Kōrero: Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Whārangi 4. Te whakataurekareka i te tiriti – 1860 ki te 1880

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ko te hui ki Kohimarama, 1860

I te tau 1860 i tīmata te whawhai i waenganui i te Māori me ngā turupa Piritānia i Taranaki nā runga i tētahi hoko whenua tautohetohe. Ko te tūmanako o Kāwana Thomas Gore Browne te whakapakepake i ngā rangatira Māori kia tautoko i ana mahi i Taranaki me te whakahē i te Kīngitanga. I karanga ia i tētahi huinga rangatira ki Kohimārama, Tāmakimakaurau, i waenganui o te tekau tau 1860. I roto i ngā wiki e toru ka tāpaetia, ka whakamāramatia hoki te Tiriti o Waitangi ki ngā rangatira kāore e iti iho i te 200, tae atu ki ētahi i waitohu ai i te Tiriti. Kua kitea e ngā rangatira he rerekē ō rātou ake māramatanga ki te tiriti. Ka mutu, ka whakaaetia e te katoa tētahi mōtini, e kīia nei, ko te kawenata o Kohimārama, i aro atu ki te sovereignty o te Karauna, ā, i whakamana i te rangatiratanga.

He āhua ōrite te mōtini o Kohimārama ki te whakamanatanga ōkawa o te tiriti. I oati te kāwanatanga ki te whakatū i ētahi atu hui kia matapakihia te tuaritanga o te mana, engari kāore ētahi atu i tū. Ahakoa ko te tūmanako o ngā rangatira i tae atu ki te hui kia nui ake te whai wāhi atu ki te mahi whakatau, ka matangurunguru rātou.

Te Riri ki Waikato

I whakahokia ai a George Grey ki te tūnga tuarua hei kāwana i te tau 1861. Ki a ia, ko te Kīngitanga he wero tōtika ki te mana o te Karauna me te anamata o te taunga mai o ngā tāngata whai Piritānia. I urupare te kāwanatanga ki te Kīngitanga mā te urutomo ki a Waikato me ngā turupa Piritānia. Ka huri tēnei mahi ki te pakanga i horapa ki te Waiariki me ētahi atu takiwā. Ko te tautuhi ōkawa mō te whawhai ko te tāmitanga o ngāi Māori i te whakakeke ki te Karauna, engari i whakaae ētahi kaitōrangapū he pakanga ki te whakanonoi i te mana whakahirahira o Piritānia.

I whakaatu ēnei mahi whawhai ki ngāi Māori kāore i tautokohia ō rātou matatika i raro i te tiriti. I tukua ihotia te ngaukino e te raupatu o te whenua Māori ki Waikato, ki Taranaki, ki Waiariki, ki Heretaunga anō hoki i muri i ngā pakanga.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Kāore i aro atu ngā mōtika whenua Māori i oatitia i raro i te tiriti e tēnā kāwanatanga, e tēnā kāwanatanga. Tatū rawa ki te tau 1860 e tata ana ki te katoa o Te Waipounamu kua tangohia i ngāi Māori. Ka whakawhiti te Kōti Whenua Iwi Taketake (whai muri mai ko te Kōti Whenua Māori) i ngā mōtika whenua Māori ki ngā taitara i tukuna e te Karauna, me te aha, he ngāwari ake te hoko i te whenua. Tatū rawa ki te timatanga o ngā 1890, e tata ana ki te rua hautoru o Te Ika-a-Māui kua tangohia, ā, ka haere tonu te ngaromanga whenua puta noa i te mutunga o te rautau 19 me te rautau 20.

Ka whakamakoha te noho a te Pākehā

Tatū rawa ki ngā 1870 te āhua nei kua ngaro te tiriti i te tirohanga a ngā tāngata whai. Tērā pea kāore i te mōhiotia e ngā rau mano manene i waipuketia ai a Aotearoa kia 'whakatuwhera' i te motu. Tatū rawa ki te mutunga o ngā 1870 kotahi ki te tekau te ōwehenga o te taupori Māori ki te taupori Pākehā. Ka piki haere ngā whatinga o ngā mōtika Māori i raro i te tiriti ina hōrapa atu te nōhang puta noa i Te Ika-a-Māui.

Te kore whakahaumaru mā ngāi Māori

Nāwai rā, kua mārama rawa ki ngāi Māori he iti rawa te whakahaumaru a te tiriti. I whai wāhi atu ngā whakataunga kōti, ngā hoko whenua kino me te ture ki te whakararu i ngā oati o te tiriti. Hei tauira, kāore e taea e te tiriti te whakaiti i te whakaaweawe o ngā ture Mahi Tūmatanui o te tau 1864 me te tau 1976. Mā ēnei ture, tae atu ki ngā ture whai muri mai, i āhei te Karauna te whakature i te hoko whenua Māori mō ngā rori, ngā rerewē me ētahi atu mahi tūmatanui.

Kāore i hāpaitia ngā oati o te tiriti ki ngāi Māori o te 'exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands and estates, forests, fisheries, and other properties’ e ngā mahi o ngā tāngata whai pērā i te taumanu takutai moana, te terenga rākau, (te hari i te papa rākau i raro iho i te awa mā te tuku waipuke), i whakamōtī i ngā pā ika, tae atu ki ngā kaupapa wāra i whakamōtī i ngā rāhui tuna me te hī ika wai māori.  He maha ngā wā ka puta mai i ngā mahi a ngā kaunihera ā-rohe me te pānga mai o ngā reiti i te taumahatanga ohaoha me te ngaro o te whenua mō ngā iwi me ngā hapū.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Claudia Orange, 'Te Tiriti o Waitangi - Te whakataurekareka i te tiriti – 1860 ki te 1880', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tiriti-o-waitangi/page-4 (accessed 24 July 2024)

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange, i tāngia i te 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 28 Mar 2023 me te āwhina o Claudia Orange