Kōrero: Te Pahi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Pahi

?–1810

Nō Ngā Puhi; he kaihautū, he tangata haere

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I te tau 1870, ko Te Pahi o Ngā Puhi, tētahi o ngā rangatira mātāmua o te tapatapa-aitu o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). He tamaiti ia nā Wharerau, arā, he uri nō Ngāti Awa, te iwi taketake o tēnei takiwā, me Ngā Puhi, te iwi toa ki ngā riri. Nā ēnei take i nui ai ōna mana i waenga i ngā iwi me te whenua. He whanaunga ki a Ngāti Rēhia, e ai ki te kōrero i pā atu pea ki Te Hikutū me Ngāti Rua.

Ko te pā tūturu o Te Pahi kei runga i tētahi moutere, e rua nei ōna īngoa, ko Te Puna, ko Te Pahi rānei. Ko tēnei moutere kei waenganui i te kokoru o Rangihoua me Moturoa, ēngari e noho ana a Te Pahi i ētahi wā i te taha wahapū. Ko ana patu rākau me ētahi atu o ana taonga i waiho i Te Puna. I te tau 1805, e noho ana ōna whanaunga i Te Puna i raro i tōna taina i a 'Tiarrah'. He maha ngā wāhine a Te Pahi, ko tētahi he mea whakamate e ia, he kino nō ana hamumu. Tokowhā, nuku atu pea ana tamariki mea tāne, ēngari ana tamāhine, tokotoru nui atu rānei. I whakanōhia tētahi o ana kōtiro ki roto i tētahi pātaka itiiti nei, i Te Puna; he puhi i taumautia mā tētahi rangatira hei taura here i ngā iwi e rua. Ko tētahi atu o ana kōtiro, a Atahoe, i moe i tētahi Pākehā whakarere, ko George Bruce. Nō muri i tō rāua haerenga ki Īnia, kua hurihia tōna īngoa ki a Mary Bruce i taua wā nei, ka whakarērea ia i Poihākena (Port Jackson), ki New South Wales, mate noa ki reira i te tau 1810. Ka mahue tana tamāhine ki te kura mō ngā kōtiro pani. I haere tētahi o ngā tama a Te Pahi, a Matara, ki Ingarangi i te tau 1807, ka tūtaki ki a Kīngi Hōri (George) III, ka hoki mai anō ki Aotearoa i te tau 1809.

I te tau 1805, ka haere a Te Pahi me ana tama tokowhā, mā runga i te kaipuke Venus. Ko te tikanga, kia kite ia i a Phillip King, te rūtene kāwana o te moutere o Norfolk. Kua mōhio kē a Te Pahi i te āhua o te manaaki a King i te iwi Māori. Ka tūkinotia e te kāpene o te kaipuke ana pāhihi, me te kī ko tōna hiahia kia puritia tana tama, e waru tau te pakeke, hei utu mō tō rātou haerenga mai i runga i te waka. I tō rātou taenga ki te moutere o Norfolk, ka tangohia mai te tamaiti nei e te rangatira o Norfolk, e Kāpene John Piper, nāna rā i whakamanuhiri te tira nei. Ka rongo te rangatira rā a Piper, kei te hiahia a Te Pahi ki te tūtaki ki a Phillip King, kua riro rā hei kāwana mō New South Wales, ka whakaritea te waka a Buffalo hei haerenga ki Poihākena; ka tae atu i te 27 o Noema 1805.

Ko Te Pahi te rangatira Māori tuatahi ki te uru atu ki New South Wales, ā, kua whakamihi a King ki a ia i te mea nōna te tauranga waka i Aotearoa e ū ai ngā kaipuke hopu tohorā. He manawapā nō King kia tau ai te noho a te Pākehā e haere mai ana ki Aotearoa, ka āta whakakōrerongia e ia a Te Pahi mō ngā painga o te whakahoahoa ki te Pākehā. E toru marama a Te Pahi rātou ko ana tama e noho manuhiri ana i te whare o te kāwana. He mea tuku ki te rangatira nei, he taonga rino, he hua rākau, he kararehe, me ētahi atu koha. He mea tuku hoki mōna he whare ririki, motumotu nei te hanga, hei whakatū māna ki Pēwhairangi, ki tētahi wāhi ruru i raro i tōna mana, hei nōhanga mō ngā manuhiri Pākehā e taetae ana ki reira. Ka tukua e Te Pahi ki te kāwana ētahi korowai ātaahua, me tētahi mere kōhatu, koia ēnei ko ōna aroha.

Kua hiahia kē a Te Pahi ki te whakawhiti i tōna Māoritanga me ōna māramatanga, ki ō te Pākehā, me ō te Pākehā ki ō te Māori. Kātahi ia ka tono kia haere ētahi o tōna iwi ki Poihākena, kia whakaakohia hei hēpara (i hua ai tēnei whakaaro nā tōna tūtakitanga ki a John McArthur, he tangata whāngai hipi). Ka harakoa katoa ia ki te whakaaro o King ki te whakanoho i tētahi rōpū ki Te Puna mō ētahi marama torutoru i raro i tōna mana; i memeha noa iho tēnei whakarite i te rironga o tōna tūranga i a William Bligh. I ohorere a Te Pahi ki ngā tikanga me ngā ture a te Pākehā, he whakahouhou; i ongaonga rawa atu ia i te taumaha o ngā whakawhiu a te Pākehā mō ngā hara whēnako, ehara noa iho nei. Kore rawa ia i rata ki ngā Māori o reira i tūtaki ai ia; i taunutia e ia ō rātou mau pūeru (kore mau pūeru rānei), ā rātou patu rākau mē ō rātou tikanga katoa.

I a Te Pahi i Poihākena, ka tūpono ia ki a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden), te minita whakahaere o New South Wales. I tae rawa ia ki te karakia; i whakawhitiwhiti kōrero ai rāua ko Te Mātenga mō ngā tikanga o te whakapono. Whakamīharo rawa atu a Te Mātenga ki te hinengaro o Te Pahi, ki a ia he mārama, he kaha, he hōrapa i ngā āhuatanga nui tonu, tae atu ki tōna hiakai ki ngā kōrero mō ngā ture Pākehā, me ā rātou tikanga, me te aha, i tīmata tonu ia ki te hanga kaupapa hei whakatū i te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare (Church Missionary Society) i Te Puna i raro i te maru o Te Pahi.

He whakatūpato nōna mō te hokinga o Te Pahi rātou ko ana tama, kātahi ka whakaritea e King a Lady Nelson hei waka mō rātou; nō te 24 o Pēpuere 1806, ka wehe atu. Ka tae pai a Te Pahi me ana taputapu ki Te Puna; ka whakatūria te whare motumotu; kātahi ka utauta atu ki runga i a Lady Nelson, he pou rākau, he purapura rīwai, he mea e uaua ana te whiwhi i Poihākena. Tērā atu anō ngā koha i tukuna mai e Kāwana Bligh, ēngari, kia noho haere tonu ēnei whakawhanaungatanga, kia eke ki ōna whakaaro, kore rawa.

Nō te mutunga o te tau 1809, ka ū mai te Boyd ki Whangaroa, ki te tiki pou rākau. I te rā tuatoru i reira, ka tukia e ngā Māori, ka patua katoatia ngā tāngata o runga; tokotoru, tokowhā rānei ngā mōrehu i rere. Ka murua ngā taonga o runga, kātahi ka tahuna te waka, pau rawa iho ki te urunga ki te wai. Nā ngā rongo kōrero mō ngā raruraru nei, ka tahuri a Alexander Berry, me ana utanga i runga i te kaipuke hopu tohorā, ko te City of Edinburgh, i Pēwhairangi, ki te tirotiro i te pēheatanga o te raruraru nei. Ka haere a Matengaro, he rangatira nō Pēwhairangi, i tōna taha mē ngā poti e toru e kī ana i te tangata hopu tohorā. Nā ngā kōrero a te hunga mōhio, ka whakataungia e Berry, nā Te Pahi te kōhuru nei. I āhua pērā anō te kōrero a ngā tāngata hopu tohorā, nō Te Pahi te hē. E ngana ana a Tara, he rangatira nō Kororāreka (Russell), he ūnga waka e whakataetae ana ki Te Puna, kia whakaae ki te whakapae nei. Hei utu mō te aituā nei, ka tāorotia e ngā tāngata o ngā kaipuke hopu tohorā e rima, te moutere o Te Pahi i te 26 o Maehe 1810. E ono tekau pea o taua iwi i mate, ka tūkinotia ngā kāinga me ngā taonga o roto. Ka rere a Te Pahi ahakoa e taotū ana. I roto i ngā wiki e hia nei, ka mate ia i te taotūtanga i te whawhai ki ngā iwi o Whangaroa mō te Boyd te take. Ki te whakaaro o King, kua hipa pea ia i te 50 tau. He tangata māia a Te Pahi, e tata ana te ono putu tōna roa, kua mokoia katoatia te kanohi, me ngā rape, ko tōna tū ko te tū a te rangatira.

I runga i ngā kōrero a Ruatara rāua ko Hongi Hika ki a ia i te tau 1814, ka tahuri a Te Mātenga i muri nei ki te whakatahi i ngā hē i whakapaetia mōna. Kei tāna, he mea pōhēhētia a Te Puhi ko Te Pahi kē, he rangatira tērā nō Ngāti Uru o Whangaroa; he mea i haoa e Te Puhi rātou ko tana tama ko Tara, ko Te Ara rānei (ko Hōri (George) anō tētahi o ōna īngoa), me Ngāti Pou o Whangaroa i te Boyd, hei utu mō te tūkinotanga i a Tara, i a ia e kaimahi ana i runga i te kaipuke rā. I whakaae tahi a Te Mātenga rāua ko Alexander Berry, i runga i te kōrero a tētahi, me te kōrero a tētahi, i reira anō a Te Pahi. Ēngari ko te kī a Te Mātenga, kua tīmata kē te tūkinotanga i te Boyd, ka tae atu rā a Te Pahi ki Whangaroa me ana ika e hokona ana; kei tā Berry, kua tae noa atu a Te Pahi i te tīmatanga anō, nāna kē te kupu kia huakina te kaipuke. I te whakaae tahi rāua he mea ūnga iho e Te Pahi ngā tāngata tokorima o te kaipuke kia tuku iho i ngā rā, ka haria ki uta. Ko te kī a Berry, he mea whakahaungia e Te Pahi kia patua rātou i taua wā tonu, ko Te Mātenga e kī ana, nā ngā iwi kāinga e whai ana i a Te Pahi, i patu.

E kore e tino mārama te wāhi ki a Te Pahi. Ko te kōrero nui kē mōna, kei ana whakawhanaungatanga i te Māori mē ngā rangatira Pākehā o Peretānia (Great Britain). He whakamīharo nō tauiwi ki a Te Pahi, mō tōna hiahia ki te hokohoko taonga, me te māia o tōna hinengaro, ka ngana tonu te Pākehā ki te whakawhanaunga atu ki te Māori i runga i te ōritetanga, ahakoa te raruraru mō te Boyd.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Pahi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t53/te-pahi (accessed 8 December 2019)