Kōrero: Ruatara

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ruatara

?–1815

Nō Ngā Puhi; he kaihautū, he tangata haere, he hēramana, he kaiahu whenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Ruatara tētahi o ngā rangatira tuatahi o Ngā Puhi i whakahoa atu ki te Pākehā me ōna āhuatanga. Ko tōna kāinga noho ko te rohe o Te Puna i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Kīhai e mōhiotia ana tōna rā whānau me ōna mātua, ēngari ki te kōrero a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden), te minita whakahaere o New South Wales, e 22 tau pea tōna pakeke i te tau 1809. Ki tā Te Mātenga anō, ko Kaparu tōna pāpā, he teina nō te rangatira rā nō Te Pahi; hāunga tōna whaea, he tuahine nō Hongi Hika. Ēngari kei ngā tirohanga o muri nei ka kitea tērā pea ko Te Aweawe kē tōna matua, arā, nō ērā hapū o Ngā Puhi, nō Ngāti Rāhiri me Ngāti Tautahi; ko tōna kōkā ko Tauramoko nō Ngāti Rāhiri me Ngāti Hineira. Arā anō pea ōna whanaunga ko Ngāti Rēhia. Ko te wahine tuarua a Ruatara ko Rahu, he tuakana nō te wahine a te rangatira rā a Waikato, nō Te Hikutū. Nō te moenga o Ruatara rāua ko Te Rahu, ka heke atu ō rāua whanaunga o Te Hikutū ki Rangihoua noho ai.

I te tau 1805, ka wehe atu a Ruatara i Aotearoa. Ko tāna mahi he kaumoana i runga i te kaipuke whai tohorā, i te Argo. Ko te tino kaupapa o tōna haere, kia tūtaki a ia ki a Hōri (George) III, te Kīngi o Ingarangi. E whā tau a ia e mahi ana ki runga i te maha o ngā kaipuke whai tohorā. He tino pai te manaaki a ētahi o ōna rangatira Pākehā, ēngari, ko ētahi anō i tino tūkinotia a ia. Kāhore he kai tōtika o ērā, ka patua a ia mō te hemo tonu atu. I te tau 1809, e hoki ana a Te Mātenga mai i Ingarangi ki Ahitereiria mā runga i te kaipuke te Ann, he waka whakarite mō te hunga kua mau heretia, ka tūpono ki a Ruatara. E tino pāngia ana te rangatira rā i te mate, arā, e ruaki toto ana, nā te kino ō ngā patunga a ōna hoa mahi i a ia. E pā pōuri ana hoki a ia; ko te take, nō te taenga ki Ingarangi, kua kore a ia e tukuna kia heke mai i te waka, kia tūtaki a ia ki te Kīngi. Nā Te Mātenga a ia i manaaki, i tiaki, i hoatu kākahu tōtika mōna. Nō te taenga o te Ann ki Poihākena (Port Jackson), ka pōwhiritia atu e ia a Ruatara kia haere atu ki tōna kāinga i Parramatta noho ai.

E waru marama a Ruatara e noho ana ki te taha o Te Mātenga. I a ia i reira, ka whakaritea e ia he kaupapa nui mō tōna iwi, kia whakatipungia he wīti hei oranga mō rātou, hei hoko atu ki tāwāhi. Ka āta tirohia hoki e ia ngā mahi ahu whenua a tauiwi, ngā mahi kāmura me ērā atu mahi a te Pākehā. Nō te whakaritenga a Te Mātenga i tētahi waka hei hokinga mōna ki Aotearoa, arā, ko te kaipuke hopu tohorā a Frederick, ka mauria e Ruatara ana taputapu mahi Pākehā, me tana tōtō kākano wīti. Ka tūkinotia a ia e ngā iwi o taua kaipuke rā, ka tāhaetia ana taonga ka whakarērea atu a ia ki tērā moutere ki Norfolk. Nā te kaipuke whai tohorā kē nā te Ann a ia i ora ai, ka whakahokia atu a ia ki Poihākena. Nō te tau 1812 rā anō, ka tae ki te kāinga.

Nō te taenga atu o Ruatara ki Rangihoua, e noho raruraru ana tōna iwi. Kua raupatutia te kāinga o Te Pahi, i te moutere o Te Puna, e ngā Pākehā whai tohorā, ka kōhurutia te nuinga o te iwi i reira e noho ana. Ka ora ake a Te Pahi, ēngari kāore i roa i muri mai ka mate. Ko te whakapae a ngā Pākehā rā, nāna te kupu i kōhurutia ai ngā iwi o te kaipuke o te Boyd, i Whangaroa i te tau 1809. Ko te whakakapi a Te Pahi (ko Hokatiri pea tōna īngoa), i ngaro noa iho; i mate rānei i te tāorotanga i a Te Puna, i ahatia rānei. Ko te whakakapi tuarua, a Te Uri-o-Kanae, he tino hē. Nō tērā ka huri rātou ki a Ruatara hei hāpai i te mana o Te Pahi. Nō taua wā nei pea i moea e ia tana wahine tuarua a Rahu me tana wahine tuatoru. Ko tana wahine tuatahi a Miki, hei tamāhine mā Waraki o Ngāti Rāhiri. Ko Rahu e noho pouaru ana ka mate tōna hoa, he rangatira, i ngā pakanga o mua. Me te mea nei, ko ia te wahine matua; i whānau i a ia tā rāua tama i 1814.

Kei makere iho a Ruatara i tana tūranga whakakapi mō Te Pahi i ngā wero a te tangata. Te mea e tamariki tonu ana; whakamihi rawa atu te iwi mō ana taonga, mō ōna kākahu me ana patu; ēngari kore rawa ana kōrero mō ngā mea mīharo i kitea e ia i ngā tuawhenua o te ao, i whakaponohia; koirā ka taunungia. Ka tohatohaina e Ruatara ngā kākano wīti ki te iwi, ēngari he huhua te hunga rā kīhai i te whakapono ki ērā momo kai whakatipu, nō te mea kua waia rātou ki ngā kai e tipu ana ki te oneone, ka whakaparahako rātou ki te kai hou rā. Kāhore i taea e Ruatara ki te whakaatu atu ki tōna iwi, he parāoa, he pihikete kei roto i te wīti, kia tae rā anō ki te tau 1814. Koirā te tau i hokona mai e Te Mātenga tōna kaipuke, te Active. Ka tukuna atu e ia a Te Kēnara (Thomas Kendall) me ētahi atu o te mīhana ki te whakatū kāinga mō tō rātou rōpū, arā, te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), ki Aotearoa. Ka tukuna atu hoki e Te Mātenga ngā taonga takoha mā Ruatara. Ko tētahi he mira parāoa, mā te ringa nei ka huri. Kātahi anō, nā te mira rā, ka kite te iwi, ka whakapono, i te āhua o te mahinga parāoa mai i te wīti. Ka tukuna atu hoki ētahi kākano wīti e Te Mātenga, ka tohatohaina ērā e Ruatara ki ngā rangatira o ia whānau. Mea rawa ake, kua mārō te haere o te mahi wīti.

Nō te hokinga o te Active ki Poihākena ka haere hoki a Ruatara, ahakoa ngā whakahē o tōna iwi. E rima marama a ia i reira, e tirotiro ana, e ako ana ki ngā mahi ahu whenua, me ētahi atu anō o ngā mahi a te Pākehā. Nōna i reira, ka kohikohia e ia ngā rākau mahi a te Pākehā me ētahi rākau whawhai. He taonga anō hoki i takohatia ki a ia e te kāwana o te rohe o New South Wales, e Lachlan Macquarie, me ētahi atu anō o ngā rangatira o reira; he manawapā nō rātou ki te kaupapa rā. Ko aua taonga he hōiho kātua, he kau, me ētahi kararehe atu anō, me tētahi kākahu hōia. I mauria mai anō hoki e ngā mihinare rā he heihei, he kākano me ngā wana o ngā momo hua rākau katoa hei oranga mō rātou.

Nō te 22 o ngā rā o Tīhema 1814, ka tau atu te ope rā ki Pēwhairangi. Ka whakatika a Ruatara ki te tiaki i ana Pākehā, arā, i ngā mihinare tuatahi o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare, i a Te Kēnara, i a John King me William Hall. Ka whakatūpatohia e ia rātou mō ngā raruraru tērā ka pā ki a rātou. He maha hoki ōna āwhina i a rātou kia tau ai tā rātou noho ki waenganui i ngā iwi o Te Rēinga me Whangaroa. Nāna anō rātou i āwhina ki te hanga whare ki Rangihoua, ko ia hoki tō rātou whakaruruhau ki reira. Nō muri iho ka haere a ia ki te hari i a Te Mātenga, i runga rā i te Active e noho ana, ki roto o Hauraki ahakoa ngā tūponotanga kei mate noa iho a ia. I taua wā hoki kua rangirua ōna whakaaro mō te kaupapa i haere mai ai aua mihinare rā. I rongo hoki a ia i te kōrero rā, i Poihākena, ko ngā mihinare, he karere kē nā ngā iwi nohonoho whenua, ope hōia hoki. Arā, ka murua noatia ngā whenua o ngā Māori. Mutu rawa ake, kua rite te Māori ki tāna i kite ai, i te tangata whenua o Ahitereiria, i te whakahouhou o te āhua o te noho. Kia tau ai ōna whakaaro, ka whakautua e Te Mātenga, tērā pea me huri atu te Active kia hoki. Kīhai rawa i tau te rangimārie ki a Ruatara mō te tikanga o te kaupapa ki te tuku mai i ngā mihinare kia noho ki Aotearoa; he wā kua whakatenetene a ia ki te āwhina i aua mihinare rā, tono rawa a ia kia utua a ia mō ngā whenua me ngā mahi āwhina e hiahiatia ana e rātou.

Ēngari ka whakatahingia atu e ia ōna whakaaro rangirua rā, ka whāia kētia he oranga mō tōna iwi. Mahi rawa a ia i te ao, i te pō ki te whakarite i ā rātou māra wīti hou, ko ētahi ahu atu ki te whā tekau māero te tawhiti i Rangihoua. Ka whakaritea hoki e ia he tāone ōrite ki tō ngā Pākehā mō rātou. Kātahi ka rūringia he whenua hei tāone ki tētahi puke tata ana ki Te Puna. Kei ētahi wā ka whakatārewangia e ia āna mahi, ka huri kē ki te āwhina i ōna hoa mihinare. Ka hangaia e ia he pākorokoro kia wehe ai he wāhi karakia mō rātou ki uta mō te rā o te Kirihimete. I taua wā kua eke a ia hei māngai mō ngā rangatira o Rangihoua, ēngari me tōna mataku anō, kei kōhurutia a ia. Ko tāna kōrero ki te Pākehā rā ki a John Liddiard Nicholas, e tino pūhaehae ana ētahi o ana karangamaha ki a ia, he rangatira nōna ki te taonga; kei patua a ia. Koirā, i āta whakamōhio atu i aua hunga rā mō te maha o ngā pū a te Pākehā i a ia; ka mataku rā hoki rātou ki te tūkino i a ia.

Nō te 13 o ngā rā o Pēpuere 1815, ka pāngia a Ruatara e te mate. Ka kitea a ia e Nicholas e tino kirikā ana, ko te āhua nei he maremare tino kino tōna. Nō te 19 o Pēpuere, kua mōhio kē a Te Mātenga, kua pāngia a ia e te mate, kua tino hē kē tōna āhua; kua whakamamae, kua whakahemohemo. Ka whakatapungia te wāhi o tōna takotoranga. I waimarie a Te Mātenga kia kite i a ia, nā tana tatakutanga, tērā e tāorotia e ia a Rangihoua ki ngā pūrepo o te Active. Ka whāngaihia atu e Te Mātenga me ētahi o ngā mihinare ki te rongoā, ki te kai, he aha te aha. Nō te 2 o Maehe, ka hangaia he whare pūrokuroku mōna ki runga i tētahi puke ki Te Puna, ka hikitia atu a ia ki reira. Ao ake te rā, ka mate a ia ki reira. Taka rawa i muri iho, ka whakamomori tana wahine a Rahu ka tārona i a ia anō. Tokowhitu ngā rangatira, ko Hongi Hika tētahi, i whakatika atu ki te whakatau i te tūpāpaku. Ka noho tapu rātou, kua kore e kaha ki te whāngai i a rātou anō mō te hia rā te roa. Nō te marama o Āperira, ka mauria atu a Ruatara rāua ko tana wahine ki uta ki Motutara, ki ōna whenua anō.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Ruatara', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1r19/ruatara (accessed 26 June 2019)