Kōrero: Te Ua Haumēne

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Te Ua Haumene

?–1866

Nō Taranaki; he kaihautū, he poropiti, he kaihanga whakapono

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Lyndsay Head,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Ko Te Ua Haumēne te kaihanga me te poropiti o te whakapono Hauhau, ko te tohu tuatahi tēnei o te waihangatanga i huri ai ki te hāhi Karaitiana Māori motuhake. I whānau ia i roto o te iwi o Taranaki i Waiaua, kei Taranaki ki te tonga, i ngā tau tīmatanga o te te tekau tau atu i 1820. Nō muri tonu iho ka mate tana pāpā a Tūtawake; ko tana whaea ko Paihaka. I moe wahine anō pea a Te Ua; kotahi, nuku atu rānei, ana tama. Nō ngā tau e whā i mua tonu o tana matenga, ka noho ia hei poropiti; nō taua wā nei ka whakatahangia tōna īngoa iriiri a Horopāpera. I te mutunga o te tau 1862, ka mau ia ki ana īngoa o Tūwhakararo Tūtawake; nō te tau 1864, ka mau ia ki te īngoa wairua o Haumēne.

I mau hereheretia a Te Ua rāua ko tana whaea i tētahi pakanga ki a Waikato i te tau 1826, ka haria ki Kāwhia hei rōpā. Nōna i reira, ka whakaakona ia e Waikato ki te kōrero pukapuka, me te tuhituhi ki te reo Māori, i mārama ai ia ki te Paipera. He mea iriiri e Te Waitere (John Whiteley), nāna rā te mīhana Wēteriana i whakatū ki Kāwhia i te tau 1834. Nō te tau 1840, ka hoki a Te Ua ki Taranaki, ka mahi ia i te mīhana i Waimate i raro i ngā Wēteriana i a Karira (Charles Creed) rāua ko John Skevington. He wā, i a ia i reira, i riro nāna ngā karakia i whakahaere, me te mau tonu ki tana tirotiro i te Paipera.

I roto i ngā tau mai i 1850, i tautoko pea ia i te kaupapa o te Kaingārara, he tikanga whakawātea tēnei i ngā wāhi e mōhiotia ana he tapu. I piri a Te Ua ki ngā kaiārahi e whakahē ana i te hoko whenua i Taranaki; i taunutia ia mō te hoko o te poraka o Waitara i raro i ngā ture kāre nei i eke ki tā te Māori me ana tikanga. I manaaki ia i te Kīngitanga; nō te tau 1860, i whawhai ia ki te kāwanatanga, i tū rawa hoki ia hei minita mō ngā hōia Māori.

I ngā tau 1861 me te 1862, he kaiārahi a Te Ua nō tētahi rūnanga i Matakaha, i reira e whakahaerengia ana ngā āhuatanga o te kāwanatanga me te whakaū i te aukati, arā, te rohe o ngā whenua i raro i te Kīngi. I taua wā nei, e wawatatia ana, kia maranga katoa te motu, i runga i te whakaaro kino o ngā Māori o Taranaki ki ngā mihingare. Tērā ēnei whakaaro, e waihotia hei tāhuhu mō ngā whakaakoranga tapu a Te Ua; ka mutu, ko tana tino kaupapa, kia āhei te tangata ki te wawao i ana whenua.

Nō te paenga o te tima hari mēra, o Lord Worsley i Te Namu, i te taha tonga mā uru o Taranaki, i roto i te rohe aukati, i te 1 o Hepetema 1862, ka rangirua ngā whakaaro o Te Ua; me mau rānei ko te aroha o te Karaitiana ki te tangata, me whakahinga rānei ki te ture o te Kīngitanga e whakamatea ai te tangata poka noa. Ko tōna kāinga, kāre i tino matara; ā, nō te 5 o Hepetema, ka kitea te rongoā mō tana rangiruatanga i tana moemoeā, i whakapuakina mai e Kaperiera, te tino anahera, kua tae te wā ki ngā rā whakamutunga i whakamāramatia i ngā Whakakitenga a Hoani. I āta whakamārama te moemoeā ki a Te Ua, kua kowhitingia ia hei poropiti mōna, ka whakahaungia kia unuhia te utanga a te Pākehā; ka oati ia ko te whakahoki ia i te toi whenua o 'Iharaira' (te iwi Māori), i 'Kanaana' (Aotearoa). Ka rite tēnei āhuatanga a te wā o te whakaoranga, e mate katoa ai te hunga hara.

Kua whakaaro ngā whanaunga o Te Ua me ngā Pākehā, kua pōrangi kē ia, ēngari kua kite ia, ko te wā i muri mai o tana moemoeā, he wā whakamātautau i tana whakapono, ka ea ai te pōwhiritanga i a ia. Nā ngā merekara, e whakaahua ana i ngā kōrero a Te Atua ki ngā tūpuna o Te Paipera a ia i whakaū i oti ai te hanga o tētahi hāhi hou, rerekē hoki, i roto i te toru marama. Nō Oketopa, ka tuhituhia he inoi ki te Tokotoru Tapu e rite ana ki ngā inoi o te 'Ua rongo pai', kei reira rā ana whakaakoranga e takoto ana. Ka tae ki Tīhema, kua tū te rākau hei pou mō ana karakia; nō te 13 o Hānuere 1863, kua tuhituhia kētia te ūpoko o te 'Ua rongo pai', e whakamāramatia ai te kaupapa me ngā whakaakoranga o te hāhi Hauhau.

Kua mau kē te 'Ua rongo pai', kei te pukapuka nā Karaitiana Te Korou o Ngāti Kahungunu i tuhi. E rua ōna ūpoko, ko te tuarua e whakamārama ana i te pōwhiritanga i a Te Ua. Kei roto hoki i taua pukapuka rā e mau ana te whakanohonoho haere o ngā karakia, ngā kōrero mō ngā hui a ngā kaihautū o ngā Hauhau o Taranaki, me ētahi whakaahua o ngā haki e tare ana i ō rātou pou, arā he tohu whakaatu i ngā nōhanga kāinga o te Hauhau. Ko te pukapuka o te 'Ua rongo pai' te tino kaupapa o te hāhi Hauhau.

Ko te kī a Te Ua, ka eke ana whakaakoranga ki tā te mihingare Karaitiana, ēngari kua wetekina atu ō rātou nawe. Ko tōna tāhuhu, ko ngā painga o te pai mārire, ko te tika me te rangimārie, i taea e ia te whakamārama ngā āhuatanga o te Atua, ngā mahi rānei i oti i roto i tōna wairua. Ka tapaina e Te Ua tana hāhi ko te Hauhau, nā te mea nā Te Hau, arā, nā te wairua o te Atua me te hau nei tōna āhua, i kawe ngā niu (arā, ngā kōrero), ngā poropiti rānei, ki te iwi. Mā tōna īngoa wairua tonu, mā Haumēne (Windman), hei whakaatu atu ko te poropiti te tino kaupapa o te hāhi.

Ahakoa ko te whakahōnore i te Tokotoru Tapu tētahi wāhi nui o ngā karakia a Te Ua, kāre a Ihu e kōrero motuhaketia ana i te atuatanga. Te āhua nei, he mea whakakotahi rāua ko Kaperiera te tino anahera, arā anō ōna īngoa ko Rura (Ruler), ko Tama-Rura rānei (he tamaiti nā te Rura), i runga i ngā mahi i tohia ki a te Karaiti me te anahera i roto i ngā tuhituhi whakakite a te Paipera. He mea tapa ki a Riki a Mīkaera, te tino anahera, te hunga whakahau i ngā iwi o te rangi, he whakapotonga tēnei īngoa nō te Ariki Mīkaera.

E whakaponohia ana, ko ngā rārangi karakia a Te Ua e whakarite ana i te oati a te Karaiti kia tukuna mai te Wairua Tapu ki ana ākonga. E huri tawhio ana i te niu, me te rere o ngā reo huhua me ngā poropiti. Whai haere ai ngā karakia i te pukapuka, kei reira ngā kauwhau e mau ana i ngā rārangi kupu Pākehā kua hurihia rā ki te reo Māori, ka mutu ka wehewehengia ngā panepane. He tohu katoa ēnei kauwhau nō te huhuatanga o ngā reo o Te Ua. Ko ngā kupu, ko ngā kupu Pākehā noa iho nei, ēngari, e kitea tonutia ana te whakamanamana e haere ana i roto, nā ngā īngoa o tauiwi. Ka kitea i konei, te whakakotahi a Te Ua i ngā iwi e whakamau ana ki Ingarangi, e mōhiotia ana he takatakahi mana i ngā whenua o te ao.

He nui ngā rārangi kaikōrero i roto i te iwi whakapono; ko te rārangi kaikōrero o raro iho, he pirihi, ko rātou i te taki i ngā karakia, e taea ana e rātou te poropiti. Kei runga ake, ko ngā Tuku Pai (arā, ngā tiuka o te rangimārie) me ngā Tuku Akihana (ngā tiuka whakahohe); ko ā rātou mahi he hohou i te rongo me te whakautu i ngā wero a te Pākehā. Ko te mahi a ngā Tuku e pā ana ki te hāhi, he whakatūturu i ngā poropiti, ēngari, mātua mā Te Pou rā anō hei whakaae i ā rātou whakatau, ko ia hoki te kaititiro o te hāhi mō te motu. E tū tahanga ana a Te Ua, ko ia 'tō runga rawa o ngā poropiti'.

Ko te taumata a Te Ua, ko te hanga i tētahi iwi rangimārie, wehi ki te Atua; ko te wāhi nui o tana rongopai, he tohutohu i runga i ngā kupu whakarite a te Karaiti. I hangaia e ia he ture kia kore ai te tangata e poka noa; e onioni i waenga pārae. Otirā, ka whakaaratia ake e ia ngā kōrero o te Kawenata Tawhito e hoki anō ai ki te wā o mua i tini ai ngā wāhine a te tangata kotahi, ahakoa kāre ia i whakaae ki ana kaiārahi kia whai i tēnei tikanga. I whakanui ia i te wahine, me te mea nei he kuini katoa rātou, ka whakaūngia e ia ngā mahi whakaora i ngā taonga a te Māori. I whakatapungia ngā mahi o tua whakarere e whakataratara ana i te iwi.

Nō te kokotitanga o te ope hōia Pākehā i Ahuahu, i Taranaki, i te 6 o Āperira 1864, ka mau te titiro a te kāwanatanga ki te Hauhau. Ka patua ngā hōia, ka pakipakitia ngā ūpoko ki tā te Māori me ōna tikanga. Ka noho a Te Ua hei kaitiaki mō ngā ūpoko nei, he mea nōna kia noho hei tauira ki te takahanga a te kino e te tika. Ka kīia te aituā nei e ngā taha e rua, he tohu i riro te tāhuna; nā ngā whawhai o muri nei, ko ngā kaiārahi he poropiti (ā, tērā pea ehara i te poropiti tūturu), ka whakaaetia he iwi whawhai te Hauhau. Nō Āperira, ka whakaekengia e te Hauhau i raro i a Epanaia Kapewhiti, te pā o te Pākehā i Te Mōrere; nō Mei, ka whawhai a Mātene Rangitauira ki ngā kūpapa o te taha o raro iho o te awa o Whanganui, i Moutoa. Ka kīia e Te Ua, i mate ai ngā poropiti e rua rā, he hē nō tā rāua whakamāori i ana tohutohu. E taea ana te kī, kei runga i ēnei tohutohu ngā whakaakoranga a Te Ua, e haere ana, ā, mā te wairua tapu ka ora.

I noho a Te Ua mō tētahi wā poto i Pākaraka, i te awa o Waitōtara, i te tau 1864. I mau tonu ia ki te kauwhau i tōna rongopai, ka tuhituhi reta ia ki ētahi Pākehā; ko tētahi i tuhia ki te kaiwhakawā takiwā mō Whanganui, ki a Hōne Waiti (John White), ka whakamaua tana īngoa ki raro, ko 'Te Ua, he Hūrae rangimārie'. I whakapā tonu ia ki ngā kaimahi a te kāwanatanga me ngā Pākehā, ka ohorere rātou i te kitenga he rata ia ki a rātou. Heoi, i pōuri rātou i te mōhiotanga kei te haere mai a Matutaera, te Kīngi Māori tuarua, ki Taranaki.

I tino tautoko a Matutaera i te kaupapa a Te Ua, me te aha ka whakaroangia e ia tana noho ki a Te Ua i Taranaki i te wāhanga whakamutunga o te tau 1864. Nō te 29 o Ākuhata, i Taiporohenui (e ai ki ētahi kōrero), ka iriiria e Te Ua te Kīngi ka tapaina ko Tāwhiao, ko te īngoa i mau haere tonu i a ia i muri nei. Ka tukuna he kōrero ki ngā toa a te Kīngi kia whakamutua te whawhai, kia whakatikatika rātou mō te wā e puta ai ki te oranga. Ko ngā moemoeā whakatohe a te hāhi Hauhau he mea whakaatu i roto i tētahi pukapuka i Tauranga: nō te 25 o Tīhema 1864, ka rere katoa ngā Hauhau o Ngāi Te Rangi ki te paeroa o Kaimai ki te inoi kia whakaorangia rātou i ngā mahi kikino a te iwi Māori, Pākehā rānei, e kore nei e whakapono mai ana.

Nō Tīhema 1864, ka whakahaungia e Te Ua a Pātara Raukatauri rāua ko Kereopa Te Rau kia haere ki a Hirini Te Kani o Ngāti Porou i Tūranga (Gisborne). I takahia e rāua ngā tohutohu a Te Ua kia haere i runga i te rangimārie, kātahi ka taki haere rāua mā te tuaiwiroa o Te Ika-a-Māui me te whakawhawhai i ngā iwi tae atu ki ngā mihingare. Kua mātua noho kē a Te Wākana (C. S. Völkner), te mihingare o te Hāhi Mihingare o Ōpōtiki, i te taha o te kāwanatanga i roto i ngā whawhai. Ka hoki atu a Te Wākana i Ākarana (Auckland) ki Ōpōtiki ahakoa ngā tohutohu kia kaua e hoki, kātahi ka ākina atu e te Hauhau ka patua i te 2 o Maehe 1865.

Ka whakatakariri te hinengaro Pākehā i te rongonga kua mate a Te Wākana, ka kīia i patu tūkinotia, ka huaina i konei te kōrero he whakapono pōrangi, kāre he aroha. Mai i taua wā nei, ka kīia, i te mea he Hauhau, he Māori e whakahē ana i te kāwanatanga. Ka whakaae a Ngāti Porou kei te taha o te kāwanatanga e noho ana, nā te matenga o Te Wākana i tae ai te riri ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, i whawhai motumotu tonu ā tae noa ki te 1872.

He kite nō Te Ua i te kore hua o te whawhai ki te Pākehā, ka tahuri rātou me tētahi wāhanga o Ngāti Ruanui ki te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro ki a Te Pāriha (Robert Parris), kia hohouhia te rongo. Heoi, i hē ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero; i mataku te Māori kei whakaekengia rātou e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, kua murua ngā whenua, koirā ka kī kia ākina atu. I mau tonu a Te Ua ki ana whakaakoranga, ki te whakanoho hoki i te mana Māori motuhake i runga i ngā whenua kāore anō kia hokona; kāti, kua memeha haere ngā moemoeā whakatohe o te hāhi. Ka kitea te tawhiti o te haerenga mai o te hāhi i runga i te whakanui o ngā rā tapu, ko te whakamaharatanga o te whakawahinga o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, te Kīngi Māori tuatahi tērā; ko te matakite a Te Ua tērā; nō tēnei wā kua whakaaro mō te hanga tikanga mō te ao o āpōpō. Kātahi ka hui i Pūtahi i te 24 me te 25 o Tīhema 1865, ki te whakawahi i ngā kaimahi tekau mā rua me ngā poropiti hou e toru, ko Eruera Te Whiti-o-Rongomai, ko Tohu Kākahi me Taikōmako; nō muri nei, ka puta katoa ēnei tāngata hei tumuaki i roto i te hāhi.

Nō te taenga ki te paunga o te tau 1865, i Ōpunake a Te Ua e noho ana, he pā tēnei nō te kāwanatanga. Nō te tīmatanga o te tau 1866, ka maranga te ope taua a te kāwanatanga ki te takahi i ngā iwi o Taranaki e tohe tonu ana. Nō te 2 o Hānuere, ka oati ia i tana pūmautanga ki te kāwanatanga: nō te 2 o Pēpuere, ka tuku i a ia ki a Meiha Tianara Trevor Chute ka mauria ki te whare herehere. I runga i te whakaaro o Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), kātahi ka tīkina e te kāwana, e Hōri Kerei (George Grey), ka mau hereheretia a Te Ua i Whanganui ki Ākarana, kia āta kitea te hemonga o te Hauhau. I a ia i Ākarana, ko ngā ture pupuri i a ia i reira, he tuku noa iho kia hāereere ana i te kāinga o Kerei, i te motu o Kawau. Ka whakaaetia kia hoki ki Taranaki, i Hune, kātahi ka hoki ki tana kaupapa rā, ki te whakakōrero i te iwi kia whakatahingia ā rātou pū. Nō taua wā nei, kua haere te kōrero, e māuiui ana a Te Ua; nō Oketopa 1866, ka mate i Ōeo.

Nā runga i te āhua o ngā pakanga, kāre i noho whāiti te whakapono hou a Te Ua ēngari i totoro kē atu hei kaupapa tōrangapū; i kore ai i ea ngā moemoeā o te hāhi Hauhau. Heoi anō, hāunga ngā mahi whawhai a te Hauhau, kei te kitea nā te tū a Te Ua nāna i whakapakari te wehenga o te kaupapa Karaitiana Māori mai i ngā karakia me te whakapono a te hāhi mihingare. Nā te Hauhau tātau i kite tuatahi ai i te momo hāhi ngangahau, arā, i te petekoha, i Aotearoa. Koinei te kākano i hua ai ngā poropiti i runga i te Paipera, ā, i whāia e ngā poropiti Māori i muri nei.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Lyndsay Head. 'Te Ua Haumēne - Te Ua Haumene', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t79/te-ua-haumene (accessed 23 May 2019)