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Ruatara

by Angela Ballara

Biography

Ko Ruatara tētahi o ngā rangatira tuatahi o Ngā Puhi i whakahoa atu ki te Pākehā me ōna āhuatanga. Ko tōna kāinga noho ko te rohe o Te Puna i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Kīhai e mōhiotia ana tōna rā whānau me ōna mātua, ēngari ki te kōrero a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden), te minita whakahaere o New South Wales, e 22 tau pea tōna pakeke i te tau 1809. Ki tā Te Mātenga anō, ko Kaparu tōna pāpā, he teina nō te rangatira rā nō Te Pahi; hāunga tōna whaea, he tuahine nō Hongi Hika. Ēngari kei ngā tirohanga o muri nei ka kitea tērā pea ko Te Aweawe kē tōna matua, arā, nō ērā hapū o Ngā Puhi, nō Ngāti Rāhiri me Ngāti Tautahi; ko tōna kōkā ko Tauramoko nō Ngāti Rāhiri me Ngāti Hineira. Arā anō pea ōna whanaunga ko Ngāti Rēhia. Ko te wahine tuarua a Ruatara ko Rahu, he tuakana nō te wahine a te rangatira rā a Waikato, nō Te Hikutū. Nō te moenga o Ruatara rāua ko Te Rahu, ka heke atu ō rāua whanaunga o Te Hikutū ki Rangihoua noho ai.

I te tau 1805, ka wehe atu a Ruatara i Aotearoa. Ko tāna mahi he kaumoana i runga i te kaipuke whai tohorā, i te Argo. Ko te tino kaupapa o tōna haere, kia tūtaki a ia ki a Hōri (George) III, te Kīngi o Ingarangi. E whā tau a ia e mahi ana ki runga i te maha o ngā kaipuke whai tohorā. He tino pai te manaaki a ētahi o ōna rangatira Pākehā, ēngari, ko ētahi anō i tino tūkinotia a ia. Kāhore he kai tōtika o ērā, ka patua a ia mō te hemo tonu atu. I te tau 1809, e hoki ana a Te Mātenga mai i Ingarangi ki Ahitereiria mā runga i te kaipuke te Ann, he waka whakarite mō te hunga kua mau heretia, ka tūpono ki a Ruatara. E tino pāngia ana te rangatira rā i te mate, arā, e ruaki toto ana, nā te kino ō ngā patunga a ōna hoa mahi i a ia. E pā pōuri ana hoki a ia; ko te take, nō te taenga ki Ingarangi, kua kore a ia e tukuna kia heke mai i te waka, kia tūtaki a ia ki te Kīngi. Nā Te Mātenga a ia i manaaki, i tiaki, i hoatu kākahu tōtika mōna. Nō te taenga o te Ann ki Poihākena (Port Jackson), ka pōwhiritia atu e ia a Ruatara kia haere atu ki tōna kāinga i Parramatta noho ai.

E waru marama a Ruatara e noho ana ki te taha o Te Mātenga. I a ia i reira, ka whakaritea e ia he kaupapa nui mō tōna iwi, kia whakatipungia he wīti hei oranga mō rātou, hei hoko atu ki tāwāhi. Ka āta tirohia hoki e ia ngā mahi ahu whenua a tauiwi, ngā mahi kāmura me ērā atu mahi a te Pākehā. Nō te whakaritenga a Te Mātenga i tētahi waka hei hokinga mōna ki Aotearoa, arā, ko te kaipuke hopu tohorā a Frederick, ka mauria e Ruatara ana taputapu mahi Pākehā, me tana tōtō kākano wīti. Ka tūkinotia a ia e ngā iwi o taua kaipuke rā, ka tāhaetia ana taonga ka whakarērea atu a ia ki tērā moutere ki Norfolk. Nā te kaipuke whai tohorā kē nā te Ann a ia i ora ai, ka whakahokia atu a ia ki Poihākena. Nō te tau 1812 rā anō, ka tae ki te kāinga.

Nō te taenga atu o Ruatara ki Rangihoua, e noho raruraru ana tōna iwi. Kua raupatutia te kāinga o Te Pahi, i te moutere o Te Puna, e ngā Pākehā whai tohorā, ka kōhurutia te nuinga o te iwi i reira e noho ana. Ka ora ake a Te Pahi, ēngari kāore i roa i muri mai ka mate. Ko te whakapae a ngā Pākehā rā, nāna te kupu i kōhurutia ai ngā iwi o te kaipuke o te Boyd, i Whangaroa i te tau 1809. Ko te whakakapi a Te Pahi (ko Hokatiri pea tōna īngoa), i ngaro noa iho; i mate rānei i te tāorotanga i a Te Puna, i ahatia rānei. Ko te whakakapi tuarua, a Te Uri-o-Kanae, he tino hē. Nō tērā ka huri rātou ki a Ruatara hei hāpai i te mana o Te Pahi. Nō taua wā nei pea i moea e ia tana wahine tuarua a Rahu me tana wahine tuatoru. Ko tana wahine tuatahi a Miki, hei tamāhine mā Waraki o Ngāti Rāhiri. Ko Rahu e noho pouaru ana ka mate tōna hoa, he rangatira, i ngā pakanga o mua. Me te mea nei, ko ia te wahine matua; i whānau i a ia tā rāua tama i 1814.

Kei makere iho a Ruatara i tana tūranga whakakapi mō Te Pahi i ngā wero a te tangata. Te mea e tamariki tonu ana; whakamihi rawa atu te iwi mō ana taonga, mō ōna kākahu me ana patu; ēngari kore rawa ana kōrero mō ngā mea mīharo i kitea e ia i ngā tuawhenua o te ao, i whakaponohia; koirā ka taunungia. Ka tohatohaina e Ruatara ngā kākano wīti ki te iwi, ēngari he huhua te hunga rā kīhai i te whakapono ki ērā momo kai whakatipu, nō te mea kua waia rātou ki ngā kai e tipu ana ki te oneone, ka whakaparahako rātou ki te kai hou rā. Kāhore i taea e Ruatara ki te whakaatu atu ki tōna iwi, he parāoa, he pihikete kei roto i te wīti, kia tae rā anō ki te tau 1814. Koirā te tau i hokona mai e Te Mātenga tōna kaipuke, te Active. Ka tukuna atu e ia a Te Kēnara (Thomas Kendall) me ētahi atu o te mīhana ki te whakatū kāinga mō tō rātou rōpū, arā, te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), ki Aotearoa. Ka tukuna atu hoki e Te Mātenga ngā taonga takoha mā Ruatara. Ko tētahi he mira parāoa, mā te ringa nei ka huri. Kātahi anō, nā te mira rā, ka kite te iwi, ka whakapono, i te āhua o te mahinga parāoa mai i te wīti. Ka tukuna atu hoki ētahi kākano wīti e Te Mātenga, ka tohatohaina ērā e Ruatara ki ngā rangatira o ia whānau. Mea rawa ake, kua mārō te haere o te mahi wīti.

Nō te hokinga o te Active ki Poihākena ka haere hoki a Ruatara, ahakoa ngā whakahē o tōna iwi. E rima marama a ia i reira, e tirotiro ana, e ako ana ki ngā mahi ahu whenua, me ētahi atu anō o ngā mahi a te Pākehā. Nōna i reira, ka kohikohia e ia ngā rākau mahi a te Pākehā me ētahi rākau whawhai. He taonga anō hoki i takohatia ki a ia e te kāwana o te rohe o New South Wales, e Lachlan Macquarie, me ētahi atu anō o ngā rangatira o reira; he manawapā nō rātou ki te kaupapa rā. Ko aua taonga he hōiho kātua, he kau, me ētahi kararehe atu anō, me tētahi kākahu hōia. I mauria mai anō hoki e ngā mihinare rā he heihei, he kākano me ngā wana o ngā momo hua rākau katoa hei oranga mō rātou.

Nō te 22 o ngā rā o Tīhema 1814, ka tau atu te ope rā ki Pēwhairangi. Ka whakatika a Ruatara ki te tiaki i ana Pākehā, arā, i ngā mihinare tuatahi o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare, i a Te Kēnara, i a John King me William Hall. Ka whakatūpatohia e ia rātou mō ngā raruraru tērā ka pā ki a rātou. He maha hoki ōna āwhina i a rātou kia tau ai tā rātou noho ki waenganui i ngā iwi o Te Rēinga me Whangaroa. Nāna anō rātou i āwhina ki te hanga whare ki Rangihoua, ko ia hoki tō rātou whakaruruhau ki reira. Nō muri iho ka haere a ia ki te hari i a Te Mātenga, i runga rā i te Active e noho ana, ki roto o Hauraki ahakoa ngā tūponotanga kei mate noa iho a ia. I taua wā hoki kua rangirua ōna whakaaro mō te kaupapa i haere mai ai aua mihinare rā. I rongo hoki a ia i te kōrero rā, i Poihākena, ko ngā mihinare, he karere kē nā ngā iwi nohonoho whenua, ope hōia hoki. Arā, ka murua noatia ngā whenua o ngā Māori. Mutu rawa ake, kua rite te Māori ki tāna i kite ai, i te tangata whenua o Ahitereiria, i te whakahouhou o te āhua o te noho. Kia tau ai ōna whakaaro, ka whakautua e Te Mātenga, tērā pea me huri atu te Active kia hoki. Kīhai rawa i tau te rangimārie ki a Ruatara mō te tikanga o te kaupapa ki te tuku mai i ngā mihinare kia noho ki Aotearoa; he wā kua whakatenetene a ia ki te āwhina i aua mihinare rā, tono rawa a ia kia utua a ia mō ngā whenua me ngā mahi āwhina e hiahiatia ana e rātou.

Ēngari ka whakatahingia atu e ia ōna whakaaro rangirua rā, ka whāia kētia he oranga mō tōna iwi. Mahi rawa a ia i te ao, i te pō ki te whakarite i ā rātou māra wīti hou, ko ētahi ahu atu ki te whā tekau māero te tawhiti i Rangihoua. Ka whakaritea hoki e ia he tāone ōrite ki tō ngā Pākehā mō rātou. Kātahi ka rūringia he whenua hei tāone ki tētahi puke tata ana ki Te Puna. Kei ētahi wā ka whakatārewangia e ia āna mahi, ka huri kē ki te āwhina i ōna hoa mihinare. Ka hangaia e ia he pākorokoro kia wehe ai he wāhi karakia mō rātou ki uta mō te rā o te Kirihimete. I taua wā kua eke a ia hei māngai mō ngā rangatira o Rangihoua, ēngari me tōna mataku anō, kei kōhurutia a ia. Ko tāna kōrero ki te Pākehā rā ki a John Liddiard Nicholas, e tino pūhaehae ana ētahi o ana karangamaha ki a ia, he rangatira nōna ki te taonga; kei patua a ia. Koirā, i āta whakamōhio atu i aua hunga rā mō te maha o ngā pū a te Pākehā i a ia; ka mataku rā hoki rātou ki te tūkino i a ia.

Nō te 13 o ngā rā o Pēpuere 1815, ka pāngia a Ruatara e te mate. Ka kitea a ia e Nicholas e tino kirikā ana, ko te āhua nei he maremare tino kino tōna. Nō te 19 o Pēpuere, kua mōhio kē a Te Mātenga, kua pāngia a ia e te mate, kua tino hē kē tōna āhua; kua whakamamae, kua whakahemohemo. Ka whakatapungia te wāhi o tōna takotoranga. I waimarie a Te Mātenga kia kite i a ia, nā tana tatakutanga, tērā e tāorotia e ia a Rangihoua ki ngā pūrepo o te Active. Ka whāngaihia atu e Te Mātenga me ētahi o ngā mihinare ki te rongoā, ki te kai, he aha te aha. Nō te 2 o Maehe, ka hangaia he whare pūrokuroku mōna ki runga i tētahi puke ki Te Puna, ka hikitia atu a ia ki reira. Ao ake te rā, ka mate a ia ki reira. Taka rawa i muri iho, ka whakamomori tana wahine a Rahu ka tārona i a ia anō. Tokowhitu ngā rangatira, ko Hongi Hika tētahi, i whakatika atu ki te whakatau i te tūpāpaku. Ka noho tapu rātou, kua kore e kaha ki te whāngai i a rātou anō mō te hia rā te roa. Nō te marama o Āperira, ka mauria atu a Ruatara rāua ko tana wahine ki uta ki Motutara, ki ōna whenua anō.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Elder, J. R., ed. Marsden's lieutenants. Dunedin, 1934

    Marsden, S. Letters and journals. Ed. J. R. Elder. Dunedin, 1932

    Nicholas, J. L. Narrative of a voyage to New Zealand. 2 vols. London, 1817

    O’Malley, Vincent. The meeting place: Māori and Pākehā encounters, 1642–1840. Auckland, 2012

    Salmond, Anne. Between worlds: early exchanges between Māori and Europeans 1773–1815. Auckland, 1997

    Sissons, J. et al. The puriri trees are laughing. Auckland, 1987


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Ruatara', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1r19/ruatara (accessed 2 August 2021)