Kōrero: Te Pareihe

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Pareihe

?–1844

Nō Ngāti Kahungunu, nō Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti; he rangatira

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990, and updated in September, 2011.

Ko Te Pareihe te kaihautū o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti i roto i ngā pakanga i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899. Ko ētahi o ngā īngoa o Te Pareihe, ko Kai-a-te-kōkopu, ko Hōri. Kāore e tino mārama ana ōna mātua; kei ngā kōrero, ko Ngārangikapuahu, ko Tiaki, me Te Ikahuahua ētahi īngoa e whakahuahuatia ana. Heoi, ko te kōrero mōna, hei mokopuna ia mā Tapuhara rāua ko Hikawera. Nō te kuia nei nō Tapuhara, te īngoa kei te karangatanga hapū o Ngāi Tapuhara. He tama a Hikawera nā Te Whatuiāpiti, te tino tupuna o tērā iwi.

I a ia e ora ana, ka tūpono a Te Pareihe ki ngā raruraru i waenganui i a rātau anō, arā, ki a Te Hāpuku rāua ko Kurupō Te Moananui. Ko ēnei tokorua, he uri nō Te Wāwāhanga, te mātāmua a Te Whatuiāpiti, nōna nei te mana ki ngā whenua, ki te iwi hoki o Heretaunga. Ahakoa hei karangatanga pāpā ia ki te tokorua nei, kore rawa rāua i aro nui ki a ia. Ka waihotia e ia tēnei āhuatanga hei taki i ōna whakaaro. He tangata mātau ia ki te whakatakoto tikanga, he mōhio ki te whakaputa kōrero, he mārama hoki ki te titiro whānui. Mai iho, he whakataetae tonu a Te Pareihe ki ngā rangatira whai mana nui atu i ōna. I kitea ōna hua, nō te matenga; kātahi ka hoki ngā mahara mōna e tiaki rā ia i a rātau, me te mana o ō rātau whenua i Heretaunga. Kei ngā kerēme ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, he whakahuahua tonu ngā uri i tōna toa i ngā whawhai.

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899, he maha ngā pakanga a Te Pareihe rāua ko tana tuakana, ko Tūteiwirau ki a Rangitāne o Te Wairarapa ki raro, ahu atu ki te tonga o Heretaunga. E ngana ana a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti ki te pupuri i ngā taonga o te taiao i aua rohe. I taotū ia i te pakanga i Mangatoetoe, ka amohia e ōna whanaunga ki tētahi wāhi whakaruru. Ko te pakanga nei, he ngaki i te mate o tō rātou rangatira, o Kaiwaru. Ko te kaiārahi ko Te Ringanohu. I hinga rātau i a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri. Ko tētahi tēnei o ngā pakanga maha i waenganui i ēnei iwi e rua mō te mana o Heretaunga.

I ngakia te mate o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti i Mangatoetoe i te pakanga i Pukekaihau i roto o Waipukurau. Nā Whakarongo rāua ko Te Pareihe rātau i taki. Nō te toanga, ka tukuna e Te Kaihou, te tuahine o Te Ringanohu, te mana o tōna tungāne ki a Te Pareihe rāua ko Whakarongo. E rua tau i muri mai, ka horo i a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri te pā o Te Aratipi i Waimārama, kei te takutai moana. Nō taua wā ka puta ngā rongo o Te Pareihe ki te taki ope taua. Kātahi ka whakarewaia tana ope taua, ka hinga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri i Te Matau i te takiwā ki te 1821.

I roto i ngā tau e rua o muri mai, ka kōkiritia a Heretaunga e ngā iwi o te hauraro; he mau pū katoa. Ko Te Hurakohukohu o Ngāti Awa ki Te Mānuka Tūtahi o Whakatāne me tōna ope; i parekura ki Te Pakake, he pā kei te motu i Ahuriri (Napier). Hei ngaki i tōna mate, e rua ngā pakanga o muri nei, nā Te Waru rāua ko Tūpaea i taki mai. I aratakina mai hoki e Te Whatanui o Ngāti Raukawa tētahi ope taua; ka hangaia he pā mōna ki Puketapu. Kua kitea tonutia, kei te tauapohia te whenua mō Ngāti Raukawa. Kātahi ka whakaekengia, ka hinga. I uru a Te Pareihe ki te nuinga o ēnei pakanga.

Nō te tau 1823, ka tae a Te Wera Hauraki o Ngā Puhi ki roto o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka noho pūmau ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia. Ka whakahoahoa rāua ko Te Waikōpiro o Mōhaka; ka whakakotahi i ō rāua ope, kātahi ka aratakina e rāua ki te kōkiri i ngā iwi o Heretaunga me Te Wairarapa. Na, i Te Kauae-o-Māui (Cape Kidnappers), ka kite atu a Te Wera i ngā ahi a Te Pareihe me tana iwi, e mumura mai ana i Waimārama. Ka puta te whakaaro me huaki a Te Pareihe, ēngari kāore ngā iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa i whakaae. Ko tō rātau hekenga tērā ki te pā o Tānenui-a-Rangi, kei te awa o Ngaruroro i Whakatū. I Waimārama, kua mōhio kē mai a Te Pareihe kua tau mai te ope taua o Te Wera. E ai ki te kōrero, kua puta kē te matakite a te tohunga, a Ngoi, tērā e noho tahi a Te Pareihe rāua ko Te Wera i runga i te rangimārie. Nā runga i ā rāua kōrerorero, mea rawa ake, kua piri rāua kia rāua.

Nō taua wā nei, kua hoki mai a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri ki Heretaunga ki te ngaki i ō rātau mate o mua. Ko Mananui Te Heuheu Tūkino II o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, te kaihautū o tō rātou ope taua; he whanaunga hoki i runga i ngā moemoe. Ko tō rātau kāinga noho ko te pā i te motu i Te Roto-a-Tara. Nā Te Pareihe i arataki te ope taua a Ngā Puhi, me Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti me Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa. Ka hinga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri rāua ko Tūwharetoa i te puta o Te Whiti-ō-Tū, i Tikokino. Ka riro anō i a Te Pareihe te pā.

I reira tonu rātau ka hoki mai anō a Mananui me tana ope taua, ka pāhautia te pā i Te Roto-a-Tara mō te rua marama. He kore waka nō rātau, ka hangaia he arahanga he whakawhiti ki te motu. Ka oti, ka whakaaro a Mananui kia tino pāhorotia te pā. I te whakawhititanga atu e tū mai ana a Te Pareihe rāua ko Tiakitai me ētahi atu o ngā rangatira, e tatari mai ana. Ka ākina mai, ka whati te ope a Mananui. I mate ki reira a Te Ārāwai, tētahi o ngā rangatira o te ope whakaeke. Ahakoa whakarērea e Mananui te pakanga nei, kāore i taea te kī i toa a Te Pareihe rāua ko Tiakitai. Ko te take, he maha ngā tāngata i mau hereheretia e Mananui. Ko te tamāhine tonu a Te Pareihe tētahi, ko Patu-kaikino. Nō muri mai ka tukuna e Mananui.

Poto nei te wā i tau ai te rangimārie. Ā, ka mahara anō a Te Pareihe, he nui ngā mate o Ngāti Raukawa, o Ngāti Maru, o Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa me ētahi o Heretaunga, kāore anō kia ea. Na, ka kawea mai e te hau, ki te tohunga ki a Ngoi, he kōrero whakatūpato i a Te Pareihe. Kei te haere mai a Waikato. Ka mea atu a Ngoi, me haere a Te Pareihe ki te tiki i te toki i a Te Hauwaho, nō te mea he tino toki rawa tērā, he toki matakite. Ka tonohia e Te Pareihe te toki rā, ka kī atu hoki kia taki heke katoa rātau ko tana iwi i Nukutaurua. Kāore i arongia atu e Te Hauwaho. Ka kī atu a Te Pareihe, 'Kāti e noho, kia mate ai koe i ngā iwi i parekuratia i Te Whiti-o-Tū.' Whakautua atu e Te Hauwaho, e hinga ai ia, e hinga ana i runga i ōna oneone anō.

Ka ārahina atu e Te Pareihe ngā iwi o Heretaunga ki te whakaruru i Nukutaurua. Hangaia rawatia he pā mōna ki reira, ko Ōkūrārenga te īngoa. Kāore i roa i muri i a rāua, ka patua ko Te Hauwaho, ko Te Hāpuku, ko Te Moananui, ko Tiakitai me te hunga i taki noho atu i Heretaunga, i hinga i a Waikato i Te Pakake.

He wāhanga nui tonu o Waikato i taki rere ki te whai i a Te Pareihe, ka huakina te pā i Ōkūrārenga. Ka hono atu hoki a Mananui me tāna ope o Ngāti Raukawa, o Ngāti Whiti, me Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri ki a Waikato. Nā te whiwhi pū o Ngā Puhi, ngā hoa o Te Pareihe, ka roa rātau e karapotihia ana. Ka pau ngā kai o te pā, kātahi ka huri ki te kai uku; koirā i karangatia ai taua pā rā ko Kaiuku. Kāore te pā i hinga. Ka houhia te rangimārie; e ai ki te kōrero, he rongo ā whare, nā te tamāhine a Mananui, nā Te Rohu.

Nō taua wā nei, ka tae mai ngā Pākehā patu tohorā, hoko harakeke, ki Te Māhia. Ka whakamahia e Te Pareihe tana iwi ki te hāro harakeke, ki te whakatupu kai hei hoko ki te Pākehā kia riro mai ai he pū. Nā tōna ngāwari ki te toha i ngā pū, ka mene katoa mai te tini o te tangata ki a ia, tae atu ki te hunga i rere mai i Waikato. I haere rawa mai ētahi i Te Wairarapa me Heretaunga ki a ia noho ai. I te tokomaha o tana iwi, mātotoru ana te tū a tana ope taua.

Ka hua te whakaaro i a Te Pareihe, me matika ia ki te whakaātete ki ngā iwi kē. Ka āwhinatia e ia a Rongowhakaata ki te ngaki mate ki a Ngāi Tai rāua ko Te Whakatōhea. I āwhina anō ia i a Ngāti Porou ki te pakanga ki a Te Whānau-a-Apanui. Nōna ka hoki mai ki Te Māhia, ka rongo he mea patu e Ngāti Raukawa a Te Wakaūnua, nō Ngāti Hineuru o te takiwā ki Tarawera kei uta o Mōhaka. Ka whakaarahia e Te Pareihe rātau ko Te Wera me Nuku-pewapewa, he rangatira nō Te Wairarapa, ā rātau hokowhitu – 1,600 te kaha – ka whakaekengia te pā o Ōmakukura kei te taha uru-mā-raki o Taupō. I te horonga, he nui o Ngāti Raukawa i mau hereheretia. Kātahi ka whakatika a Te Pareihe ki te huaki i te pā o Mananui i Waitahanui, kei te taha rāwhiti o te moana o Taupō. Ko te hiahia o Mananui, kia whakarērea te pā i te pō, ka puritia e Te Rohu.

E whakatata atu ana te ope a Te Pareihe ki te aroaro o te pā, e tū mai ana a Te Rohu me tana rākau. Whakamihi rawa atu a Te Pareihe ki te māia o te wahine nei, koirā ka takoto tāna kupu, kia houhia te rongo. E hoki ai ērā manaaki, kātahi ka whakatūpato atu a Mananui, aua rawa ia e whakararuraru i a Waikato; ko te take, he tokomaha nō rātau ka tahi, he nui nō ngā pū ka rua. Ēngari me hoki ki Heretaunga, ki te whakatahi i a Te Momo-a-Irawaru i Te Roto-a-Tara. Whai atu hoki, e kore ia e whakapōrearea i a Te Pareihe, ki te pakanga ia ki a Ngāti Raukawa, e hanga whakaaro rā rātau mō te whakaeke i a Heretaunga.

Tēnei ake anō tētahi kōrero: kia hoki kē a Te Pareihe ki Te Māhia, ka rongo kua tae a Te Momo ki Heretaunga me tōna ope taua o Ngāti Te Koherā. He iwi tēnei, ko ōna takenga mai, nō Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Ka haere atu a Te Pareihe rāua ko Te Wera Hauraki i Te Māhia ki te pana. E noho ana a Te Momo i te pā o Kahotea kei te taha rāwhiti o Te Roto-a-Tara. Ko ōna haumi o Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, i raro i a Te Motumotu, kei te motu. Ka hoea e Te Pareihe rāua ko Te Wera ō rāua waka mā te awa o Tukituki, kātahi ka tōia mā uta ki te moana. E kohi kai ana a Te Momo i waho o te pā, ka kitea, ka patua. Ko ia te mātāika. Nō konei, ka hinga te pā i te moana. He nui ngā mea i patua, he nui anō i mau hereheretia. Ka tapaina tēnei whawhai ko Te Roto-ā-Tara Tuarua. Nō muri mai, ka titoa e Ahumai, te hunōnga a Te Momo, he waiata tangi mōna, he kaioraora mō Te Pareihe.

Kotahi, e rua rānei ngā whakatetetanga a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, kātahi ka wehe atu i Heretaunga; noho kē mai ētahi ki Taupō, ētahi ki Te Manawatū, ētahi ki Kapiti. E kore rātau e hoki ake mō te 20 tau. Ahakoa i toa, ka tahuri a Te Pareihe ki te hari i tana iwi i a Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti rāua ko Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Māhia noho ai; takitahi i mahue ki muri, noho mohoao ai.

Nā te ngarongaro o te tangata, ka tau te rangimārie i Heretaunga mō tētahi wā roa. I noho tonu atu a Te Pareihe ki Nukutaurua. Nā te ngakinga rawa i te mate o Paeroa rāua ko Kūtia i mate i te whawhai, ka nuku atu ia i reira. He whaea a Paeroa nō Kurupō Te Moananui, te ariki ihorei o Ngāti Hāwea, he karangatanga hapū o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti. Ka rewa te ope taua rā ki te patu i a Ngāti Raukawa ki Te Manawatū; ka tūpono atu i te huarahi ko Rangitāne, te haumi o Ngāti Raukawa; ka kōkiritia. Ko te pakanga o Te Ruru, ka hinga a Ngāti Mutuahi rāua ko Ngāti Pakapaka. Kātahi ka hoki atu anō a Te Pareihe ki Nukutaurua.

Nō waenganui o ngā te tekau tau mai i 1830, ka taetae mai ngā kaiwhakaako Karaitiana ki Te Māhia. E taki kauwhau ana i te rangimārie; kia whakamutua te tao tangata; kia whakakorehia ngā mahi whawhai. Ko ngā kaiwhakaako tuatahi, nō Te Arawa; ēngari ko te hunga nāna te kōrero hōu nei i whakaū ki a Te Pareihe, ko Pāora Pōmare o Ngā Puhi. Ahakoa te aroha o Te Pareihe ki te hāhi Karaitiana me ōna āhuatanga, i tū tonu ia i te taha o tana iwi ki te ārai atu i a Waikato i Kihitū.

Nō te tau 1838, ka ūnga atu e Te Pareihe ana tāngata ki te hohou i te rongo ki a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, ki te inoi atu hoki, kia hoki mai ki Heretaunga noho ai. Ākuanei pea, i pēnei rawa ai tōna aroha ki a rātau, he whakatūpato nōna ki a Te Hāpuku. I whakapaetia nāna tētahi o ngā tamariki a Te Pareihe i mākutu. E hia nei ngā huihuinga, i whiriwhirihia ai te kōrero mō te hohou rongo. Nō te tatūnga, ka whakamoea ētahi hei taura here. Nō taua wā nei anō pea, a Te Pareihe i moe i a Te Rohu, te tamāhine a Mananui. Ki ētahi atu kōrero anō, ko Te Moananui kē tana tāne.

Tokotoru ngā tamariki a Te Pareihe; ēngari kāore e mōhiotia ana te whaea, ngā whāea rānei. Kotahi te mea tāne, tokorua ngā mea wāhine. He tamāhine i noho i te kāinga o Te Koreneho (William Colenso); e waru ōna tau ka mate i te tau 1848. Ko Ani Patu-kaikino, e ora tonu ana i te matenga o Te Pareihe.

I roto i ngā tau o muri mai, hokihoki ai ngā iwi o Heretaunga ki reira noho ai i raro i te maru o Te Pareihe. I Awapuni tōna kāinga, arā, kei Clive o ēnei rā.

Nō te tau 1844, nō mua tata atu o te waihangatanga o Te Koreneho i te mīhana i Waitangi, e tata ana ki Awapuni, ka mate a Te Pareihe. Ka waiatangia e Ani Patu-kaikino, tētahi waiata rongonui ki runga ki a ia. Nō te marama o Āperire 1846, ka hahua te tūpāpaku, ka haria ngā kōiwi ki te ana o Parewanui, e tata ana ki Pakipaki. Nā ōna kaha i tūrere ai ngā iwi whakaeke i Heretaunga. Nāna i toitū ai te whenua mō ngā whakatupuranga. Nā reira, ka maumahara tonu tana iwi ki a ia – ka whakamihi, ka whakanui, ka whakahīhī ki a Te Pareihe.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Pareihe', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated September, 2011. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t54/te-pareihe (accessed 22 October 2019)