Kōrero: Maniapoto, Rewi Manga

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Maniapoto, Rewi Manga

?–1894

Nō Ngāti Maniapoto; he kaihautū, he kaiārahi o roto i ngā pakanga

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Manuka Henare,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Manga ki Waikato i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899; nō muri nei ka kārangarangatia tōna īngoa ko Rewi Maniapoto. Kei runga i te kōhatu whakamaharatanga mōna, i Kihikihi, e mau ana ngā kōrero i whānau ia i te tau 1807, ahakoa i tana matenga i te tau 1894 kua hipa kē i te 70 tōna pakeke. He uri whakaheke ia nō Maniapoto. Ko tana pāpā ko Te Ngohi, arā ko Kāwhia, nō Ngāti Maniapoto. Me tana whaea me Te Kore, nā Waikato rā i patu i Pāterangi, i Kihikihi. Nō Ngāti Paretekawa tō rātou karangatanga hapū.

I te tau 1831, i uru atu a Te Ngohi ki roto i te ope taua a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero i te horonga o Te Āti Awa i te pā o Pukerangiora i Taranaki. I whai hoki a Rewi i tana pāpā. I puta ai ngā mahi a Rewi i Kihikihi, i Ōtāwhao (Te Awamutu). I whakaakona ia ki te taumata i rite ki tōna tūranga i roto i te iwi, me ngā tikanga a Ngāti Maniapoto. Ahakoa kāore e tino mōhiotia ana te wā o tōna whanaketanga, nō tana pakeketanga ka kitea tōna kaha ki te ārahi i te iwi. I mōhio whānui te Māori me te Pākehā ki a ia, nā tana mārama ki te kauwhau, ki te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero tōrangapū tae atu ki te whakatakoto whakaaro. I kitea anō tōna mātau ki ngā taonga a ngā tūpuna, me tōna toa hoki ki ngā tikanga a Tūmatauenga. Ko tana moko, he moko rangatira.

I āhua riro tonu a Rewi i ngā whakaakoranga a ngā mihingare. Nō te tau 1841, ka tūtaki ia ki a Mōkena (John Morgan), te mihingare a te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare (Church Missionary Society), kua oti rā i a ia te hanga kāinga i Ōtāwhao. I noho a Rewi hei whakaruruhau mō Mōkena mō ngā tau e 20. I tīmata tōna akoranga i te mīhana Wēteriana i Te Kōpua, i te awa o Waipā. Ka whai ia kia mārama ia ki te tuhituhi, kia mōhio ia ki te Paipera; nāwai, ā, kua pārekareka rawa atu ia ki ngā mahi ahu whenua hou. Nō te tau 1844, ka tūpono a Rewi ki ngā mihingare Katorika. Ākuanei pea, he īngoa iriiri kē a Rewi (Levi), ēngari kāore pea ia i iriiria hei Katorika.

Tae rawa ki te tekau tau mai i 1850, kua ū rawa te manaaki a Rewi i te Kīngitanga. Nāna tonu te haki a te Kīngi i whakatare i Ngāruawāhia i te whakawahinga i a Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi i te tau 1858. Nō te marama o Noema 1859, ko ia tonu tētehi o te tokorima i tautoko i te whakahau i whakaaetia rā e te rūnanga a te Kīngi, kia katia atu ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā; kia whakatapua te huarahi ki roto o Waikato; me te whakatakoto tikanga anō hoki kia kaua tētehi Māori kotahi e mau ki te whare herehere a te kāwana.

Kātahi ka haere ngā karere a Ngāti Maniapoto ki Taranaki i te tau 1860. Nō te hokinga mai, ka whakaae a Rewi ki tā rātou mō te tika o te whawhai a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke i te hunga e hoko whenua ana i Waitara. Kātahi ka tono a Rewi ki a Te Wherowhero, me te whakaae hoki a tērā, kia tukuna a Ngāti Maniapoto ki te tautoko i a Te Rangitāke. Ka whawhai a Ngāti Maniapoto i te taha o Taranaki ki ngā hōia a te Karauna i Puketākauere, i Waitara, i te 27 o Hune 1860; nō Hānuere 1861, ka huakina e Rewi te pā o te Pākehā i Huirangi, ēngari kāore i hinga.

Hoki rawa mai a Rewi i Taranaki, kua ū kē ōna whakaaro, kei te takahi te kāwanatanga i te tino rangatiratanga o te iwi Māori, tae atu hoki ki tōna mana ki ōna whenua. Kua pōhēhē kē ētehi o ngā rangatira he whakatūturu tā te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tikanga e ōrite ai te tangata, ahakoa ko wai, kia tū ai te Māori hei rangatira mōna anō. He nui ngā mea o roto o Ngāti Maniapoto rāua ko Waikato i whakahinga atu ki a ia.

Nō Maehe o 1863, nā runga i ngā mahi werowero a te kāwanatanga, ka whakahaungia e Rewi he rōpū hei whakatahi i te tari a John Gorst i Ōtāwhao, ka tūrerengia hoki te kaiwhakawā a te kāwanatanga i Waikato. Kua kite te iwi e takahi ana a Gorst i te mana o te Kīngi. Nō te tūreretanga, ka riro nā Rewi ngā mahi a te Kīngi i whakatutuki. He wā tēnei kua ū kē ōna whakaaro, kei te whakaroaroa tonu ētehi.

Kua mōhio kē a Rewi ki te kore e ūkuia atu te Kīngitanga, ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te whakaeke i a Waikato. Nō te 8 o Hūrae 1863, ka whakahaungia e Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) a Rūtene Tianara Duncan Cameron kia huakina a Waikato. Whakatika tonu atu a Rewi, ka ārahina e ia a Ngāti Maniapoto ki te pakanga i Waikato. Ka kitea tōna kaha i taua riri. Ahakoa kāore ia i pai kia tautohetia te riri ki Ōrākau, i Kihikihi, i a Āperira 1864, ka ngana tonu ia ahakoa ngā mano o te hoariri.

Kātahi ka tono a Cameron ki ngā kaiwawao o Ōrākau kia unu rātou. Ko te whakahoki tēnei a Rewi, 'Ka whawhai tonu mātou, Ake! Ake! Ake!' Ahakoa ehara kau i a ia tēnei kōrero i Ōrākau, e mōhiotia whānuitia ana ōna whakaaro e te Pākehā. I mua atu i puta i a ia te kōrero nei i tētehi hui i Ngāruawāhia: 'Kāore ahau e whakaae kia mutu te whawhai, ko taku tohe anō tēnei ake! Ake! Ake tonu atu!'

I roto i ngā whawhai o Waikato, he whakamīharo tonu te iwi Māori ki te matatau o Rewi ki te kawe riri. Kei tāna, kia tika te hanga o ngā maioro. He mārama kē atu ia i ētehi atu kaihautū ki ngā ture a te Pākehā mō te kawe pakanga. Kia tutū te puehu, kua waihotia te kōrero ki a Rewi. I taea e ia te whakakotahi i ngā kaiwawao o Ōrākau hei ope taua, i kore ai te Pākehā e toa.

I muri mai o te pakanga nei, kāore a Rewi i whakahē i ngā whakamanamana a Te Kooti i Waikato. Ka whakamauru atu a Te Kooti ki a Tāwhiao Te Wherowhero, te Kīngi tuarua, ka manaakihia e Rewi. Ka tukuna ia ki Taupō ki te taha o Te Kooti, me kore e aroha mai a Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino IV. Ka noho ia i te taha o Te Kooti, ā, hinga noa i Te Pōrere i a Oketopa 1869. Ko te tau tēnei i hoki ai ia ki te Rohe Pōtae ki te kī atu ki a Tāwhiao kia kaua e arongia atu. Nō konei ka mōhio a Rewi, kāore te mana Māori e ahu mai i te toa mau rākau anake. He mārama nōna ki ngā hīkoi a te kāwanatanga, ka kimi huarahi anō ia. Ka whakaaro ia kia houhia te rongo, kia noho tonu ngā whenua mā te Māori anō hei whakahaere. Nō te marama o Noema 1869, ka hui ia ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te minita mō ngā take Māori, i Pahiko, i Te Kūiti, ki te kōrero i ngā take nei. Nō taua hui nei ka kī atu a Rewi kua mutu tana whawhai. Ko te mutunga iho, ka mau te rongo i Waitara i te 29 o Hune 1878, ka whakaae a Rewi ki ngā tikanga hou.

Heoi, nō te tau 1882, ka tautohe a Rewi ki a Tāwhiao, ā, ki te kaupapa hoki a te Kīngitanga kia kaua te whenua e hokona. He mataku nōna kei nōhia e Ngāti Hauā ngā whenua nōna kē, kātahi ka tukuna he tono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori kia āraingia atu rātou. Nō muri nei ka whakaaetia e Rewi rāua ko Te Wahanui kia hangaia te rerewē matua ki roto o te Rohe Pōtae; kātahi ka whakahaerengia ō rātou whenua i te aroaro o te Kōti kia āta whakamāramatia ngā rohe. Tūturu, ko te tīmatanga tonu tēnei o te hoko a te kāwanatanga i ngā whenua o te Rohe Pōtae.

Mai i ngā tau whakamutunga o te 1870, ka tīmata te heke o te mana o Rewi; ka piki haere ko te mana o Te Wahanui me te tirohia atu ōna hei reo kōrero mō Ngāti Maniapoto. Kāore i whakaaengia e te iwi te whakaaro o Rewi kia hangaia tētehi takiwā Māori, ahakoa i āhua eke anō ki ngā rohe o te Rohe Pōtae, ko ngā whenua, me te rerewē me ōna taonga katoa me huri hei painga mō Waikato rāua ko Ngāti Maniapoto. Ka hangaia e te kāwanatanga he whare nui tonu mōna i Kihikihi i te tau 1880, mō tana unuhanga i tana penihana, me tana kerēme ki tētehi whenua Karauna. Hāereere tonu ai ia ki ngā hui a te Kōti Whenua Māori, ki te whakataki hoki i a Tāwhiao, i a Manuhiri (Tāmati Ngāpora) me ōna hoa o te Kīngitanga. Nō te tau 1890, ka haere ia ki Ākarana (Auckland), i tūtaki ai ia ki te kāwana, ki a Lord Onslow.

E kīia ana kotahi anake te wahine a Rewi, ko Te Rohu. Kotahi tonu tō rāua uri, he wahine, i whānau i te tīmatanga o te tekau tau mai i 1870, ka mate i 1890, i 1891 rānei. I te tau 1894, ka whakaarahia e ngā Pākehā he kōhatu whakanui i a Rewi me ana mahi mā te iwi. E rua marama i muri mai, i te 21 o Hune, ka mate ia. He maha ngā tāngata i tae ki tana tangihanga. Nō te 29 o Hune ka nehua. E takoto mai rā i te take o tana kōhatu i Kihikihi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Manuka Henare. 'Maniapoto, Rewi Manga', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1m8/maniapoto-rewi-manga (accessed 24 July 2019)