Kōrero: Tūpaea, Hōri Kīngi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Tupaea, Hori Kingi

?–1881

Nō Ngāi Te Rangi; he kaihautū, he kaiako mihingare, he āteha

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Alister Matheson and Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Tūpaea nō Te Whānau-a-Tauwhao hapū o Ngāi Te Rangi. Ki te āhua nei i whānau ki Tauranga. He tama nā Te Waru rāua ko tana wahine ko Hine Te Oro. Ko ōna whakapapa i ahu mai i a Toroa o te waka o Mātaatua, i a Tia rāua ko Tapuika o Te Arawa, me Tauroa o Kāwhia o Tainui. Nō te matenga o tana matua i te tau 1830, ka puta ko ia te rangatira mō Ngāi Te Rangi whānui tonu. Ko te whakaaro, neke atu i te tokorua ngā wāhine i moea e Tūpaea. Ko tētahi ko Te Pākōwhai. Tokotoru ā rāua tama, tokorua ngā tamāhine. I te tau 1852, ka heke a Tūpaea ki Mōtītī noho ai. I mua atu i tēnei ko Ōtūmoetai tōna kāinga noho matua. He pā rongonui o Ngāi Te Rangi ki Tauranga.

Ki te āhua nei e taitama tonu ana a Tūpaea ka pakanga a Ngāi Te Rangi ki a Ngā Puhi iwi mau pū, i ngā tau 1818 me 1820, ki a Ngāti Maru hoki i te tau 1828. Kāore e kore i te taha ia o Ngāi Te Rangi i tā rātou haerenga ki te āwhina i a Te Waharoa o Ngāti Hauā i te pakanga ki a Ngāti Maru i Taumatawīwī i Waikato i te tau 1830. Ka tīmata anō ngā mahi taua a Ngā Puhi i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau mai i 1830, kua whai pū kē a Ngāi Te Rangi. I te tau 1831 ka pakanga aua iwi ki Mōtītī. Toa ana a Tūpaea rāua ko Te Waharoa, ka hinga te ope taua a Te Haramiti. Kotahi rau mā rima tekau te tokomaha nō Nga Puhi me Ngāti Kurī i parekuratia.

Mai i te tau 1700, ka noho pakanga a Ngāi Te Rangi rāua ko Te Arawa mō ngā whenua mai i Ngā Kurī-a-Whārei (Katikati) ki Maketū, riro i a Ngāi Te Rangi. Ka tau atu a Piripi Tāpihana (Phillip Tapsell) ki Maketū i te tau 1830 me tana mahi hokohoko, ka heke te tokomaha o Te Arawa ki Maketū ki te mahi harakeke hei hoko pū. Koia anō hoki te hiahia o Ngāi Te Rangi. Nā Tūpaea hoki i hoko he whenua i Maketū ki a Te Tāpihana. Ko te utu he pū, he paura pū, he kariri, he tupeka. Na, ka hangā e Tūpaea he pā mō tana iwi i Te Tūmū, tata atu ki Maketū. Ki te kōrero a Te Tāpihana mō Tūpaea, he hoa tata, he tūturu rangatira hoki i roto i ngā āhua katoa. Nā te taupatupatu o tēnā, o tēnā o ngā iwi o reira, hei a rātou anake ngā painga o te taimoana, noho tonu te raruraru i waenga i a rātou.

I te rā o te Kirihimete i te tau 1835, ka patua a Te Hunga, he whanaunga nō Te Waharoa. Ki te kōrero nā Haerehuka o Te Arawa i patu. E toru marama i muri mai ka tau atu a Te Waharoa me tana ope taua ki Maketū ki te ngaki i te matenga o Te Hunga. Nō te 28 o Maehe 1836, ka hinga te pā o Te Arawa me te toa hokohoko a Te Tāpihana i Maketū. Nā te mea i reira a Tūpaea e āwhina ana i a Te Waharoa, waimarie ana te whānau a Te Tāpihana. I muri mai ka huri atu a Te Arawa, ā, hinga ana i a rātou te pā o Ngāi Te Rangi i Te Tūmū i te 5 o Mei 1836. I whara te ūpoko o Tūpaea, ā, whakahaua ana e Hikareia he taua pouturiao hei hari i tana irāmutu ki Tauranga, kia kore ai a Ngāi Te Rangi e mahue ngārahu kore. He tokomaha o Ngāi Te Rangi i hinga me Hikareia i taua pakanga. Ahakoa i toa a Te Arawa, arā i riro i a rātou ngā rohe whenua, ka haere tonu ngā mahi rīriri ā tae noa ki ngā tau pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1840, ngā tau i hohoungia ai te rongo. He wā ka murua ngā mahinga kai i Maketū, he wā ka huakina ko ō Tauranga, ā, patupatua ana hoki te hunga kāinga. I te tau 1842, ka mate anō a Tauranga i te hinganga o Ōngare i a Taraia o Ngāti Maru. Ka mutumutu haere ngā pakanga, ko te kī, whakamauāhara a Tūpaea ki a Te Arawa mō ngā raru maha i pā ki tōna iwi. I manawapā anō hoki ki te hohou i te rongo i waenga i a rātou ko Te Arawa.

Kīhai a Tūpaea i whakamau i tōna tohu ki te Tiriti o Waitangi i Tauranga i Āperira, i Mei o 1840 rānei. Ko te whakapae a ngā āpiha o te Karauna, nā tana piri ki ngā mihingare Katorika i pēnei ai, ēngari, kīhai i mōhiotia menā he whakapae tika. I te 30 o Āperira 1848, ka iriiria a Tūpaea e Parāone (A. N. Brown) o te Hāhi Mihingare. Ko tana īngoa ko Hōri Kīngi (George King), ā, huri ana ki ngā mahi ako mīhana i Ōtūmoetai. I te tau 1851, ka maranga, ka ārahina e ia a Ngāi Te Rangi ki a Ngāti Maru ki te mau i te rongo. Ēngari, i te tau 1852, tata tonu a Ngāi Te Rangi me Te Arawa te pakanga anō. Ko te motu o Mōtītī te take. Nā Waikato i āwhina oti atu ana te hanga pā i Karioi ki runga o Mōtītī, ā, mau ana te rongo. Ka tata pau te tekau tau atu i 1850, ka nuku mai a Tūpaea i Mōtītī noho ana ki te awa o Wairoa ki Tauranga. Mai i te wā 1859 ki te 1860 he pakanga poto tāna ki a Ngāti Hangarau.

He tokomaha o Ngāi Te Rangi i piri, i hāpai i te Kīngitanga i roto i ngā pakanga i Waikato, i Tauranga hoki. Kīhai a Tūpaea i uru atu ēngari ka noho kē mai i Pātetere. Nō muri iho i te pakanga ki Pukehinahina (The Gate Pā) i te 29 o Āperira 1864, ka hoki atu ki Tauranga ka hangā he pā mōna ki Kaimai i te mātāpuna o te awa o Wairoa. Kīhai a Tūpaea i uru ki te pakanga i Te Ranga i te 21 o Hune 1864, ahakoa tana kī ēhara ia i te tangata whai i te Kuini. He wā ka kitea a Tūpaea i roto i ngā torotoro Pai Mārire. I whakapaea nāna ngā pukapuka ki a Ngāi Te Rangi i te 23 o Tīhema 1864, kia nuku tuawhenua te iwi i mua atu o te 26 o Tīhema. Ki te kore ka whakangaromia rātou. Me tana kī anō, i mua o te mutunga o te marama o Hānuere 1865 ka tūturu te whakapuaki a Kapereira te anahera ki a Te Ua Haumēne o te Pai Mārire, ko te katoa o tauiwi ka ngaro atu i tēnei whenua. Nuku atu i te 1,000 o Ngāi Te Rangi i nuku ki tuawhenua. Ka kore te kupu rā i tika, ka whati anō te iwi rā ki te wā kāinga. Ko Tūpaea kīhai i hoki ēngari ka haere me tana tira ki roto o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki ngā wāhi e whai ana i te Pai Mārire. Kīhai taua wawata a Tūpaea i tutuki. I mau a Tūpaea i a Ngāti Pikiao o Te Arawa i Te Rotoiti, tukuna ana ki Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland) mauhere ai. Ka puta tana oati me tana whakaae ki te mana o te Kuini o Ingarangi, ka tukua kia hoki. Kīhai ia i whakaae ki te whakapae ko ia te kaituhi o ngā pukapuka ki a Ngāi Te Rangi.

I te wā i tohungia ai he āteha mō Tauranga i te tau 1862, kīhai a Tūpaea i whakatūria ahakoa ko ia tētahi o ngā tino rangatira o Tauranga i taua wā. I muri mai ka oti ko ia tētahi o ngā āteha mō te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ko tana utu he penihana, e £20 ia tau mai i te tau 1871 ki te 1872, ā, ka whakapikia ake ki te £50 ia tau mō ngā tau o muri mai. I te tau 1867 ka whakaaetia e ia me ētahi atu anō o ngā rangatira o Ngāi Te Rangi kia hokona ō rātou pānga whenua i ngā poraka whenua o Katikati me Te Puna. Ko Te Pirirākau iwi kīhai i whakaae. Ahakoa tērā ka haere te tautoko a ngā kaiātete o taua mahi hoko o Ngāti Porou ki te āwhina i a Te Pirirākau. Kīhai i tukuna e Tūpaea kia puta, ka hoki anō te tira o Ngāti Porou ki Mataora i Noema o 1867. I te tau 1870, ka puta te rongo tērā a Ngāi Te Rangi e whakaekea e Te Kooti. I puta tā Tūpaea kupu taurangi ki te hunga Pākehā ka maranga ia ki te whawhai i a Te Kooti menā ka tukia rātou e Te Kooti.

I te tau 1878 ka rere a Tūpaea ki Pōneke (Wellington) ki te kōrero ki te kāwanatanga mō ngā raruraru e pā ana ki tana iwi i te rohe o Te Whanganui-o-Hei (Mercury Bay). I noho manuhiri ia mā te pirimia mā Tā Hōri Kerei (George Grey). I tōna kaumātuatanga ko te motu o Rangiwaea tata atu ki Tauranga tana kāinga. I mate ki reira i te 26 o Hānuere 1881. I reira te tangi, ā, i nehua ki te motu o Matakana.

Ko Tūpaea he rangatira rongonui, he mōhio ki te tū marae ki te whaikōrero. Nāna tana iwi i arataki i roto i ngā taumahatanga me ngā pakanga i roto i tōna rohe nuku atu. Ko ia anō hoki tētahi o ngā kaiārai i te iwi i te wā i tau mai ai te iwi Pākehā ki waenga i a rātou noho ai.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Alister Matheson and Steven Oliver. 'Tūpaea, Hōri Kīngi - Tupaea, Hori Kingi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t112/tupaea-hori-kingi (accessed 17 October 2019)