru, ka atiatia ētahi. Me te muru haere anō i te mīhana Wēteriana. Ko Hongi tonu i taotū. I puta rere tonu te matā i tana uma. I muri tata tonu mai ka mate ko Turikatuku. Taukuri rā ia!

Ka mutu ka taukumekume hoki ko ngā mea i noho ki Te Waimate ki ngā mea i haere ki Whangaroa. He iwi anō e noho mataku tonu ana kei tahuri atu a Hongi ki a rātou. Ko ētahi anō tino kore i whai whakaaro ki a ia. Ka kī: 'kua rite tonu [ia] ki te kuia.'

Heoi, haere whakamua tonu ōna whakaaro. Ka tahuri ki te whakapatipati i ngā mihingare, i a James Kemp rāua ko Hōri Karaka (George Clarke) kia haere mai ki Whangaroa noho ai. E mea ana hoki mā rāua e tō mai ngā kaipuke ki reira. He aha rā, ka mea ki te haere ki Waikato ki te ngaki i te mate o Pōmare I i taea i te tau 1826. Na, ka kimi tikanga kia riro mai i a ia te tauranga kaipuke i Kororāreka (Russell). Kua auau hoki te ū mai o ngā kaipuke ki reira. Kāore tonu i pai ake i tōna taotūtanga, ka mate ki Whangaroa i te 3 o Maehe 1828. Ka whakaaro ngā mihingare i Te Waimate, i Kerikeri, e murua pea rātou. Heoi, i hunaia e ōna uri tōna matenga kei tūpono ka murua rātou. Nō te taenga atu o Patuone ka hiki te mataku, ka āta tangihia a Hongi. Ko te takotoranga whakamutunga o ana kōiwi i hunaia. E huna tonu nei i nāianei.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Hongi Hika', first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 1, 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1h32/hongi-hika (accessed 23 October 2017)