Kōrero: Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Whārangi 7. Te whakahōnore i te tiriti – 1940 ki ngā 2000

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Rā o Waitangi

I muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, i whakamakoha haere te mōhio a te hunga tūmatanui ki te tiriti nā ngā whakamaumaharatanga ki Waitangi. I arotahi ēnei takunetanga ki ngā āhuatanga pai o te hononga tiriti, he mea whakanui hei taunakitanga o ngā whanaungatanga mātāwaka o Aotearoa – i kerēmehia ko te mea pai rawa puta noa i te ao. Kāore i tino kōrerotia ngā uauatanga me ngā whakahorihori i roto i te hononga tiriti.

Te rironga o te whenua Māori

Ka pāmamae tonu ngā nawe whenua ki ngāi Māori i ngā 1950 me ngā 1960. Nā te Maori Affairs Amendment Act 1967 i ngāwari ake te tango whakature te kāwanatanga i ngā 'pānga ohaoha kore' (he poraka iti, kāore i whakawhanaketia) i roto i ngā whenua Māori. I te tau 1975, i raro i te mana o te kuia nō Te Rarawa me Taranaki, a Whina Cooper, i hīkoi ngāi Māori mai i te hiku o te ika ki te Pāremata i Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te porotū i te rironga o te whenua Māori. Nā te hīkoi i aro atu te hunga tūmatanui ki te tiriti hei tūāpapa o te hononga i waenganui i te Māori me te Karauna.

Te panoni o te ingoa

Ko te Rā o Waitangi, te 6 o Pēpuere, i whakamanahia ōkawatia hei rā ā-motu o Aotearoa i te tau 1960. I te tau 1963 ko te Rā o Waitangi he hararei tūmatanui i Te Tai Tokerau. I te tau 1974 i tapaina kētia ko New Zealand Day, he hararei tūmatanui ā-motu. Ka hoki te ingoa ki te Rā o Waitangi i te tau 1976.

Te piki o te porotū

I ngā 1970 me ngā 1980 i whāki ngā porotū ki Waitangi i te āputa i waenganui i te māramatanga o ngāi Māori ki te tiriti me ā te kāwanatanga me te nuinga o te hapori tauiwi. I whai hira ai ēnei tikanga taupatupatu mai i te tau 1974, i te wā i whakamanahia te 6 o Pēpuere, te rā i waitohutia tuatahitia te tiriti, hei rā whakatā tūmatanui. I nui ake, i kaha ake hoki ngā porotū i te Rā o Waitangi, ā, i kitea puta noa i te motu i runga i ngā pāpāho rongo kōrero pouaka whakaata.

Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975

Kua maha ngā tau e akiaki ana ngā mema pāremata Māori kia whai mana ā-ture te tiriti, nā te mea kāore he mana ā-ture ki te kore e whakatiinanahia ai ki te ture o Aotearoa. Ka whakamana te kāwanatanga i te Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, ā, ko te whāinga kia whakapai ake i ngā hononga i waenganui i te Karauna me ngāi Māori. Nā tenei te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i whakatū, ā, i tīmata i te nukuhanga o te mahi a te tiriti i roto i te ao o te motu.

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

Ka auahatia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei kōmihana uiui pūmau ki te whaiwhakaaro i ngā kerēme a te Māori kua whati ngā mātāpono o te tiriti i ngā mahi a te Karauna. Ka taea hoki te taraipuna i ngā tūtohu ki te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki ana kitenga i muri iho i te whakarongo ki ngā kerēme. Heoi anō, i te tuatahi i aukatia tana mana whakahaere ki te whakarongo ki ngā kerēme e puta mai ana i ngā takunetanga mai i te tau 1975, ā, he iti rawa tana whakaweawe ā-pāpori, ā-tōrangapū hoki mō ētahi tau.

I te tau 1985 i whakawhānuitia te mana whakahaere o te taraipuna ki te kapi i ngā mahi me ngā hapa mai i te waitohutanga o te tiriti i te tau 1840. Nā reira i āta tirohia te mauhanga ā-hītori o ngā hononga i waenganui i te Karauna me te Māori. I whakawhānui ngā menemana ki te Treaty of Waitangi Act i te mematanga o te taraipunara me te whakamakoha i tana raukaha ki te rangahau, ki te whakawā, ki te tuhi pūrongo hoki.

Mai i tana waihangatanga, kua pūrongorongo te Taraipunara i ngā uiui maha ki ngā whatinga tiriti i ngā rohe whāiti o te motu, ki ngā take onāianei e pā mai ana ki ngā Māori katoa, pērā i te reo Māori, ngā take pāpori pērā i te hauora me te manatika, wai māori me te hī ika. He maha ngā wā ko te hua o ēnei pūrongo ko te whakatauna i ngā kerēme tiriti; engari kua whakatutukihia ētahi atu whakataunga i waenganui i ngā iwi me te Karauna mā te whiriwhiri tōtika ahakoa kāore he pūrongo a te Taraipunara.

Ngā mātāpono o te tiriti

E tīmata ana i waenga i ngā 1980, tērā ētahi ture hokorua mā whā e whai ana i ngā kōrero mō te tiriti. Pērā i te Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, i kōrero ētahi o ēnei ture (me ngā panonitanga) mō ngā mātāpono o te tiriti. Nā ēnei ture i whakaae ngā kōti ki te whakamārama i te whānuitanga o te whakarewa i ngā mātāpono tiriti i tētahi kēhi e kapia ana e te ture. He nui rawa ngā pānga o tēnei aronga ā-ture mō te kāwanatanga matua me te kāwanatanga ā-rohe.

Te wairua o te tiriti

Pērā i te kōrero a Justice McKay i roto i te Kōti Pīra i tana whakataunga o 1992 mō te kēhi Pāpāho: ‘It is the principles of the Treaty which are to be applied, not the literal words. The English and Māori texts in the first schedule to the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 are not translations the one of the other, and the differences between the texts and shades of meaning are less important than the spirit’.1

Te tiriti i te ao matawhānui

Nā te ture i whakamana ā-ture i te Tiriti o Waitangi i kitea rawatia e te hunga tūmatanui ki ngā ara i ohorere ai ngā tāngata nō Aotearoa. Nā te hiranga ohorere o te tiriti i roto i te ao matawhānui i puta te hiahia ki ngā awheawhe aroā tiriti, ā, i ārahi i ngā kaihītori me ngā ngaio ki te wero i ngā whakaaro kua ū mō te hītori tiriti pai me ngā hononga pai i waenganui i te Karauna me ngāi Māori.

I urupare tēnā kāwanatanga me tēnā kāwanatanga i te wero o te whakapūmau i te whāinga tutahi o te tiriti – kia noho tahi te Karauna me te Māori. Kei roto i tēnei te huhua o ngā whakataunga tiriti ōkawa, i whiriwhiria i waenganui i te Karauna me ngā iwi ki te whakaea i ngā whatinga nō mua, nōnāianei hoki, o te tiriti. Kua tāpirihia hoki ngā hinonga ki te whakamārama atu ki ngā tāngata nō Aotearoa i te wawata o ngā tāngata e rua e noho ana i raro i te tiriti.

Ki ngāi Māori, pērā i a Moana Tuwhare, he rōia nō Ngāpuhi, ko te whāinga matua ko te rangapū pono me te tuari mana tūturu. 'Kua hōhā ngā tāngata o Ngāpuhi i te kore whai wāhi ki ngā hātepe e pāngia tonutia ana tō rātou āpōpō. Ko te hua hira mēnā e hangarite ana te Māori me te Karauna.2

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Justice Ian McKay, 1992, i tohutoroa i roto i ‘He Tirohanga ö Kawa ki te Tiriti o Waitangi: A Guide to the Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi as expressed by the Courts and the Waitangi Tribunal’. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Te Puni Kokiri, 2001. Ki muri
  2. I tohutoroa i roto i in Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi: an illustrated history. Rev ed. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Bridget Williams Books, 2020, p. 273. Ki muri
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Claudia Orange, 'Te Tiriti o Waitangi - Te whakahōnore i te tiriti – 1940 ki ngā 2000', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tiriti-o-waitangi/page-7 (accessed 16 July 2024)

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 28 Mar 2023 me te āwhina o Claudia Orange