Kōrero: Te Whatanui

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Whatanui

?–1846

Nō Ngāti Raukawa; he kaingārahu

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Tihao te matua o Te Whatanui, nō ēnei hapū e rua o Ngāti Raukawa, arā, nō Ngāti Huia me Ngāti Parewahawaha. Nō Ngāti Huia anō tōna whaea a Pareraukawa, te tuahine pakeke o Hape-ki-tūārangi. Ko Ngāti Huia anō hoki te pānga atu o Te Whatanui ki a Te Rauparaha, nō te mea koia nei anō hoki te hapū o te whaea o tērā. He wā anō, he īngoa karanga tonu o Te Whatanui, arā; ko Te Whata, ko Toheāpare, ko Toheata rānei. Na, i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899, ka mate a Hape ki Maungatautari. Ko te tino pū tēnei o ngā whenua tūpuna o Ngāti Raukawa. Ko te korahi o Ngāti Raukawa i rere atu i Maungatautari ki ngā maunga tihi pāraharaha o Pātetere ki te rāwhiti. E taiohi tonutia ana a Te Whatanui me ngā tama a Hape i taua wā. Hopukina tonutia atu ka kokorahotia e Te Rauparaha te mana o Hape mōna, ā, taro ake ka moea e ia te pouaru. Kīhai ngā rangatira tuku iho o Ngāti Raukawa, a Te Whatanui mā i whakahē. Ahakoa rā i te hokinga o Te Rauparaha ki Kāwhia ka noho ko Te Whatanui hei ngārahu mātāmua mō Ngāti Raukawa.

I te mahi whawhai a Waikato me ngā iwi o Kāwhia i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800–1899, ka kaha haere te noho wehi o Ngāti Raukawa. Nō te tau 1821 te heke tuatahi a Te Rauparaha ki Taranaki. I tōna hokinga ake, ka whakamātau ki te taritari uku mōna hei whakanohonoho i tōna iwi ki te takutai i Kapiti. Ko te tono tuatahi tonu i tukuna ki a Ngāti Raukawa, ēngari, i whakakāhoretia e Te Whatanui me ōna hoa amorangi. Heoti, i te takatūtanga o Te Rauparaha ki te hari i taua tono ki ērā o ōna hoa rangatira, ka whakatika atu a Te Whatanui hei hoa mōna. Ko Te Waru tērā o Ngāi Te Rangi i Tauranga. I peka atu ki ētehi amorangi kāore i īngoatia. Mutu rawa atu ki a Ngāti Whakaue i Rotorua. I reira, i te tata mutunga pea o 1821, ka uruurua e Te Whatanui a Ngāti Whakaue rāua ko Tūhourangi menā ka tūpono ki a Ngā Puhi, patua. He ngaki tēnei i a Whetūroa i hinga i a Ngā Puhi ki Tōtara pā i Pārāwai (Thames). I tino eke ki tāna i hiahia ai. Ko te tini o Ngā Puhi i patupatua e Ngāti Whakaue me Tūhourangi te take i pāhorotia ai rātou i Mokoia e te rahi o Ngā Puhi i te tau 1823.

Na, i tono a Te Rauparaha ki a Te Whatanui kia whakanohonohoia e ia tana iwi ki te takiwā o Te Moana-a-Raukawa. Kīhai tērā i whakaae, heoi, e pūkeke tonu ana ōna whakaaro ki te pou kāinga mō rātou he wāhi kē. Ko Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay) te wāhi i manakotia nei e ia. I a ia e hīkoi ana ki reira, he wāhine, he tamariki i tana ope nui i hiki atu ki Taupō. Rokohanga atu ko te taua a Te Heuheu Tūkino II e takatū ana, ka hono atu ko ngā toa a Te Whatanui. Kotahi rātou ki te pāhoro i Te Roto-a-Tara pā, i tū i kō paku atu i te Kāreti o Te Aute o ēnei rā. I a Ngāti Raukawa i Taupō e noho ana, ka patua mai te ahurei rā, a Te Wharerangi i te takiwā o Rotoaira e Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi, o te taiwhakaroto o te awa o Whanganui. Kātahi a Whanganui ka urutomokia e Te Whatanui, ka patua ko Hekawai. Ka maranga mai ko Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi, ka rautiputia a Ngāti Raukawa, kia hinga ko Te Ruamaioro me te paremata nui tonu. Hei ngaki i a Te Ruamaioro, ka huakina a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri rāua ko Ngāti Hinemanu o te taiwhakararo o Rangitīkei i Te Ōtaparoto, ka riro i a Te Whatanui.

I te rarunga o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti i Te Roto-a-Tara ko tō rātou tauitanga tēnā ko Ngā Puhi ki Nukutaurua i te rae o Te Māhia, ka mahue hāhā te whenua o Heretaunga. Koia nei te wā i mārō ai ngā whakaaro o Te Whatanui ki te pou kāinga mō tōna iwi ki reira. Nā Te Kaihou a ia i tono kia hanake ki Heretaunga hei tuarā mō rātou ki te ātete i a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri. Na, ko te tungāne o Te Kaihou ko Te Ringanohu o Ngāti Te Kikiri hapū o Te Whatuiāpiti. E 150 ki te 200 te kaha o te taua i haria ake e Te Whatanui. Ko te nuinga o ngā rangatira kīhai i rere ki Nukutaurua nō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka whakatūria e te hunga nei a Te Pakake hei pā tūwatawata mō rātou ki Ahuriri (Napier). Ahakoa te kore pīrangi ki a Te Whatanui, ka rata atu rātou mena ka āwhinatia mai rātou e ia ki te wao i Te Pakake. Heoti, ko te hiahia kē o Te Whatanui he whakatū pā mōna ake ki Puketapu i te awa o Tūtaekurī. I te tīmatanga he āio te noho tahi a Te Whatanui me te iwi kāinga. Heoi, ka pupū ake he take hei whakanoho āmaimai i a rātou, arā, ko te rangatiratanga ki ngā wāhi mahinga kai. Kātahi ka puta te rongo e mahere ana a Te Whatanui ki te hari ake i ērā o tōna iwi i mahue atu rā ki Taupō.

Ka tuku kupu ngā amorangi o Ngāti Kahungunu ki ō rātou iwi e noho tata mai ana, kia whakahiato hei ope taua mō rātou. Rūpeke katoa ana ki Te Pakake. Kātahi a Puketapu ka tukia. E rua ngā taha i huakina i te wā kotahi. Ko ētehi kaiwawao i whakamātau ki te rere mā te pari ki te wai. Nā te taina o Tuaha o Waimārama, nā Te Paratene Tipitaha a Te Whatanui i whai. Nō te rarautanga atu i te kākahu o Te Whatanui, ka tīhorea mai e tērā, ka puta tahanga atu ki rō wai huna ai ā pō noa. I mau herehere ētehi o ngā wāhine rangatira o Ngāti Raukawa, ko tētehi o ngā wāhine a Te Whatanui tētehi. E mōhiotia ana i whakarautia tētehi o ana tama, tērā atu pea ētehi o ana tama i mau, kāore i ngā kōrero. Taro ake ka oma ētehi.

Hei utu mō tana matenga i Puketapu ka hono atu te taua a Te Whatanui ki tā Mananui Te Heuheu me ōna hoa ngārahu ki te kakari i a Te Wera Hauraki rātou ko Te Pareihe mā i Te Māhia. Nō muri mai ka huaina te pā i whakaekea, ko Kaiuku. Na, me hoki anō ki Te Roto-a-Tara. E tū tata ana ki reira te pā o Kahotea. Ka whakaekea, ka hinga ko Te Momo-a-Irawaru o Ngāti Te Koherā me Ngāti Raukawa. He uku nō Te Whatanui.

I muri i ōna matenga i Te Matau-a-Māui, ka huri te titiro o Te Whatanui ki te takutai moana i Kapiti. I ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1820, ka ārahina ake e ia he heke rahi tonu o Ngāti Raukawa ki te takutai o Te Manawatū. I takina atu e ia mā Rangipō ki Turakina puta atu ki Rangitīkei. I heipū ohoreretia atu ētehi rōpū tokoiti o ngā haukāinga i te huarahi, ka patua. Ko Te Wharekī o Ngāti Apa tētehi.

Ka tae ki Kapiti ka pōwhiritia e Te Rauparaha. Ko te whakaaro i noho ia ki Kapiti mō ētehi tau nei. Ka noho nā, ā, nāwai rā, ka kohaina e Te Rauparaha a Te Manawatū, a Horowhenua me Ōtaki ki a Te Whatanui, i te mea he whanaunga tērā nōna. E ai ki ngā kōrero i kī atu ia ki a Te Whatanui, arā, me noho ki Ōtaki, ēngari, kia tūpato i a Mua-ūpoko (ko Mua-ūpoko tētahi o ngā iwi kua noho noa atu ki reira). Ko te whakahoki a tērā, e kīia ana, arā, nā Te Rauparaha a Mua-ūpoko i whakararuraru. E kore ia e pērā, ēngari, ka pūmau tonu ki te rangimārie. Heoti, e takatū ana a Ngāti Apa ki te taiapu i a Ngāti Raukawa. Ko te take he ngaki i ō rātou mate o te hekenga iho o Te Whatanui mā. Ko te ope a Te Whatanui, e rangatū atu ana mā te one ki Ōhau. Ko Ngāti Apa e autō ake ana i uta. Ko ngā wāhine me ngā tamariki o Ngāti Apa i mahue atu ki Hotuiti pā i Horowhenua. Ko te tuatahi ki te tae atu ko Te Whatanui. Tekau mā rua ngā wāhine e mōhiotia ana i mau herehere, tērā atu pea ētehi. Kotahi i tukuna hei kawe kōrero maungārongo ki ōna rangatira. Ahakoa rā, ka noho matakana tonu a Ngāti Apa. Kātahi ka whakamātau ki te whakarau i te irāmutu tāne a Te Whatanui. Nā tēnei mahi i noho ohiti ai a Ngāti Raukawa. Na, i heke iho te taua a Te Whatanui i te awa mā runga waka me te taipara haere i ngā tahataha e rua. Ka tīwaha atu a Te Whatanui ki a Ngāti Apa ki tōna hiahia ki te houhou i te rongo, me te kī taurangi atu e kore e kitea te kaikaiwaiū i tēnei take āna, ā, kore rawa te kino e mahia ki a rātou. Hei whakaatu i te pononga o tana take, ka tukuna anō e ia he herehere.

I momoho i a Te Whatanui te pou i te tatau pounamu i waenga i a Ngāti Raukawa rātou ko Rangitāne, ko Ngāti Apa me Mua-ūpoko. Kotahi rau, neke paku atu rānei o Mua-ūpoko e noho tonu ana i Horowhenua. Ko ngā mōrehu o ngā whawhai ki a Ngāti Toa, i hui ki te whakarongo ki a Te Whatanui. Ka puta i a Te Whatanui ēnei kupu ohaoha rongonui, arā, e tuku ana ia i a ia hei rātā whakaruruhau mō Mua-ūpoko. Ko Ngāti Apa i tukuna e ia kia noho ngātahi me rātou ki ngā whenua o Ngāti Raukawa, ā, kīhai hoki tō rātou mana i whakaitia e ia. Nō te whakataunga o ngā kerēme e te Kōti Whenua Māori i ngā tau i muri mai, i tino raru rawa atu a Ngāti Raukawa i aua kupu ohaoha a Te Whatanui. Ko Raumatangi pā i Horowhenua te pā i nohoia e rātou ko tana iwi. Ka pūmau tā rātou noho, ka takina e ia he taua ki Te Matau-a-Māui mā te tāwhārua o Manawatū. He ngaki i ōna mate o mua atu te kaupapa. Ko ngā hapū o Rangitāne, ko Ngāti Pakapaka rāua ko Ngāti Mutuahi i haere hei tuarā mōna. Ko Tāngōio ki te raki o Ahuriri te tawhiti o te haere, ka hoki mai. Ko ngā wāhine rangatira i patua e te taua ngaki mate nei, ko Paeroa rāua ko Kūtia o Heretaunga. Ko te whakatikatanga mai tērā o te kotahitanga o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Matau-a-Māui me Te Wairarapa me Ngā Puhi hoki, ka huakina a Rangitāne, arā i te takiwā o te tāwhārua o Manawatū e nohonoho ana. Ko 1829 pea te tau i pōwhiritia ai e Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi o Ngāti Tama, a Rangitāne rātou ko Mua-ūpoko, ko Ngāti Apa me Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri ki tētehi hākari. Nō te mea ko ia tō rātou whakaruru, ka whakatūpato atu a Te Whatanui kia kaua e haere. Kīhai i rongo. Kātahi ka whārona awateatia e Te Āti Awa.

Nō muri i te taenga ake o Ngāti Raukawa, ka whānau mai ētehi take hei whakararuraru i te noho a ngā iwi heke. I mau ētehi o Te Āti Awa e pāhua ana i ngā rīwai a Ngāti Raukawa i Waitohu. Ka tautohea, ka pakanga, mate tonu atu te tangata. Ko te riri nui o Haowhenua i waenga i ēnei iwi te hua. I kakaritia i te wā e potapotae ana i te tau 1834. Ko Mananui Te Heuheu me ētehi o ngā hoa kaingārahu o Te Whatanui ki te raki i heke iho ki te āwhina i a ia. I whai hua anō hoki tana whakaaro atawhai ki a Rangitāne, ki a Mua-ūpoko me Ngāti Apa. I maranga mai ērā hei tuarā mōna. Ahakoa rā, kīhai i riro te katoa o te tāhuna i a Te Whatanui mā. E ai ki ngā kōrero i ōrite ngā huanga me ngā kino i puta ki ngā kaitauwhāinga ngātahi.

He wā i muri i tēnei whawhai ka nohoia e Ngāti Raukawa te rohe o Rangitīkei. Ko ētehi o rātou i mau tonu ki Haowhenua me te takiwā ki Ōtaki hoki. Ko Te Whatanui i hoki ki tana kāinga tūturu i Horowhenua noho ai. He wā e tau ana te āta noho, ēngari taka rawa atu ki te tau 1839, kua tutū anō te puehu. Ko Te Kūititanga te kauhanga riri. Ka huakina a Te Āti Awa i Waikanae e Ngāti Raukawa, kātahi ka taiaritia mai.

Ka tīmata te nohonoho mai a te Pākehā ka ngarongaro haere te kite i a Te Whatanui. I whakamanuhiritia e ia ngā mihinare i tae atu. Heoti, ko Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) i whakamahia e ia hei kaikawe kōrero māna ki a Mananui Te Heuheu, arā, kia hanake ki te tuki i a Te Āti Awa. I te hoko whenuatanga a Te Whatanui i Te Manawatū ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company), ka ātetehia e Te Rangihaeata. Ka kaha mai te noho a te Pākehā ki tōna rohe ka whakapaungia e ia tōna kaha ki te whakatikatika i ngā paenga whenua. Nā Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield) ia i huri ai ki te Whakapono, ēngari i pūmau tonu ki ngā tikanga o te tapu me te mākutu. Kua eke i nāianei ki tōna koroheketanga, kua tū mai ko ngā rangatira rangatahi. Ko te whakaaro, arā ia i ōna whanaunga i Muhunoa wāhi o Ōhau awa e noho ana, i ngā tau i mua i tana matenga. I te tīmatanga o te tau 1846, ka hinga. Ka mahue mai ko ana tama tokorua a Te Tūtaki rāua ko Te Tahuri. I roto i ngā mahi kōrero ā whare i ngā tau ki mua, i tukuna e ia tana tamāhine a Rangingangana hei wahine mā Pōmare II.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Whatanui', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t86/te-whatanui (accessed 23 October 2019)