Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Te Ua Haumene

by Lyndsay Head

Biography

Ko Te Ua Haumēne te kaihanga me te poropiti o te whakapono Hauhau, ko te tohu tuatahi tēnei o te waihangatanga i huri ai ki te hāhi Karaitiana Māori motuhake. I whānau ia i roto o te iwi o Taranaki i Waiaua, kei Taranaki ki te tonga, i ngā tau tīmatanga o te te tekau tau atu i 1820. Nō muri tonu iho ka mate tana pāpā a Tūtawake; ko tana whaea ko Paihaka. I moe wahine anō pea a Te Ua; kotahi, nuku atu rānei, ana tama. Nō ngā tau e whā i mua tonu o tana matenga, ka noho ia hei poropiti; nō taua wā nei ka whakatahangia tōna īngoa iriiri a Horopāpera. I te mutunga o te tau 1862, ka mau ia ki ana īngoa o Tūwhakararo Tūtawake; nō te tau 1864, ka mau ia ki te īngoa wairua o Haumēne.

I mau hereheretia a Te Ua rāua ko tana whaea i tētahi pakanga ki a Waikato i te tau 1826, ka haria ki Kāwhia hei rōpā. Nōna i reira, ka whakaakona ia e Waikato ki te kōrero pukapuka, me te tuhituhi ki te reo Māori, i mārama ai ia ki te Paipera. He mea iriiri e Te Waitere (John Whiteley), nāna rā te mīhana Wēteriana i whakatū ki Kāwhia i te tau 1834. Nō te tau 1840, ka hoki a Te Ua ki Taranaki, ka mahi ia i te mīhana i Waimate i raro i ngā Wēteriana i a Karira (Charles Creed) rāua ko John Skevington. He wā, i a ia i reira, i riro nāna ngā karakia i whakahaere, me te mau tonu ki tana tirotiro i te Paipera.

I roto i ngā tau mai i 1850, i tautoko pea ia i te kaupapa o te Kaingārara, he tikanga whakawātea tēnei i ngā wāhi e mōhiotia ana he tapu. I piri a Te Ua ki ngā kaiārahi e whakahē ana i te hoko whenua i Taranaki; i taunutia ia mō te hoko o te poraka o Waitara i raro i ngā ture kāre nei i eke ki tā te Māori me ana tikanga. I manaaki ia i te Kīngitanga; nō te tau 1860, i whawhai ia ki te kāwanatanga, i tū rawa hoki ia hei minita mō ngā hōia Māori.

I ngā tau 1861 me te 1862, he kaiārahi a Te Ua nō tētahi rūnanga i Matakaha, i reira e whakahaerengia ana ngā āhuatanga o te kāwanatanga me te whakaū i te aukati, arā, te rohe o ngā whenua i raro i te Kīngi. I taua wā nei, e wawatatia ana, kia maranga katoa te motu, i runga i te whakaaro kino o ngā Māori o Taranaki ki ngā mihingare. Tērā ēnei whakaaro, e waihotia hei tāhuhu mō ngā whakaakoranga tapu a Te Ua; ka mutu, ko tana tino kaupapa, kia āhei te tangata ki te wawao i ana whenua.

Nō te paenga o te tima hari mēra, o Lord Worsley i Te Namu, i te taha tonga mā uru o Taranaki, i roto i te rohe aukati, i te 1 o Hepetema 1862, ka rangirua ngā whakaaro o Te Ua; me mau rānei ko te aroha o te Karaitiana ki te tangata, me whakahinga rānei ki te ture o te Kīngitanga e whakamatea ai te tangata poka noa. Ko tōna kāinga, kāre i tino matara; ā, nō te 5 o Hepetema, ka kitea te rongoā mō tana rangiruatanga i tana moemoeā, i whakapuakina mai e Kaperiera, te tino anahera, kua tae te wā ki ngā rā whakamutunga i whakamāramatia i ngā Whakakitenga a Hoani. I āta whakamārama te moemoeā ki a Te Ua, kua kowhitingia ia hei poropiti mōna, ka whakahaungia kia unuhia te utanga a te Pākehā; ka oati ia ko te whakahoki ia i te toi whenua o 'Iharaira' (te iwi Māori), i 'Kanaana' (Aotearoa). Ka rite tēnei āhuatanga a te wā o te whakaoranga, e mate katoa ai te hunga hara.

Kua whakaaro ngā whanaunga o Te Ua me ngā Pākehā, kua pōrangi kē ia, ēngari kua kite ia, ko te wā i muri mai o tana moemoeā, he wā whakamātautau i tana whakapono, ka ea ai te pōwhiritanga i a ia. Nā ngā merekara, e whakaahua ana i ngā kōrero a Te Atua ki ngā tūpuna o Te Paipera a ia i whakaū i oti ai te hanga o tētahi hāhi hou, rerekē hoki, i roto i te toru marama. Nō Oketopa, ka tuhituhia he inoi ki te Tokotoru Tapu e rite ana ki ngā inoi o te 'Ua rongo pai', kei reira rā ana whakaakoranga e takoto ana. Ka tae ki Tīhema, kua tū te rākau hei pou mō ana karakia; nō te 13 o Hānuere 1863, kua tuhituhia kētia te ūpoko o te 'Ua rongo pai', e whakamāramatia ai te kaupapa me ngā whakaakoranga o te hāhi Hauhau.

Kua mau kē te 'Ua rongo pai', kei te pukapuka nā Karaitiana Te Korou o Ngāti Kahungunu i tuhi. E rua ōna ūpoko, ko te tuarua e whakamārama ana i te pōwhiritanga i a Te Ua. Kei roto hoki i taua pukapuka rā e mau ana te whakanohonoho haere o ngā karakia, ngā kōrero mō ngā hui a ngā kaihautū o ngā Hauhau o Taranaki, me ētahi whakaahua o ngā haki e tare ana i ō rātou pou, arā he tohu whakaatu i ngā nōhanga kāinga o te Hauhau. Ko te pukapuka o te 'Ua rongo pai' te tino kaupapa o te hāhi Hauhau.

Ko te kī a Te Ua, ka eke ana whakaakoranga ki tā te mihingare Karaitiana, ēngari kua wetekina atu ō rātou nawe. Ko tōna tāhuhu, ko ngā painga o te pai mārire, ko te tika me te rangimārie, i taea e ia te whakamārama ngā āhuatanga o te Atua, ngā mahi rānei i oti i roto i tōna wairua. Ka tapaina e Te Ua tana hāhi ko te Hauhau, nā te mea nā Te Hau, arā, nā te wairua o te Atua me te hau nei tōna āhua, i kawe ngā niu (arā, ngā kōrero), ngā poropiti rānei, ki te iwi. Mā tōna īngoa wairua tonu, mā Haumēne (Windman), hei whakaatu atu ko te poropiti te tino kaupapa o te hāhi.

Ahakoa ko te whakahōnore i te Tokotoru Tapu tētahi wāhi nui o ngā karakia a Te Ua, kāre a Ihu e kōrero motuhaketia ana i te atuatanga. Te āhua nei, he mea whakakotahi rāua ko Kaperiera te tino anahera, arā anō ōna īngoa ko Rura (Ruler), ko Tama-Rura rānei (he tamaiti nā te Rura), i runga i ngā mahi i tohia ki a te Karaiti me te anahera i roto i ngā tuhituhi whakakite a te Paipera. He mea tapa ki a Riki a Mīkaera, te tino anahera, te hunga whakahau i ngā iwi o te rangi, he whakapotonga tēnei īngoa nō te Ariki Mīkaera.

E whakaponohia ana, ko ngā rārangi karakia a Te Ua e whakarite ana i te oati a te Karaiti kia tukuna mai te Wairua Tapu ki ana ākonga. E huri tawhio ana i te niu, me te rere o ngā reo huhua me ngā poropiti. Whai haere ai ngā karakia i te pukapuka, kei reira ngā kauwhau e mau ana i ngā rārangi kupu Pākehā kua hurihia rā ki te reo Māori, ka mutu ka wehewehengia ngā panepane. He tohu katoa ēnei kauwhau nō te huhuatanga o ngā reo o Te Ua. Ko ngā kupu, ko ngā kupu Pākehā noa iho nei, ēngari, e kitea tonutia ana te whakamanamana e haere ana i roto, nā ngā īngoa o tauiwi. Ka kitea i konei, te whakakotahi a Te Ua i ngā iwi e whakamau ana ki Ingarangi, e mōhiotia ana he takatakahi mana i ngā whenua o te ao.

He nui ngā rārangi kaikōrero i roto i te iwi whakapono; ko te rārangi kaikōrero o raro iho, he pirihi, ko rātou i te taki i ngā karakia, e taea ana e rātou te poropiti. Kei runga ake, ko ngā Tuku Pai (arā, ngā tiuka o te rangimārie) me ngā Tuku Akihana (ngā tiuka whakahohe); ko ā rātou mahi he hohou i te rongo me te whakautu i ngā wero a te Pākehā. Ko te mahi a ngā Tuku e pā ana ki te hāhi, he whakatūturu i ngā poropiti, ēngari, mātua mā Te Pou rā anō hei whakaae i ā rātou whakatau, ko ia hoki te kaititiro o te hāhi mō te motu. E tū tahanga ana a Te Ua, ko ia 'tō runga rawa o ngā poropiti'.

Ko te taumata a Te Ua, ko te hanga i tētahi iwi rangimārie, wehi ki te Atua; ko te wāhi nui o tana rongopai, he tohutohu i runga i ngā kupu whakarite a te Karaiti. I hangaia e ia he ture kia kore ai te tangata e poka noa; e onioni i waenga pārae. Otirā, ka whakaaratia ake e ia ngā kōrero o te Kawenata Tawhito e hoki anō ai ki te wā o mua i tini ai ngā wāhine a te tangata kotahi, ahakoa kāre ia i whakaae ki ana kaiārahi kia whai i tēnei tikanga. I whakanui ia i te wahine, me te mea nei he kuini katoa rātou, ka whakaūngia e ia ngā mahi whakaora i ngā taonga a te Māori. I whakatapungia ngā mahi o tua whakarere e whakataratara ana i te iwi.

Nō te kokotitanga o te ope hōia Pākehā i Ahuahu, i Taranaki, i te 6 o Āperira 1864, ka mau te titiro a te kāwanatanga ki te Hauhau. Ka patua ngā hōia, ka pakipakitia ngā ūpoko ki tā te Māori me ōna tikanga. Ka noho a Te Ua hei kaitiaki mō ngā ūpoko nei, he mea nōna kia noho hei tauira ki te takahanga a te kino e te tika. Ka kīia te aituā nei e ngā taha e rua, he tohu i riro te tāhuna; nā ngā whawhai o muri nei, ko ngā kaiārahi he poropiti (ā, tērā pea ehara i te poropiti tūturu), ka whakaaetia he iwi whawhai te Hauhau. Nō Āperira, ka whakaekengia e te Hauhau i raro i a Epanaia Kapewhiti, te pā o te Pākehā i Te Mōrere; nō Mei, ka whawhai a Mātene Rangitauira ki ngā kūpapa o te taha o raro iho o te awa o Whanganui, i Moutoa. Ka kīia e Te Ua, i mate ai ngā poropiti e rua rā, he hē nō tā rāua whakamāori i ana tohutohu. E taea ana te kī, kei runga i ēnei tohutohu ngā whakaakoranga a Te Ua, e haere ana, ā, mā te wairua tapu ka ora.

I noho a Te Ua mō tētahi wā poto i Pākaraka, i te awa o Waitōtara, i te tau 1864. I mau tonu ia ki te kauwhau i tōna rongopai, ka tuhituhi reta ia ki ētahi Pākehā; ko tētahi i tuhia ki te kaiwhakawā takiwā mō Whanganui, ki a Hōne Waiti (John White), ka whakamaua tana īngoa ki raro, ko 'Te Ua, he Hūrae rangimārie'. I whakapā tonu ia ki ngā kaimahi a te kāwanatanga me ngā Pākehā, ka ohorere rātou i te kitenga he rata ia ki a rātou. Heoi, i pōuri rātou i te mōhiotanga kei te haere mai a Matutaera, te Kīngi Māori tuarua, ki Taranaki.

I tino tautoko a Matutaera i te kaupapa a Te Ua, me te aha ka whakaroangia e ia tana noho ki a Te Ua i Taranaki i te wāhanga whakamutunga o te tau 1864. Nō te 29 o Ākuhata, i Taiporohenui (e ai ki ētahi kōrero), ka iriiria e Te Ua te Kīngi ka tapaina ko Tāwhiao, ko te īngoa i mau haere tonu i a ia i muri nei. Ka tukuna he kōrero ki ngā toa a te Kīngi kia whakamutua te whawhai, kia whakatikatika rātou mō te wā e puta ai ki te oranga. Ko ngā moemoeā whakatohe a te hāhi Hauhau he mea whakaatu i roto i tētahi pukapuka i Tauranga: nō te 25 o Tīhema 1864, ka rere katoa ngā Hauhau o Ngāi Te Rangi ki te paeroa o Kaimai ki te inoi kia whakaorangia rātou i ngā mahi kikino a te iwi Māori, Pākehā rānei, e kore nei e whakapono mai ana.

Nō Tīhema 1864, ka whakahaungia e Te Ua a Pātara Raukatauri rāua ko Kereopa Te Rau kia haere ki a Hirini Te Kani o Ngāti Porou i Tūranga (Gisborne). I takahia e rāua ngā tohutohu a Te Ua kia haere i runga i te rangimārie, kātahi ka taki haere rāua mā te tuaiwiroa o Te Ika-a-Māui me te whakawhawhai i ngā iwi tae atu ki ngā mihingare. Kua mātua noho kē a Te Wākana (C. S. Völkner), te mihingare o te Hāhi Mihingare o Ōpōtiki, i te taha o te kāwanatanga i roto i ngā whawhai. Ka hoki atu a Te Wākana i Ākarana (Auckland) ki Ōpōtiki ahakoa ngā tohutohu kia kaua e hoki, kātahi ka ākina atu e te Hauhau ka patua i te 2 o Maehe 1865.

Ka whakatakariri te hinengaro Pākehā i te rongonga kua mate a Te Wākana, ka kīia i patu tūkinotia, ka huaina i konei te kōrero he whakapono pōrangi, kāre he aroha. Mai i taua wā nei, ka kīia, i te mea he Hauhau, he Māori e whakahē ana i te kāwanatanga. Ka whakaae a Ngāti Porou kei te taha o te kāwanatanga e noho ana, nā te matenga o Te Wākana i tae ai te riri ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, i whawhai motumotu tonu ā tae noa ki te 1872.

He kite nō Te Ua i te kore hua o te whawhai ki te Pākehā, ka tahuri rātou me tētahi wāhanga o Ngāti Ruanui ki te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro ki a Te Pāriha (Robert Parris), kia hohouhia te rongo. Heoi, i hē ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero; i mataku te Māori kei whakaekengia rātou e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, kua murua ngā whenua, koirā ka kī kia ākina atu. I mau tonu a Te Ua ki ana whakaakoranga, ki te whakanoho hoki i te mana Māori motuhake i runga i ngā whenua kāore anō kia hokona; kāti, kua memeha haere ngā moemoeā whakatohe o te hāhi. Ka kitea te tawhiti o te haerenga mai o te hāhi i runga i te whakanui o ngā rā tapu, ko te whakamaharatanga o te whakawahinga o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, te Kīngi Māori tuatahi tērā; ko te matakite a Te Ua tērā; nō tēnei wā kua whakaaro mō te hanga tikanga mō te ao o āpōpō. Kātahi ka hui i Pūtahi i te 24 me te 25 o Tīhema 1865, ki te whakawahi i ngā kaimahi tekau mā rua me ngā poropiti hou e toru, ko Eruera Te Whiti-o-Rongomai, ko Tohu Kākahi me Taikōmako; nō muri nei, ka puta katoa ēnei tāngata hei tumuaki i roto i te hāhi.

Nō te taenga ki te paunga o te tau 1865, i Ōpunake a Te Ua e noho ana, he pā tēnei nō te kāwanatanga. Nō te tīmatanga o te tau 1866, ka maranga te ope taua a te kāwanatanga ki te takahi i ngā iwi o Taranaki e tohe tonu ana. Nō te 2 o Hānuere, ka oati ia i tana pūmautanga ki te kāwanatanga: nō te 2 o Pēpuere, ka tuku i a ia ki a Meiha Tianara Trevor Chute ka mauria ki te whare herehere. I runga i te whakaaro o Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), kātahi ka tīkina e te kāwana, e Hōri Kerei (George Grey), ka mau hereheretia a Te Ua i Whanganui ki Ākarana, kia āta kitea te hemonga o te Hauhau. I a ia i Ākarana, ko ngā ture pupuri i a ia i reira, he tuku noa iho kia hāereere ana i te kāinga o Kerei, i te motu o Kawau. Ka whakaaetia kia hoki ki Taranaki, i Hune, kātahi ka hoki ki tana kaupapa rā, ki te whakakōrero i te iwi kia whakatahingia ā rātou pū. Nō taua wā nei, kua haere te kōrero, e māuiui ana a Te Ua; nō Oketopa 1866, ka mate i Ōeo.

Nā runga i te āhua o ngā pakanga, kāre i noho whāiti te whakapono hou a Te Ua ēngari i totoro kē atu hei kaupapa tōrangapū; i kore ai i ea ngā moemoeā o te hāhi Hauhau. Heoi anō, hāunga ngā mahi whawhai a te Hauhau, kei te kitea nā te tū a Te Ua nāna i whakapakari te wehenga o te kaupapa Karaitiana Māori mai i ngā karakia me te whakapono a te hāhi mihingare. Nā te Hauhau tātau i kite tuatahi ai i te momo hāhi ngangahau, arā, i te petekoha, i Aotearoa. Koinei te kākano i hua ai ngā poropiti i runga i te Paipera, ā, i whāia e ngā poropiti Māori i muri nei.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Clark, P. 'Hauhau'. Auckland, 1975

    Cowan, J. The New Zealand wars. Vol. 2, The Hauhau wars, 1864--72. Wellington, 1923

    Head, L. 'Te Ua and the Hau Hau faith in the light of the Ua rongopai notebook'. MA thesis, Canterbury, 1984

    Te Ua Haumene. 'Ua rongo pai'. GNZMMSS 1. AP

    'Te Ua Horapapera: the founder of the Pai Marire faith'. Daily Southern Cross. 16 March 1866


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Lyndsay Head. 'Te Ua Haumēne', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t79/te-ua-haumene (accessed 18 November 2019)