Kōrero: Nene, Tāmati Wāka

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Nene, Tamati Waka

?–1871

Nō Ngā Puhi; he rangatira, he kaipakihi, he kaiwhakamaherehere i te kāwanatanga

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990, and updated in November, 2001.

I takea mai a Tāmati Wāka Nene i a Rāhiri, he tūpuna nō Ngā Puhi. Nō te tekau tau mai i 1780 pea i whānau ai ia. Ko Tapua rāua ko Te Kawehau ōna mātua. He rangatira, he tohunga hoki a Tapua nō Ngāti Hao o Te Hokianga. Ko te tuakana o Nene ko Patuone te kaipupuri i ngā mana o tō rāua pāpā. Ka puninga rāua ki a Hongi Hika, ki a Rewa (Mānu), ki a Moka, ki a Te Wharerahi mā, ngā rangatira o Te Hokianga, o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands), o Whangaroa. I moe tana tuahine a Tari i a Te Wharerahi. Kei ngā kōrero mō Hōne Heke Pōkai te whakapapa.

E taitama tonu ana a Nene, ka haere i roto i ngā ope taua. Ka kitea tōna toa. Nō te tau 1800 pea te pakanga tuatahi i haere ai ia ki te āwhina i te matua o Hongi Hika, i a Te Hōtete. E ngaki ana i te horonga o tōna pā i Ōkuratope, i te taha whakararo o Te Waimate, i a Ngare Raumati, he iwi nō Te Rāwhiti i Pēwhairangi. Kāore e kore i haere anō hoki a Nene ki ngā pakanga a Te Roroa, a Ngā Puhi. I mutu noa iho ērā whawhai. Kīhai i tutuki ngā kaupapa o te riri. Heoi, nō ngā tau tata ki te 1840 ka whakaarahia ake e Nene hei tautohe māna ki a Heke.

Ko ia tonu tētahi o ngā rangatira o te ope taua a Ngā Puhi i pōkai roa i Te Ika-a-Māui i ngā tau 1819 ki 1820. E whawhai ana, e anea ana i te whenua. Matemate ana i ngā pū kōtahitahi a Ngā Puhi te hunga iwikore i te kore pū. He maha anō i mau hereheretia. I tae rawa rātou ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour). Ka eke ki te tūtūātanga i Ōmere, e kārangarangatia ana i nāianei ko Terawhiti (Tarawhiti rānei) ka kite atu ngā rangatira i te kaipuke i Te Moana-a-Raukawa. Ka whakatōngia e Nene te whakaaro ki a Te Rauparaha me raupatu te whenua i Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika, ka tahuri ki ngā mahi hokohoko ki ngā Pākehā, kia riro mai ai he pū kia tiketike ai tōna mana. Ko te āhua nei i haere a Nene i ngā ope taua nui a Hongi Hika, a Rewa, a Pōmare I mā i ngā tau tīmatanga o te tekau tau mai i 1820, ā, ki a Ngāti Whātua i ngā tau 1824–1825. He tau i muri mai ka mate tana whanaunga a Taui i te pakanga a Pōmare I ki a Waikato. Ka tupu te whakaaro i a Nene rāua ko Patuone kia ngakia te mate o Taui. Ka whakatika tā rāua waitaua i te tau 1827. Nō te kitenga atu i te mano, i te tini rawa o Waikato, hoki noa atu ki te kāinga.

Kore i roa i muri mai, ka mate ko Hongi Hika i te marama o Maehe 1828. Ka tanuku a Maunga Taniwha! E takoto atu ana a Hongi Hika, e hingahinga mai ana a Te Whareumu, a Muriwai, me Tiki tama a Pōmare I, i ngā pakanga. Tērā e mura te ahi i waenga i ngā iwi o Te Hokianga me Pēwhairangi. Ka parurutia e Patuone rāua ko Nene a Te Whareumu ki waenga tonu i tā rāua parekura kia herea ai te riri. Ka taka ki te tau 1829 ka rere whakarunga a Nene mā te kaipuke, te New Zealander. E whakamomori tonu ana ki te ngaki i te mate o Taui. Nō te taenga atu ki te rohe o Mātaatua nā rātou i whakahoki ake te Haweis, te kaipuke i kāwhakina rā i Motutohorā (Motuhora). Na, i te kaha o te riri mai o Ngāti Maru ki a Ngā Puhi, waiho ake ana e ia te mate o Taui.

Na, kua mate a Muriwai. Ko Patuone e noho kē mai ana i Hauraki. Kua noho ko Nene hei kāhu kōrako ki Te Hokianga. Ka taka ki a ia te taumahatanga o te tiaki i te mīhana Wēteriana (nō 1827 i tae mai), me ngā tāngata hokohoko taputapu kua tīmata kē ki te whakatikatika i a rātou mai i ngā tekau tau o te 1820. Ina rā kua kite kē a Nene i ngā hua e puta i te noho mai a te Pākehā. I te māharahara kei takakinohia ngā tāngata noho i tana rohe, ka mahi ia kia tau tonu te rangimārie kei wehi ngā Pākehā. I te paenga o te kaipuke a Fortitude i 1833, ka tūkinotia e Te Rarawa, ka hangā e Nene he pā maioro ki Koutu i Opononi, hei rauhī i ngā Pākehā. Nā ngā mahi nanakia a Te Rarawa ka pūhia iho e ia tō rātou pā i Ōrongotea. I ngā tau tata ki te 1840 ka whakaae ngā rangatira o Te Hokianga ki tana tono kia whakawākia te tangata nāna i kōhuru a Henry Biddell. Ōrite tonu ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā o te hūri i te whakawākanga. Ka riro a Kaitoke, o Te Hikutū, i te whakapono o te Nākahi, ka patua ngā kai whakaako, he Māori, o te Hāhi Wēteriana, whiua ana e Nene rāua ko Patuone. Hokihoki tonu ai a Patuone ki Te Hokianga i ētahi wā. Ahakoa te piri o Nene ki ngā Wēteriana, nō te tau 1839 rā anō ka iriirihia ia. Ka tapaina ki a Tāmati Wāka, mō Thomas Walker, he tangata whai rawa, he kaihokohoko tautoko i te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society). I ōna rā, tokoono pea ngā wāhine a Nene. Ko Ruta te wahine tuarua i mārenahia ki te whakaritenga a te Hāhi.

Ko tētahi o ngā tino raruraru i Te Hokianga i te tekau tau mai i 1820 ko te tātāwhāinga a ngā Māori ki ngā mahi hokohoko. Pērā anō ngā kaihoko Pākehā a Francis White rāua ko Thomas McDonnell ki a rāua, ka kukume mai hoki i ngā Māori ki ā rāua taukumekume. Me Nene rāua ko Patuone ki a Moetara i tētahi wā, ki a Makoare Te Taonui hoki. Te tangata hūmārire, kamakama i a Nene, ka whai kia tutuki ōna tūmanako me te whai whakaaro anō ki te tautoko i ngā Wēteriana. He hoahoa tonu anō ia ki ngā Mihingare, ā, tino hoahoa atu hoki rāua ko Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams).

Hei ngā Pākehā, kua tau ō rātou whakaaro ko Nene te kaihautū hei whakaruruhau, hei whakawhirinakitanga atu mō rātou. I te tau 1831, i te ūnga mai o La Favorite, he manuao nō ngā Wīwī, ka āwangawanga ngā mihinare kei nohoia te whenua e rātou. Ka tahuri ki te whakakīkī i ngā rangatira kia pitihanatia a Wiremu (William) IV, te Kīngi o Ingarangi kia rauhītia rātou i ngā Wīwī. Tekau mā toru a Nene mā i taki haina i te pitihana. Ka taka ki te tau 1835, ka haina anō a Tāmati Wāka Nene i te Whakaputanga o Te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni – he tono ki te Kīngi kia rauhītia rātou, kia mau tonu ai ki a rātou, ki ngā 'Tino Rangatira' o te 'Wakaminenga o ngā hapū o Nū Tīreni' te rangatiratanga o te whenua. Nā te rehireneti (British Resident), nā Te Pūhipi (James Busby) i whakakaupapa hei aukati i ngā Wīwī. Nā te mea kua whakakīngi tā rātou tangata, a Hāre, Parena Te Tiari (Charles de Thierry), i a ia i te whenua rahi 'i hokona' atu e Nene rāua ko Te Taonui i te tau 1822. Ko te utu he toki Pākehā. Toru tekau mā ono aua toki. E waru rau eka he mea hoatu nā ngā rangatira ki a ia. Rite tonu te koa o ngā rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau i te taenga atu o Te Pūhipi. Ka whakamau atu a Tāmati Wāka Nene ki a ia hei takawaenga i ngā iwi e rua.

I te taenga mai o Wiremu Hōpihona (William Hobson) ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1840, ka whai a Nene kia takoto he ture e āta tau ai te noho a ngā iwi katoa. I te hui i Waitangi i te 5 o Pēpuere, i whiriwhiria ai te Tiriti, i tautoko tonu ia i te rūtene kāwana. Ēngari kāore ia i whakaae kia riro te mana rangatiratanga o ngā Māori. Me tana mea anō kua hipa kē te wā mō te aukati i ngā tikanga Pākehā me ngā taputapu hoki. Ki tōna whakaaro ka noho ko te kāwana hei matua hei tiaki, hei pupuri i te rongo. Tētahi, kāore e whakataurekarekatia ngā Māori. Na, nō muri ka whakapaengia nā tōna whakapiri pea ki ngā Wēteriana i whai ai ia i te ngāwari. Heoi, nāna ka whakaae te nuinga, ahakoa i whakaparahako ētahi, ki te Tiriti.

Kāore i roa i muri mai, ka kitea kīhai i eke ki ana tūmanako. Tuatahi, ko te hikinga o ngā mahi kāwanatanga atu i Kororāreka (Russell) ki Ākarana (Auckland). Ka whakapūhore ngā painga i hua i Te Hokianga, i Te Tai Tokerau; ka utaina mai ngā tāke mō ngā taputapu e kawea mai ana e ngā kaipuke; ka whakamutua haeretia te tope kauri hei hoko. Na, ka kapatau a Nene kia tuaina he kauri, ka whakahinga atu ki te aroaro tonu o te kāwana ka puta ake ana ia ki Te Hokianga. He whakaaro rā. Ka kihirua te kāwana. Ko te iwi, i noho mānukanuka tonu. Kīhai rātou i rata ki ngā auwahatanga a te kāwanatanga. Tē amuamu ai te iwi!

Ko Nene me te kāhui rangatira e noho āwangawanga ana. Kua topea hoki e Hōne Heke te pou kara i Kororāreka i Hūrae o te tau 1844. Nā te whakaaro kei te pēhi kē te Tiriti i tō rātou rangatiratanga me tō rātou mana ki te whenua. Heoi, kīhai a Nene i tino aro ki ngā whenua kua riro. I ngā rā whakamutunga o Hūrae, ka hui a Nene rāua ko Hōne Heke ki te kāinga o Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) i Waimate. Ka mutu ka tuhi a Hōne Heke ki a Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy) i te mea kua kite iho ia i tōna hē. Kīhai noa kia tae te pukapuka a Hōne Heke, ka puta mai te kāwana me tana ope taua e 150 te kaha i ngā rā o Ākuhata. I te tūtakitanga o Nene ki te kāwana, hāngai tonu tana kupu he rite tonu tō rāua pāmamae ko Heke ki ngā mahi nanakia a te kāwanatanga. Heoi, māna e whakaaio a Hōne Heke, māna tonu e whakaara te pou kara. Whakakorea ana e Pitiroi ngā tāke mō ngā taputapu, me ngā tāke mō te hokonga whenua. Kātahi ka hua ka piki anō te ora; ka riro nā te apataki a Nene i tiaki te pou kara.

I tua atu i te kōrero kāore tonu rātou i tino ū ki te ārai i a Heke. Ehara, ka hoki mai anō a Hōne Heke ka tapahia anō te pou kara – te taurua, te tuatoru o ngā tapahanga i Hānuere 1845. Nō te huihuinga o ngā rangatira ki Paihia i Pēpuere 1845, ka rongo a Te Karu Whā kei te ngākaurua te iwi, kei te uiuia ngā mahi tinihanga a te kāwanatanga. Me whakaheke rawa koia te toto mō te poro rākau te take?

Na, ka hoki mai anō a Hōne Heke i te 11 o Maehe 1845. Ko te tapahanga tuawhā tēnei; ka tāorotia hoki a Kororāreka. Nō konei ka ngākau pōuri a Nene. Nāna hoki i whakaara anō te pou kara. Ka hiki mai tana taua, e 300 te kaha, ka takahi mai i Te Hokianga kia kore ai a Heke e tae atu ki ngā rohe o Kaikohe. Kātahi ia ka mea ki ngā minita o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare, wareware kore tana whakarautangi ki te kāwana. 'Ka pau i au te kaha ki te whakamutu i ngā mahi pokanoa a te karatete nei.' Ki te whakaaro pea a Nene ko ia ake te mea rangatira o rāua. Kātahi mai te hoetere nei, 'ka waiho ngā tono me ngā whakatūpato o ōna pakeke hei kata māna. Kia eke ai ki tāku ki a Pitiroi, me ka whakatete tonu, māku a ia. Kei taua wā rā au i nāianei. Kua tae mai.' Nō muri kē mai i tino whakamārama ai a Nene, nōna ake te mana waihotanga iho a Hongi Hika.

Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira i mea me waiho mā te kāwanatanga a Heke e whakawhiu. Ka tohe tonu a Nene ki tāna. Ēngari a Heke. Kāore kē ia i hiahia kia pakanga rātou ki a rātou anō. Ko tā Nene ki a ia, me hoki rātou ko tana ope. Heoi nā ngā muru a Nene, kore rawa atu a Heke i whakaae ki te paunu i a rātou. Ka kaurerewa noa rātou. I te takanga ki a Āperira 1845, ka ū mai te North Star me ngā hōia e 300 a te kāwanatanga, ngā hōia moana 120, me te 40 tūao atu. I hono katoa atu ki te ope a Nene. Kīhai he toa – Māori, Pākehā rānei – i rite ki a Nene. Ko ia anake i toa ki a Heke rāua ko Kawiti i Te Ahuahu i te 12 o Hune 1845.

Ka neke ki Ōhaeawai, ka mōrikarika a Nene ki te hauwarea o ngā āpiha me te rorirori o Kānara Henry Despard. I Ruapekapeka, ka aukatia e ia te whakahau a Despard kia tomokia te pā i mua o te horonga o ngā maioro i ngā pū nunui. Kāore tonu a Heke mā i raru, ēngari i wherūtia. Kotahi wiki i muri mai ka hui a Nene ki a Heke rāua ko Kawiti, i te whenua takawaenga, i te pā o Pōmare II, ka houhia te rongo. Ka haere a Nene ki te kāwana i Ākarana, ka whakaaengia kia pānuitia te rongomau.

Ahakoa ko Heke anake i toa i ēnei kakaritanga i heke ai te tipu o te kāwanatanga, ko Nene te kāhu kōrako e rere ana i runga! I tīmata mai ia i tōna hapū i Te Hokianga, na, kua tū hei whakaruruhau mō te kāwanatanga. Tokorua ngā kāwana, ko Pitiroi rāua ko Hōri Kerei (George Grey), i whakawhirinaki atu ki a ia. Ka tae ki te tau 1846, ka kōrerohia a Pōmare II – i te tau 1848, ko Te Rauparaha – kia tukuna mai i te whare herehere. Ka riro nā Nene i whakatau. I tāia rawa ana kupu whakatau i ngā take huhua ki ngā pānui a te kāwanatanga. Ka kīia ake hoki aua kupu e ngā kaiwhakawā takiwā me ngā kōmihana hoko whenua hei tautoko i ā rātou nei whakataunga. I te tau 1847 ka haere tahi a Nene rāua ko te kāwana ki Whanganui. Hokihoki tonu ai a Nene ki Ākarana i te tekau tau mai i 1850 ki te āwhina i ngā whakahaere a te kāwanatanga.

I tukuna he takoha ki a Nene mō ana āwhina. I hangaia he whare mōna ki Kororāreka; ā, ka whakawhiwhia ki te penihana, £100 ia tau ā mate noa ia. E ai ki ngā kōrero, ko te moni tuatahi i puta mai ki a ia, i whakapaua hei whakatū mira mahi parāoa purere hei whakahere ki ana hoariri. I te tau 1848 ka tohungia e Kerei ko Nene rāua ko Wī Tako Ngātata hei ārahi i a ia i tona tāpaenga hei Tā. I te hokinga mai o Kerei i Ingarangi ka mauria mai te ipu hiriwa me tōna pānui hei tohu: Nā Kuini Wikitōria ki tana tangata piripono, ki a Tāmati Wāka Nene.

Ka haere te wā, ka whakaheke te utu o ngā papa rākau i Te Hokianga, ka noho nama rātou ko tana iwi. Kātahi ka tukuna ko ngā whenua kūraruraru hei utu. Heoi, mau tonu tōna mana rangatira, me tana tūnga hei whakaruruhau mō te kāwanatanga. Kua eke ia ki te taumata. I te tau 1860, ka kīia kua memeha te mana o Hōne Heke, ēngari a Tāmati Wāka Nene – he tino tangata, he tangata whakahirahira! I te hui i Kohimaramara (Kohimarama) i te tau 1860, nāna i wāhi ngā kōrero. Ko ia tonu te rangatira tuatahi i pōwhiritia e te kāwana hei whakatū i te Rūnanga o Te Taitokerau i te tau 1862.

Nō te 4 o Ākuhata 1871, ka mate a Tāmati Wāka Nene. Ko ana tamariki i matemate katoa i mua i a ia. Ka mahue mai ko tana pouaru, ko Ruta. Ka tukuna e te kāwana, e George Bowen he pānui ki Rānana: 'Kua ngaro te tangata kīhai nei tōna rite mō te whakapūmau i te mana o te Kuini, me te whakapūwhenua i te noho a te Pākehā i tēnei motu.' Ko ana whanaunga tonu me ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga ngā kaihiki i te tūpāpaku. Ēngari ko te hiki ki tana rua, nā te 12 o ngā Pākehā rangatira. Nā te Hāhi Mihingare ngā karakia tuku i te tanumanga ki Kororāreka. Ki te iti, ki te rahi, ahakoa tautoko, ahakoa whakahē, ko te poroporoaki ki a Tāmati Wāka Nene: Haere te rangatira mananui, Haere! Haere! Haere!

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Nene, Tāmati Wāka - Nene, Tamati Waka', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated November, 2001. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1n2/nene-tamati-waka (accessed 25 April 2019)