Kōrero: Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti

?–1907

Nō Te Āti Awa, nō Taranaki; he kaiārahi, he poropiti

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Danny Keenan,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga 2, 1993, and updated in November, 2012.

He puninga tahi a Te Whiti‑o-Rongomai III nā Awanuiārangi, tipuna o Te Āti Awa, rāua ko Tahuaoariki. Ko tōna tātai ake ko Te Rangiāpitirua, ariki o Te Āti Awa rāua ko Korotaia. Nā Te Rangiāpitirua ka puta ko te hapū o Te Whiti‑o-Rongomai mā, ko Ngāti Te Whiti; i tipu ake i ngā taututetute o te wā. Ko te pokapū o tōna rohe nui ko Pukeariki, e pātata ana ki Ngāmotu, kua kapi rā i te tāone o Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth) i nāianei. Ko te pāpā o Te Whiti ko Hōne Kākahi (ko Tohu Kākahi tētehi o ōna īngoa), he mokopuna nō te whakatupuranga tuawhā mai i a Takarangi rāua ko Raumāhora, nā rāua nei i whakakotahi ngā iwi o Te Āti Awa me Taranaki. Ko tōna whaene ko Rangikawau, tamāhine a Te Whetū o Te Patukai, he hapū nō Taranaki.

Ko te kōrero a ētehi o ōna uri, i whānau mai a Te Whiti i te pā o Ōtaka i Ngāmotu, i mua tata atu o te putakari i Ōtaka i ngā rā tōmua o te tau 1832. He ika tōna pāpā nō taua riri. Koinei tētehi o ngā pakanga tino kino i waenganui i ngā hoangangare nei, i a Waikato me Te Āti Awa. I pakipakitia a Te Āti Awa i Ōtaka e te whakaariki o Waikato. E kōrerotia ana, i nekehia a Te Whiti rātou ko ngā tamariki me ngā pāhake ki Rātāpihipihi whakaruru ai. He pā tēnei e hia māero nei te mamao atu i Ōtaka, he mahinga kai korahi i te tuawhenua. Ki ētehi o ngā uri o Te Whiti, i whānau kē ia i mua atu i te riri i Ōtaka (kei runga i tana kōhatu whakamaharatanga e kī ana nō te tau 1816, 1817 pea i whānau ai), ā, ko ia tētehi o ngā toa tamatāne i taua pakipakitanga.

Nō muri tonu mai i te hinganga o Waikato i Ōtaka, ka hūnuku whaka-te-tonga te nuinga o Te Āti Awa, i runga i te māharahara ka hokia mai anō e Waikato. Ākuanei i haere te whānau o Te Whiti ki te tonga o Taranaki, ki Waikanae rānei. I te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1840 ka hoki whaka-te-raki ki Wārea, ka noho i raro i tō rātou karangatanga o Te Patukai i Hopuhopu, i Tarakihi; ko ō rātou kaihautū ko Pāora Kūkūtai – he matua kēkē nō Te Whiti – rāua ko Āperahama Te Reke. I taua wā, torutoru nei te iwi o Taranaki rāua ko Ngāti Ruanui i Wārea e noho ana.

E ai ki te kōrero a ōna uri, kua puta kē ngā tohu i a Te Whiti, arā, te mana ki te tohutohu i ngā mea wairua, i te poropiti hoki, i a ia e tai ana. He pērā anō hoki tōna whanaunga tūranga tuakana, a Tohu Kākahi. Nā reira i āta tāwharautia te tokorua nei e ō rāua iwi. Ka tupu a Te Whiti, ka kaha kē atu tōna mana wairua. I mua i tōna maunga i te Paipera me te Karaitianatanga, kua pū kē i a ia te taonga nei. Nā ōna pāhake i ako ki ngā tikanga o tua whakarere. I roto i āna kupu whakaako o muri nei, rere ai ngā kōrero o neherā me ana whakamāmātanga o ēnei ki ngā kōrero karaipiture, tāpiri hoki ki tana mōhio ki te tiro i te ao whānui.

Nā Minarapa Rangihatuake o Ngāti Mahanga pea – he tangata nō Taranaki i mau taurekareka i a Ngā Puhi, kātahi ka tukua – a ia i ako tuatahi ki te Paipera. He kaikauhau a Minarapa i Rāhotu mai i te tau 1842, ā, i mua atu i te taenga mai o Johann Riemenschneider i te tau 1846 e kauwhau ana ia i Wārea. I waenga nui o te tau 1839 ki 1842, he minita Wēteriana a Minarapa i Te Aro. Nō te taenga mai o Riemenschneider, ka noho ko Te Whiti tētehi o ngā ākonga a Minarapa. Tērā anō pea ētehi atu kaikauhau i tukua i te taurekarekatanga pērātanga i a Minarapa hei whakawai i a Te Whiti. Nō te tau 1845, ka tupu he māramatanga hou ki Wārea, ko tōna īngoa ko te Tikanga Hou.

Nā tōna tino mōhio ki ngā whakaako Karaitiana me tōna whiwhinga i te īngoa iriiri o Erueti, ka piki tōna mana kaiako, mana poropiti hoki. Nō muri mai, ka unuhia e ia tōna īngoa iriiri. Ko te pūtake o āna mahi, he ārahi i tōna iwi i te ara ki te ao wairua i Te Rēinga; i whakakorea rā i te taenga mai o te Pākehā me ōna whakapono Karaitiana. E ai ki ētehi o ōna uri, nō namata rā anō i matekitea mai i Te Tai Tokerau, e rua ngā manu e puta ana ki te tihi o Taranaki, he manu wairua, he manu mōhio te āhua. E kīia ana i rite anō te matakite a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero i te mahi hei mahinga mā Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu me te mana wairua i a rāua, i mua tonu i tōna tūnga hei kīngi Māori tuatahi i Ngāruawāhia i te tau 1858. Kei te maumahara tonu ngā uri o Te Whiti ki te tūruapō, arā, te maunga tapu kei te tonga, kei tōna ātārangi he rākau, e pae rua ake ana i tōna peka ngā manu mōhio a Mumuhau rāua ko Takeretō, he karere nā te Runga Rawa, ā, mā rāua hei ārahi te iwi ki te oranga tonutanga. Ko te tautoko a te tama a Kīngi Pōtatau, a te Kīngi tuarua, a Tāwhiao i te kupu a tōna matua, he tuku atu i āna pononga ki Parihaka i te tau 1866, hei ringaringa mō Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu, ngā manu mōhio i whakaaritia rā e Pōtatau.

Ki ngā kōrero a ōna huānga whakaheke, nō te tata paunga o te tau 1840 ka hūnuku a Te Whiti rātou ko Tohu mā i ngā whakararu o te takutai ki Parihaka (ko Repanga te īngoa i mua atu) ki uta, he wāhi pai ki te āta wānanga kaupapa, kāore e whakararurarutia. Ki ētehi atu kōrero, nō te tekau tau atu i 1860 kē ka tae a Te Whiti ki reira. Hoki whakamuri ana te whakaaro i te īngoa o Parihaka, i haku ai te tangi a ngā iwi i reira i mua atu, i mahara ai ki ō rātou mamaetanga. E whakapono tonu ana ētehi o ngā uri, i kitea tonutia e Tohu rātou ko ōna iwi o Parihaka tētehi toroa e whakatau ana ki runga ki te kāinga, he tohu whakaae nō te Wairua Tapu ki te whanaketanga o te kaupapa i reira, ā, ki runga hoki i ōna kaiārahi, i a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. Mahue ake ana i te toroa rā te raukura, tapaina ana te marae o Tohu i Parihaka ko Toroanui. Ki ētehi anō he tūruapō nō te rangi, arā, he whetūrere, raukura te āhua, e topatopa ana i te rangi, mārama tonu te autō ki muri. Noho tonu ko tō te toroa raukura kotahi hei mauri pupuri i te mana o Parihaka.

Ko tētehi o ngā tūtakitanga tuatahitanga a Te Whiti ki te Pākehā ko tērā i te wā i mau ai a Lord Worsley, he tima, ki runga i te one i Te Namu i te tau 1862. Nā Te Whiti i āwhina ngā tāngata o runga i taua tima, ko ōna hoa ko Ārama Karaka rāua ko Wiremu Kīngi Te Matakātea. Ka ū i a rātou ngā tāngata ki uta, ka utaina ki runga i ngā kāta ka heria ki Nū Pāremata.

E kīia ana i haere rawa a Te Whiti i roto i ngā taua a Taranaki i ngā pakanga tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Taka rawa ki tēnei wā, kua ara kē ia hei kaiārahi mō tōna iwi i roto i ngā tautohe ki te kāwanatanga. Ki te kōrero a Te Kahu Pūkoro, ihorei o Ngāti Ruanui, ko Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu ētehi o ngā rangatira e ārahi ana i ngā toa i te kōkiritanga i te rāihe o Te Mōrere (Sentry Hill) i Āperira o te tau 1864. Kāore te tokorua nei i mau pū, he tokotoko noa iho ā rāua rākau. Te āhua nei ko ngā karakia Pai Mārire tā rāua whakawhirinaki i akona ki a rāua e Te Ua Haumēne, poropiti o te Pai Mārire. Nō muri mai i te tau 1864, ka mutu te pakanga a Te Whiti, ka tahuri ki tana kaupapa ātete i runga i te rangimārie, ka whakarērea ngā rākau whawhai.

Ki te kōrero anō a ōna huānga, he mea whakaae tonu nā rāua ko Tohu mā Te Whiti e whakahorahora haere tā rāua mahi wairua, nā te mea i rongo a Te Whiti i te whatitiri, ā, tērā e rere ai te waipuke – he kupu whakarite mō te haerenga mai o te Pākehā e pūwhenua ana i Taranaki – waihotia ake ana hei tino take tēnei mā Te Whiti me pēhea e ia te Pākehā. He mākā, he hihiri tonu tana pakanga ki te whakatau i ngā whenua i runga i te rangimārie, kore rawa i whakaae kia tūkino noatia te tangata. Nā reira i noho ai ko ia hei waha kōrero mō rāua ko Tohu i ngā mahi whakawhitiwhiti kōrero ki te Pākehā. I noho tonu ki a Tohu te mana whakapono, me te tūranga kaitiaki i te taha wairua o Parihaka. Ēngari i whai wāhi anō ia ki ngā mahi whakahaere whakahē i te Pākehā. Ka pā ki tā rāua kōrero tahi i ngā huihuinga nunui a ngā pononga, tautoko tonu tētehi i tētehi. He ōrite ā rāua mahi ko Tohu ēngari ko tana kaupapa ake, kia mōhio a ia ki ngā tikanga a ngā Pākehā e whakakuhukuhu mai ana kia tika ai tana whāwhā i a rātou.

Ka puta i a ia he whaikōrero e whakaatu ana i te hinapōuri o te Māori mō te ngaro o ōna whenua. Pai noa ki a ia te whakamahi i te reo kōrero wairua ake o te Māori, ka āpititia ki ngā kōrero Karaitiana i runga i te matatau ōna ki te ao Pākehā. E ai ki ngā tuhinga a Rāpata Taute (Robert Stout) mō Te Whiti i te tau 1883, he tangata e kauhau ana i te maungārongo me te kati i te waipiro. Ko te Paipera anake tana pukapuka. Ko ngā kōrero o te Paipera e pai ana ki a ia ko Te Whakakitenga. He rerekē tēnei i ngā pukapuka e pai ana ki a Te Kooti e whai rā i te Kawenata Tawhito. Ka tautoko i te rite o te Māori ki te Hūrae. I āna kōrero ki a Hēmi Kāwana (James Cowan) ka kī ia i ahu mai te Māori i Kēnana (Canaan).

Ka puta te rongo o tana rongopai ki Taranaki me kō atu, ka tae mai te tokomaha ki te whakarongo ki a ia, ki te hurihuri i āna tohutohu, ēngari he uaua ki ētehi te whakaae ki tana kaupapa ātete i runga i te rangimārie. Kua ara anō i a Tītokowaru tana taua i muri mai i te hinganga o tana pakanga i te tau 1869, ā, e rika ana ki te whakarewa anō i te patu, ēngari nā Te Whiti i kōrero kia kaua e whawhai. I te pokanga o te huarahi a te kāwanatanga mā runga i āna mahinga kai, kāore tonu ia i mau pū.

Ko te take matua o taua wā, ko te murunga tukipūtanga i ngā whenua o Taranaki. Ka whakahēngia e Te Whiti tēnei mahi muru a te kāwanatanga, me te ngaro o ngā whenua katoa. Inā te kaha o tana whakahē ki te pūwhenuatanga o ngā whenua muru e ngā tāngata whai; kua roa kē e takoto noa ana ēnei whenua, ā, ko te mahara o Taranaki kua whakahokia atu ki a rātou i runga i te noho puku a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), minita mō ngā take Māori. Ka puta anō hoki tana kupu whakahē i te kāwanatanga mō ngā whenua i oatitia hei whenua rāhui, ēngari kāore anō kia mana. I te tau 1879, ka tīmata te rūri a te kāwanatanga i ngā whenua raupatu o te mānia o Waimate, 16,000 eka te nui, i mua o te wehenga i ngā whenua rāhui. Ka tīmata te whakararuraru a ngā pononga a Te Whiti i ngā kairūri, ka tīmata hoki tā rātou parau i ngā whenua e nohoia rā e ngā tāngata whai mai i Pukearuhe ki Te Hāwera. Ahakoa te whakatakariri o ngā tāngata whai, whakaraua ana hoki ngā tāngata a Te Whiti, haere tonu ā rātou mahi. Ka ngana a Te Pāriha (Robert Parris), kōmihana ā-iwi (civil commissioner), ki te wawao i a Te Whiti, kāore i tutuki i runga o te pāihi o Te Whiti ki a ia. Ahakoa e tū ana he kāwana hou, mau tonu tana pāihi.

Nā te iti haere o ngā iwi o te hauāuru, nā te pōhara hoki, ka ngana kia tae ki Parihaka. Ka hūnuku ngā pononga me ā rātou taputapu, me ā rātou kai atu hoki ki reira. Ko ētehi o rātou i haere tawhiti mai, e hia ngā rā kātahi anō ka tae ki Parihaka. Ka noho ēnei hekenga hei tikanga hou mō Taranaki, raruraru ana ngā whakaaro o ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga pērā i a Te Wunu (William Woon), te kaiwhakawā takiwā o Whanganui, i te tokoiti haere o ngā Māori o tērā awa. Ka puta tana kōrero, tērā ka maharatia kua pau kē te manawa o ngā pononga a Te Whiti.

Ēngari ka kaha kē atu te ātete me te parau tonu i ngā whenua. Haere tonu hoki ngā mahi rūri a te kāwanatanga, e hiahia ana rā kia taea wawetia te hokonga o ngā whenua kia pū ai te noho a ngā tāngata whai. Haere tonu hoki ngā whakahau a Te Whiti kia kaua e mau pū. E hia nei ngā pānui whakahau a te kāwanatanga ki a Te Whiti me te iwi o Parihaka, ka whakaekengia a Parihaka i te 5 o Noema o 1881 e ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū (Armed Constabulary) me ētehi tūao, 1,589 te tokomaha. Ko Te Paraihe (John Bryce), minita mō ngā take Māori me te ārai hoariri, rāua ko Rūtene Kānara J. M. Roberts ngā kaiārahi. Tūpono atu e taki nohonoho ana ngā iwi o Parihaka, 2,000 te tokomaha. Ka karangatia a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu kia whakahauraro. Ko ō rāua tiehe ko tō te Māori korowai o mua, arā, ko ngā kākahu i a rāua e āhua tamariki ake ana. Ka hopukia rāua tae atu ki a Wiremu Hīroki, he whakapaenga mō te kōhurutanga i tētehi o ngā kairūri. Ka hopukia hoki ētehi o ngā pononga, tukua ana te nuinga kia korara.

I te whakawākanga i a ia i Nū Pāremata, he whakatutū nōna i te puehu i runga i te kino i te ngākau waniwani, i te mahi kia huripokina te maungārongo, te take i whakapaetia ia. He pērā anō ngā whakapae i a Tohu. Kāore i tau tika tēnei whakawākanga, ēngari ahakoa tēnei, whakaraua ana rāua ki Nū Pāremata mō te ono marama i mua o tō rāua tukunga ki Te Waipounamu mau herehere ai. E tautoko ana hoki te kāwanatanga i tō rāua whakarautanga i reira i runga pea i te kore e hiahia kia heria e Te Whiti tana take kia tirohia e te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court). I te whare herehere o Addington i Ōtautahi (Christchurch) rāua mō tētehi wā i mua o tō rāua heringa ki te tahawhenua haere i Te Waipounamu. Ko te take rā, he tino whakaatu ki a rāua i ngā mahi pai a te Pākehā.

Ahakoa ngā tono huhua a Te Whiti kia whakawākia a ia, kāore i whakarongohia. I tukua ētehi o ngā pononga i hopukia i Parihaka i runga i ngā pātai a te kaiwhakawā me kei te tika ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga, ka whakahaua e ia kia unuhia ngā whakapae. Hāunga anō a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu, i mau tonu ki Whakatū (Nelson) i te wā e kōrerotia ana e te Pāremata kia pēwheatia rāua.

Ko te take i whakaekea ai a Parihaka, he tohu nō ngā whakaaro o te wā, kia riro mā te ringa kaha tonu o te kāwanatanga e karawhiu ngā kaiārahi pērā i a Te Whiti, e kīia rā e te Pākehā he pōrangi. Nā te kaha hoki o ngā kōrero whakapae a ngā kaitaunaha Pākehā o Te Tai Hauāuru i tino ū ai pea te whakaaro o te kāwanatanga. Ko te kī a ngā whakapae a ngā kaitaunaha, i mataku rātou i ngā kupu a Te Whiti, me te mahi whakawetiweti tonu a āna pononga. Ka whakanuia a Te Paraihe mō te pai o tana ārahi i ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū, ā, i manawa kore tonu atu ai ngā pononga pōrangi ki te whawhai, whakahauraro noa rātou i runga i te rangimārie.

I a ia e ngaro ana, ka mīharo a Te Whiti ki te ātaahua o ngā whenua o Te Waipounamu, ēngari ka puta ōna amuamu mō te pēhia o tōna wairua. Kore rawa i mutu tana tono kia whakawākia ia, kia whakatikangia hoki ngā hē i tau ki runga i a ia me tōna iwi i Parihaka. Kāore hoki ia i aro atu ki ngā mahi whakapatipati a te kāwanatanga. I te unuhanga a te kāwanatanga i ngā hara o ngā Māori pērā i a Te Kooti i Pēpuere o te tau 1883, kāore i arohatia atu a Te Whiti. I taua wā, e kīia ana e 5 putu, 10 īnihi tōna roa, ā, tata ki te 13 tōne te taumaha; he teitei, he whāiti hoki te rae, he iti ngā whatu, ēngari nō te kārearea te rite. Ko tōna kanohi mārō ana, he tohu nō te tangata pūmau te whakaaro.

Nō Maehe o te tau 1883, ka tukua rāua ko Tohu kia hoki ki Taranaki. Ka whakaititia rāua i te rironga mā te kāta hei heri atu ki Parihaka. I tō rāua taenga atu, kua hē kē a Parihaka i te kore e manaakitia. Ko ngā tukitukinga a ngā pirihimana nā rātou a Parihaka i urutomo kāore anō kia whakapaitia. Ahakoa te kati a te ture i ngā hui ki Parihaka, kāore tonu he mutunga o ngā mahi ātete. E ai ki tētehi kaikōrero o te wā, i piki kē atu te mana o Te Whiti i a ia e mauhere ana, ā, i rite tōna pēhanga ki tō Te Karaiti. Ka tīmata te torotoro a Te Whiti i ngā marae, ēngari kāore i roa ka mutu.

Ka whakahaua e Te Whiti kia tīmata anō ngā mahi parau whenua i te tau 1886. Ko te utu ka whakaraua anō ki Pōneke (Wellington) mō te ono marama, mō te noho i runga i ngā whenua kūraruraru kāore anō kia oti te whakatau. Ka haere tonu ngā mahi parau hei tauira i tā rātou ātete i ngā mahi a te Pākehā i whakaturetia rā i roto i te Ture Whakatau Rāhui o te Tai Hauāuru (West Coast Settlement Reserves Act) 1892. I raro i tēnei ture, ka taea e ngā tāngata whai te whakahou ā rātou rīhi mō ngā whenua Māori neke atu i te 200,000 eka te rahi, ā, mā te kaitiaki o te motu hei whakahaere. I te tau 1897, e 92 ngā Māori i whakaraua anō mō ngā mahi parau i te whenua. He ātetetanga tēnei nā rātou i runga i te takaroa o te kāwanatanga ki te whakatau i ngā take e riro ai mā te kaitiaki Māori hei whakahaere ngā whenua kua rāhuitia.

He nui ngā kōrero kua takoto mō ngā rerekētanga o Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu Kākahi. Ki te whakaaro anō o ētehi he pāhake atu a Tohu i a Te Whiti, nā te mea ko te pāpā tonu o Te Whiti ko Hōne Kākahi, he teina tūranga whānau tonu nō Tohu. Ko te karangatanga hapū o Tohu ko Puketapu o Te Āti Awa ēngari i kotahi rāua ko Te Whiti i runga i ā rāua wāhine, i a Wairangi rāua ko Hikurangi, he tuakana, teina, nō te kōpū kotahi. E kīia ana hoki he nui ō rāua rīriri i runga i te tohe mō te poropititanga pono. Ka kī tētehi ko ia te poropiti pono, ka kī tētehi, kāo, ko ia kē. Otirā, e kore rāua e taea te wehe, ā, pērā anō te nuinga o ngā kōrero mō rāua. I tipu ake ngā rerekētanga i ā rāua pononga i te tekau tau atu i 1880 puta noa i te tekau tau atu i 1890, ā, ka noho hei take e puta ai te pōuri. He noho kōrero tonu te mahi a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti ki a rāua, ā, e ai ki ngā uri whakaheke, he tautoko tonu tētehi i tētehi. Tokorua tahi rāua e waha ana i te kawenga taumaha. Ko te īngoa nei o Te Whiti-o-Rongomai e ai ki ōna uri (he manu iraira ki te rangi tau rawa ki Puke-Te Whiti), te ariā o te kaupapa i whakaaritia ai mā rāua ko Tohu hei waha i te ao Māori.

I te matenga o Tohu i te 4 o Pēpuere 1907, noho tangi ake ana a Te Whiti ā mate noa hoki a ia ki Parihaka i te 18 o Noema i te tau 1907, 11 marama i muri iho i a Tohu. Kua mate tana wahine a Hikurangi i te wā i mau whakamutunga ai a Te Whiti ki te herehere. Ka mahue mai ko tā rāua tama ko Nohomairangi me tā rāua tamāhine, me Ngāruaki (Pereni rānei).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Danny Keenan. 'Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti', first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 2, 1993, and updated online in November, 2012. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t34/te-whiti-o-rongomai-iii-erueti (accessed 20 October 2017)