Kōrero: Te Wherowhero, Pōtatau

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Wherowhero, Potatau

?–1860

Nō Waikato, nō Ngāti Mahuta; he ariki, he toa, he Kīngi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Te Wherowhero ki Waikato i te whakamutunga o te rau tau 1700–1799. Ko ia te tama mātāmua a te rangatira toa o Waikato, a Te Rauangaanga, rāua ko Parengāope o Ngāti Koura. Nō te kāwai ariki ia o Ngāti Mahuta, i heke iho i ngā kaiārahi o runga i a Tainui rāua ko Te Arawa.

Tokowhā ngā wāhine a Te Wherowhero, ko Whakaawi, ko Raharaha, ko Waiata, ko Ngāwaero. Ko ana tamariki, ko Matutaera (nō muri nei i karangatia ai ko Tāwhiao), ko Mākareta Te Otaota, ko Tīria.

I pakeketia a Te Wherowhero i te wā i houhia ai te rongo i muri mai i te horonga o Waikato i a Ngāti Toa, i te pakanga i Hingakākā, i Te Mangeo, i te moana o Ngāroto. I whakaakona ia e tana matua ki ngā tikanga tuki iho a ana tūpuna, nō muri mai ka akona ia ki ngā kauwhau tapu i te whare wānanga o Waikato, i Te Papa-o-Rotu, i Whatawhata. I whakaakona anō hoki ia hei toa. Nō te matenga o tana whanaunga o Te Uira i a Ngāti Toa, ka uru ia ki roto i ngā riri ki a rātou. E kī ana tētehi kōrero, nāna i whakakīkī kia patua a Marore, tētehi o ngā wāhine a Te Rauparaha, i a ia e whakataki whanaunga ana i Waikato i te tau 1820. Whai i muri mai ko ngā ngaki mate a Ngāti Toa, ka whakaeke te ope taua o Waikato rāua ko Ngāti Maniapoto i Kāwhia i te tau 1820, ka tāorotia a Ngāti Toa i Te Kakara, i te moana o Taharoa, me Waikawau i te taha tonga o te mātārae i Tīrua. Ka karapotia a Te Rauparaha i Te Arawī, i Kāwhia, ā, nā runga i ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero, ka whakataungia me tuku e Ngāti Toa ō rātou whenua i Waikato, ka taki heke ki te tonga. Ka whakaaetia rātou kia haere; nō te tīmatanga ka haere ki Te Kaweka kei te taha marangai o Taranaki.

Ka whāia e Te Wherowhero me tana ope nui. E haere ana hoki ia ki te āwhina i a Peehi Tūkorehu, he rangatira nō Ngāti Maniapoto, kua karapotia rā tana ope e ngā iwi o Taranaki i Pukerangiora, i te awa o Waitara. I te mutunga o te tau 1821, i te tīmatanga rānei o te tau 1822, ka hinga te ope taua a Waikato i Motunui; ahakoa ngā tohutohu a Te Wherowhero, ka kōkiringia te kākahu haehae a Ngāti Toa me ōna karanga maha. Kāore a Te Wherowhero i whakaunu i a ia, i noho tonu ki te taha o te tūpāpaku o tētehi o ana kaihautū, ka rokohanga mai e Ngāti Toa me ana uku o Ngāti Mutunga. E tahuri ana tētehi o Ngāti Mutunga ki te pupuhi i a ia, ka āraingia atu e Te Rauparaha. Ka taumātakitahi a Te Wherowhero me tana kō ki ngā rangatira o te hoariri. Ka hoki whakamuri mai a Waikato ki te āwhina i a ia, i mutu ai te riri. E kīia ana, nō te pō ka tae a Te Wherowhero ki a Ngāti Toa ki te inoi whakamaherehere i a Te Rauparaha. Ka karanga atu a Te Rauparaha, kia haere mā Pukerangiora i te tonga, kei whakatika mā te marangai ka tūpono ki te ope taua a Taranaki. I aroha ai pea a Te Rauparaha ki a Te Wherowhero, he uri tahi hoki rāua nō Tainui waka. Kātahi ka haere a Te Wherowhero ki Pukerangiora, ka whakamutua e ia te karapotitanga o Waikato i reira, kātahi ka hoki ki te kāinga. Tau rawa ake, ka riro nāna a Waikato i ārahi ki te whawhai i a Hongi Hika me tana iwi mau pū, a Ngā Puhi.

E ngaki mate ana a Hongi Hika mō ana whanaunga i patua e Waikato i Tāmaki, i Hauraki. Ka ārahina e ia ana toa 3,000 ki Te Waitematā; kātahi ka tōia ō rātou waka mā uta ki te moana o Manukau, ka hoea ngā wai o Awaroa kia tae ki te awa o Waikato. Ka tuaina e Waikato he rākau kia hinga atu ki te awa hei whakapōrearea i te hoariri. Ka whakapupūngia ai ō rātou kaha ki te pā o Mātakitaki, ka hui atu te 10,000 tāngata i raro i a Te Wherowhero i te marama o Mei 1822. Nō te kōkiritanga a Ngā Puhi, ka tumeke a Waikato, i te mea kātahi anō rātou ka rongo i te pū. Kātahi ka kāwhaki, ka taki whakarērea te pā. He maha ngā tāngata i takatakahia, ka matemate. Ka ngana a Te Wherowhero ki te ārai i a Ngā Puhi, ko tana rau kotahi.

Ka horo te pā, ka wehewehe a Ngā Puhi ki te rapu haere i te hunga e rere ana. I Ōrāhiri, i Ōtorohanga, ka mau hereheretia he rōpū wāhine nō Ngāti Mahuta. Kua hoki whakamuri kē a Te Wherowhero ki ngā maunga o Rangitoto, ā, e whai mōkihi ana i te awa o Waipā ka tūpono ia ki tētehi kuia i reira. Ka whakahaungia e ia te kuia rā kia hoki ki te kōrero ki ngā wāhine i mau hereheretia rā, kei te whitinga o Kōpū ka tae atu. I te taenga atu e taki moe katoa ana te hoariri, kotahi te tangata kei te awa e unu ana. Ka āta rumakina te ūpoko ki te wai. Ko ngā mahuetanga o Ngā Puhi he mea patu. Ka heke a Waikato ki te tonga noho ai mō ngā tau e hia nei, kei pākia anō rātou e Ngā Puhi. I noho ai a Te Wherowhero i Ōrongokoekoeā, kei te taha whakarunga o te awa o Mōkau. I reira ka whakawhānau tana wahine, a Whakaawi, i tā rāua tamaiti i a Matutaera. Kia hohouhia rā anō te rongo ki a Ngā Puhi i te tau 1823, kātahi anō a Waikato ka taki hokihoki ki ō rātou kāinga. Ka whakamoengia a Kati, te whanaunga o Te Wherowhero, ki a Matire Toha o Ngā Puhi. Ko tā rāua tamāhine ko Te Paea.

I hoki mai anō a Hongi Hika i te tau 1825, e whai ana i ngā rerenga o Ngāti Whātua; ēngari kāore mō te riri ki a Waikato. Heoi, nō 1826, ka ārahina e Pōmare I a Ngā Puhi ki te whakaeke i a Waikato i a Te Wherowhero e ngaro ana ki Taupō. Ko te hiahia o Te Wherowhero kia tūtaki ia ki a Pōmare, ka whakahēngia e Te Kanawa, he mataku nōna kei kōhurutia. Nō te pikinga whakarunga o Pōmare rātou ko tana ope i te awa o Waipā, ka hinga ki reira; ka mate a Pōmare i Te Rore. Nō 1827, ka haere te ope taua o Waikato ki Tāmaki ki te wawao i a Ngāti Pāoa, ki te āki atu i a Ngā Puhi. Nō muri ka ārahina e Te Wherowhero he kaupapa ki te huaki i a Ngā Puhi ki Whāngārei. Nō te toanga o Waikato i te whawhai i Ōparakau, ka houhia te rongo, ka hoki a Waikato.

Nā runga i ngā riri ki a Ngāti Hauā i 1830, ka heke a Ngāti Maru ki Hauraki, kua ngaro noa atu a Ngāti Raukawa whaka-te-tonga ki Te Manawatū. Nō konei ka wātea a Waikato ki te ngaki i ana mate i Motunui. Nō 1831, ka ārahina e Te Wherowhero he ope taua ki reira, ki te huaki i a Te Āti Awa. Kua whakanoho rātou ki Pukerangiora whakaruru ai; heoi, kāore rātou i whai wāhi ki te whakaemi kai mō te tūpono karapotingia rātou. Nō te paunga o te toru marama, ka tahuri te iwi rā ki te kāwhaki i a rātou i te awatea ana; ka hinga rā hoki te pā. Ko ngā mea o te whārona awatea, i tukuna ki te ahi. Kei ā rātou kōrero, nā Te Wherowhero tonu i patu ngā herehere 150 ki tana mere, ki a Whakarewa. Ēngari, ko te pā i Ngāmotu kāore i taea e tana ope te whakahoro. Ka taki hoki.

Ka whakaeke anō a Ngā Puhi i a Waikato i 1832, ēngari i āraingia atu e ngā toa 3,000 o Waikato, kua whiwhi pū hoki te nuinga. He mea apo ngā rākau a te Pākehā a J. R. Kent, he kaihoko, i moe i a Tīria, te tamāhine a Te Wherowhero. I Kāwhia e noho ana.

Whawhai tonu ai a Te Wherowhero ki ngā iwi o Taranaki mai i 1833 ki te tau 1836. He mea tutetute ia e Te Āti Awa, i tā rātou whakaeketanga i te awa o Mōkau. He rahi tonu ngā pā i karapotia e Te Wherowhero, he wā i toa, he wā i rarua. Ko te hounga atu ki te pā o Mikotahi, i te motu e tata ana ki Ngāmotu, mā te moana kē. Me te aha, kore rawa i taea te whakahoro. E rima ngā huakitanga a Waikato i te pā o Te Namu, kei Ōpunake, ka āraingia e Ngāti Ruanui; ēngari te pā o Te Ruaki, i Te Hāwera, e toru marama e karapotihia ana rātou, kātahi anō ka unu. Nō 1836, he kore nō Te Wherowhero i toa i te whakaekenga o te pā o Waimate, i te kōngutu awa o Kapuni, ka houhia e ia te rongo ki a Taranaki. Kātahi ia ka whakatahi me te kī atu e kore ia e hoki atu anō.

Nō ngā tau o waenganui o 1830–39, ka tae mai ngā mihinare ki Waikato. I kitea ai te nui o ō rātou mana, nō 1840, i te tukunga o ngā iwi i mau hereheretia i ngā pakanga i Taranaki. Ahakoa haere a Te Wherowhero ki ngā karakia a te hāhi, kāore ia i iriirihia. Nō te tau 1840, ka haria mai e Kāpene W. C. Symonds, te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Manukau, ki te wāhi e noho ana a Te Wherowhero i Te Awhitū. Ahakoa manawapā rawa atu ia ki te kāwanatanga a te Pākehā, kore rawa ia i whakaae ki te tuku i tana tohu ki te Tiriti. Nō te marama o Mei 1844, ka whakatūria e ia he hākari hei whāngai i ngā iwi i tae mai ki tētehi hui nui ki Remuera. Nā te taikaha o tana tū i te hui, ka ū te whakaaro o Kāwana Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy), mā te whakarata rā anō i a Waikato, kātahi anō a Ākarana (Auckland) ka ngita. Mai i 1840, he huihui tonu te mahi i te kāinga o Te Wherowhero i Pukekawa, i Ākarana, mō te kōrero i ngā take e ahu ake ana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko ia tētehi o ngā rangatira i hoko whenua ki te kāwanatanga i Manukau. Ēngari, i puta ōna whakahē ki a Kuini Wikitōria (Victoria) i te tau 1846, i runga i te whakahau a Ēara Grey, te hēkeretari mō ngā whenua o tāwāhi (secretary of state for the colonies), kia tohua he whenua Karauna ngā whenua kāore anō kia nōhia, kia whakamāratia rānei e te Māori, ahakoa mōhiotia e takahi ana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nō te tau 1848, ko Te Wherowhero tētehi i haere ki te whakahoki i a Te Rauparaha ki tana iwi i Ōtaki, i tana putanga mai i te whare herehere. I runga i te tono a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey), ka heke a Te Wherowhero me ētehi o tana iwi ki Māngere noho ai, ā, nō 1849, ka hainangia e ia he kirimini, kia taka atu a Ākarana ki raro i tōna maru.

Nō ngā tau mai i 1850, ka haere te kōrero mō te whakatū i tētehi Kīngi hei tiaki i ngā whenua Māori kei riro. Hei hanga ture hoki kia kore ai ngā iwi e whawhai ki a rātou anō. Ka takahia e Mātene Te Whiwhi te nuku o te whenua ki te kimi rangatira tōtika hei Kīngi. Ka kī a Iwikau Te Heuheu Tūkino III, kia whakapā atu ki a Te Wherowhero; ka tautokohia e Wiremu Tāmihana o Ngāti Hauā. I whakatenetene a Te Wherowhero kia whakatūria ko ia hei kaihohou i te rongo, he mōhio iho kāore anō kia ngakia te mate o tana whanaunga o Rangiānewa, i patua rā e Ngāti Hauā i te tau 1825. Nō taua wā rā ka houhia te rongo, ā, nō te roanga o ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero, ka whakaae a Te Wherowhero ko ia hei Kīngi. Ko te whakawahinga i Ngāruawāhia i te tau 1858. I tana whaikōrero ka takoto tana kupu, arā, ko te whakakotahitanga o te Kīngitanga, he mea whakarite e ia ki te kōwhao o te ngira e uru atu ai te miro mā, te miro mangu, me te miro whero. Ka whakaūngia tana iwi kia mau ki te aroha, ki te ture, me te whakapono ki te Atua.

Kore rawa atu a Te Wherowhero i whakaae kia whakataetae te Kīngitanga ki te mana o Kuini Wikitōria. Ko tōna hiahia kē, ko te mahitahi ki te kāwanatanga. Heoi i whakamātau tonu ētehi o ana hoa ki te whakapōrearea i ngā kaupapa a te kāwanatanga i ngā rohe o te Kīngitanga. I whakahē a Te Wherowhero mō tā rātou tāke i ngā kaipuke e ū ana ki Kāwhia. Ko tāna i kī ai, ki te totohe rātou ki te tāke i ngā waka kawe pukapuka a te kāwanatanga i runga i te awa o Waipā, ka whakarērea rātou, ka hoki ia ki Māngere noho ai.

He whakapāpā tonu ngā kāwana e rua a Hōri Kerei rāua ko Thomas Gore Browne, ki a Te Wherowhero mō ngā āhuatanga Māori. Heoi, nō muri o tana whakawahinga hei Kīngi, ka tīmata te mawehe haere i te kāwanatanga. Nō te muranga o ngā raruraru whenua, kua whakahēngia e Te Wherowhero ētehi o ngā kaupapa a te kāwanatanga.

I mate a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero ki Ngāruawāhia, i te 25 o Hune 1860. He nui ngā iwi i tae ki te poroporoaki ki a ia. Nō muri, ka tū ko tana tama, ko Tāwhiao, hei Kīngi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Te Wherowhero, Pōtatau - Te Wherowhero, Potatau', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t88/te-wherowhero-potatau (accessed 10 December 2019)