Kōrero: Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Whārangi 1. Te Waihanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

He aha te Tiriti o Waitangi?

Ko te Tiriti o Waitangi (e kīia nei Treaty of Waitangi ki te reo Māori), he whakaaetanga i wahangatia i te tau 1840 i waenganui i ngā māngai o te Karauna o Piritānia me (ā tōna wā) ngā rangatira Māori neke atu i te 500. Ko te putanga ko te whakaputanga o te kāwanatanga o Piritānia mō Aotearoa e Rūtene-Kāwana Wiremu Hopihana i te Mei o te tau 1840. Ka waitohua e te nuinga o Ngāi Māori te tiriti reo Māori.

He rerekē ngā tikanga o te tiriti reo Pākehā me te tiriti reo Māori. Nā reira, he rerekē ngā kawatau a te Māori, me ā te Pākehā, nō ngā kupu o te tiriti. Mai i taua wā, kua tāpaetia he wero ki Aotearoa kia whakatau i ēnei rerekētanga.

Aotearoa i mua i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I ngā 1830 ko Aotearoa he whenua motuhake, i whakahaeretia e ngā hapū, ā, he rohe tawhiti o te koroni whare herehere Piritānia, o Niu Haute Wēra. I te wā e whakawhānui ana te hokohoko me ngā kaipuke, e whakawhirinaki ana ngā hononga i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā ki te mahi tahi i runga i te rangimārie, engari i ētahi wā ka puta mai te whakarekereke. Kāore te ture Piritānia i kapi i te whakahaere i ngā kirirarau Piritānia i Aotearoa, nā reira i tono ētahi kainoho Pākehā ki te kāwanatanga Piritānia kia hāpaiora ko te whakamau rongo te take. E ngākau kore ana taua kāwanatanga Piritānia.

Ka nui ake te āwangawanga o te kāwanatanga Piritānia ki ētahi atu āhuatanga. E ai ki ngā rongo kōrero kua hokona e ngā Pākehā whakapae ngā takiwā nui rawa o Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu. I taua wā tonu, kua mārō ngā mahere a te Kamupene Niu Tireni e noho ana ki Rānana mō te whakataunga whakahaere o Aotearoa. I te tau 1939 i whakarite te kamupene ki te hoko whenua ki ngā taha e rua o Te Moana-o-Raukawakawa, ā, ka tuku kaipuke ki reira e kawe ana i ngā manene rua rau.

Mai i te mana motuhake ki te koroni o Piritānia

Ka whakatau rawa te kāwanatanga o Piritānia ki te mahi i Aotearoa i te tau 1839. I kopoua te kāpene o te tauā moana, a Wiremu Hopihana, hei māngai ki te whenua rangatira, ki Aotearoa, ā, hei rūtene-kāwana ki ngā wāhanga o te motu e whakaaetia ai e ngā hapū me ngā rangatira kia tuku ki Piritānia. I whakahaua ia e ana tohutohu ki te whiriwhiri mō te sovereignty o ngā wāhanga katoa o Aotearoa, me te whakatū i te koroni o Piritānia. I a ia e haere ana i Piritānia ka whiwhi a Hopihona i te kupu āwhina i George Gipps, te kāwana o Niu Haute Wēra.

Te tuhi hukihuki me te whakamāori i te tiriti 

Ka tae atu a Hopihona ki Pēwhairangi i te 29 o Hānuere i te tau 1840. I whakarite ia i ētahi tuhinga mō te tiriti me te āwhina o tana hekeretari, o James Freeman. Nā James Busby, te Rehireneti Piritānia (tūnga ōkawa hei māngai ōkawa), i whakatikatika ēnei me te whakauru kōrero anō. I tētahi pō, ka whakamāoritia ngā tuhinga ki te reo Māori e te mihinare Te Wiremu Karuwha me tana tama Eruera.

Ka tāpaetia tēnei tiriti reo Māori (te tiriti) ki ngā Māori e tata ana ki te 500 i tonoa ki Waitangi i te 5 o Pēpuere. Ka tū tētahi taupatupatu hihiko mō ngā whakaaweawe pea o te tiriti ki ō rātou rangatiratanga, whenua, hokohoko hoki, engari kaore i ū tētahi whakaaetanga i te otinga o hui rā kotahi.

Rewa

Ko tētahi rangatira nō Ngāpuhi, nō Ngāi Tawake hoki e taupatupatu ana i te tiriti i te 5 o Pēpuere 1840 ko Rewa nō Kororākea (e mōhiotia ana hoki ki te ingoa Russell). Ka tohutohua pea e Pīhopa Pomaparie, e noho tata ana ki a ia. Ka kī a Rewa ki te hui kāore te Māori i te hiahia ki te kāwana, nā te mea ehara rātou i te 'tangata mā, tauiwi rānei'. Ahakoa kua riro kē he whenua maha e ngā Pākehā, 'nō tātou tēnei whenua ... ko mātou te Kāwana - ko mātou, ngā rangatira o tēnei whenua nō ō mātou mātua tīpuna.'1

Te wā i waitohua tuatahitia te Tiriti

I te pō o te tuarima, i whakaemi mai ngā rangatira ki Te Tii, e tata ana ki te awa o Waitangi ki te kōrerorero mēnā ka tuku rātou i tō rātou whakaaetanga ki te tiriti. I te aonga ake, te 6 o Pēpuere 1840, me te paku taupatupatu, neke atu i te 40 ngā rangatira i whakaae ki te waitohu i te tiriti. I tuhia tēnei pukapuka ki te reo. I tuhi ētahi i ō rātou moko hei waitohu. I reira te Pīhopa Katorika Wīwī, a Jean Baptiste François Pompallier i taua rā, ā, i tono kia whakaaetia ngā whakapono hāhi katoa i roto i te koroni hou. I whakaae a Hopihona (engari kāore tēnei oati i tāpirihia ā-tuhi).

I ngā rā whai muri mai, i tāpirihia ētahi atu waitohu me ngā tohu whakaaetanga ki te tiriti i Waimate ki te Tokerau me Hokianga. Kāore i te mārama ngā waitohu me ngā ingoa katoa, engari ko tōna 240 tāngata i waitohu i tēnei hīti tūturu. Kāore ngā rangatira katoa i whakaae, ā, ka kaha whakahē ētahi i te waitohutanga.

He tere a Hopihona ki te tuku pūrongo ki te kāwanatanga Piritānia kua angitu tana kaupapa. Ka kī ia kua riro i a ia te whakaaetanga ki te sovereignty Piritānia, otriā nō ētahi rangatira i waitohu i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni o 1835, i whakaputa ngā rangatira 52 (mea ake) - te nuinga nō Te Taitokerau, i te kīngitanga me te mana o ō rātou whenua.

Ngā kaiwaitohu wāhine

Ka aro atu ngā mihinare i whai wāhi atu ki ngā huihuinga tiriti i te mana o ngā wāhine rangatira, ā, ka kohikohi i ētahi waitohu i a rātou. Kāore e iti iho i te 13 ngā wāhine i waitohu ai puta noa i te motu. Ko ētahi o ngā wāhine i waitohu i te tiriti ko Te Rangitopeora (Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Raukawa) ki Kāpiti; rātou ko Kahe Te Rau-o-te-Rangi (Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Mutunga me Te Āti Awa) ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara; Rere-o-maki (Te Arawa me Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi) ki Whanganui; Ana Hamu (Ngāpuhi) ki Waitangi me Ereonora (Te Rarawa) ki Kaitāia.

Tirohia tā mātou rauemi hāngai mō ngā wāhine rangatira i waitohu i te Tiriti ki konei.

Te kohikohi i ētahi atu waitohu

Ka tino māuiui a Hopihona i mua i tana kohikohi i ētahi atu waitohu. Ka tukuna ki ngā āpiha e rua me ētahi mihinare te kawenga kia whiwhi whakaaetanga ki te tiriti puta noa i te motu. I haria haeretia ētahi tārua o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te motu i roto i ngā marama e whitu i muri iho. Ko tōna 50 hui kē i tū puta noa i te motu, me te whakaemi mai a ngā rangatira ki te matapaki me te whaiwhakaaro mai ki te pukapuka, ā, mēnā ka waitohu rātou. I haria ngā tārua ki ngā wāhi i te wāhanga whakararo o Te Ika-a-Māui, tae atu ki te Tai Rāwhiti, Waikato, Manukau me Tauranga, ā, i hāria ngā mea e rua ki ngā wāhi tawhiti, ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, Kāpiti me Te Waipounamu. E iwa ngā tārua e toe ana, ā, ka noho i raro i te tiakitanga me te manaaki a Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga. 

Neke atu i te 500 ngā rangatira, tae atu ki ētahi wāhine, i waitohu i te Tiriti o Waitangi. E tata ana ki te katoa i waitohu i te tārua reo Māori. Kotahi anake te tārua reo Pākehā i waitohua e ngā rangatira 39 ki te Whanga o Manukau me Te Pūaha o Waikato. I waitohua tēnā tārua, me tēnā tārua e ngā kaititiro Pākehā, he rerekē taua hunga i tēnā wāhi, i tēnā wāhi.

Ina hiahia ana koe kia kite i tā mātou rauemi hāngai mō ngā rangatira neke atu i te 500 i waitohu i te tiriti, me ngā huinga waitohu me ngā wāhi, tirohia ki konei.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. W. Colenso, The authentic and genuine history of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealand, February 5 and 6 1840. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Kaitā Kāwanatanga, 1890, wh. 19. Ki muri
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Claudia Orange, 'Te Tiriti o Waitangi - Te Waihanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tiriti-o-waitangi/page-1 (accessed 20 June 2024)

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 28 Mar 2023 me te āwhina o Claudia Orange